click links in text for more info

Frederick Banting

Sir Frederick Grant Banting was a Canadian medical scientist, physician and Nobel laureate noted as the co-discoverer of insulin and its therapeutic potential. In 1923 Banting and John James Rickard Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine. Banting shared the honours and award money with Dr. Charles Best; as of November 2018, who received the Nobel Prize at age 32, remains the youngest Nobel laureate in the area of Physiology/Medicine. In 1923 the Government of Canada granted Banting a lifetime annuity to continue his work. In 1934 he was knighted by King George V. Frederick Banting was born on November 14, 1891, in a farm house near Alliston, Ontario; the youngest of five children of William Thompson Banting and Margaret Grant, he attended public high school in Alliston. In 1910, he started at Victoria College, part of the University of Toronto, in the General Arts program. After failing his first year, he was accepted, he began medical school in September 1912. In 1914, he attempted to enter the army on August 16, again in October, but was refused due to poor eyesight.

Banting joined the army in 1915 and spent the summer training before returning to school. His class was fast-tracked to get more doctors into the war and so he graduated in December 1916 and reported for military duty the next day, he was wounded at the Battle of Cambrai in 1918. Despite his injuries, he helped other wounded men for sixteen hours, until another doctor told him to stop, he was awarded the Military Cross for heroism. In 1918, he was awarded the licence to practice medicine and midwifery by the Royal College of Physicians of London. Banting went to Toronto to complete his surgical training, he studied orthopedic medicine and, in 1919–1920, was Resident Surgeon at The Hospital for Sick Children. Banting was unable to gain a place on the hospital staff and so he decided to move to London, Ontario to set up a medical practice. From July 1920 to May 1921, he continued his general practice, while teaching orthopedics and anthropology part-time at the University of Western Ontario in London because his medical practice had not been successful.

From 1921 to 1922 he lectured in pharmacology at the University of Toronto. He received his M. D. degree in 1922, was awarded a gold medal. An article he read about the pancreas piqued Banting's interest in diabetes. Banting had to give a talk on the pancreas to one of his classes at the University of Western Ontario on November 1, 1920, he was therefore reading reports that other scientists had written. Research by Naunyn, Opie, Sharpey-Schafer, others suggested that diabetes resulted from a lack of a protein hormone secreted by the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Schafer had named this putative hormone "insulin"; the hormone was thought to control the metabolism of sugar. Attempts to extract insulin from ground-up pancreas cells were unsuccessful because of the destruction of the insulin by the proteolysis enzyme of the pancreas; the challenge was to find a way to extract insulin from the pancreas prior to its destruction. Moses Barron published an article in 1920 which described experimental closure of the pancreatic duct by ligature.

The procedure caused deterioration of the cells of the pancreas that secrete trypsin which breaks down insulin, but it left the islets of Langerhans intact. Banting realized. Once the trypsin-secreting cells had died, insulin could be extracted from the islets of Langerhans. Banting discussed this approach with J. J. R. Macleod, Professor of Physiology at the University of Toronto. Macleod provided the assistance of one of his students, Charles Best. Banting and Best, with the assistance of biochemist James Collip, began the production of insulin by this means; as the experiments proceeded, the required quantities could no longer be obtained by performing surgery on living dogs. In November 1921, Banting hit upon the idea of obtaining insulin from the fetal pancreas, he removed the pancreases from fetal calves at a William Davies slaughterhouse and found the extracts to be just as potent as those extracted from the dog pancreases. By December 1921, he had succeeded in extracting insulin from the adult pancreas.

Pork and beef would remain the primary commercial sources of insulin until they were replaced by genetically-engineered bacteria in the late 20th century. In spring of 1922, Banting established a private practice in Toronto and began to treat diabetic patients, his first American patient was Elizabeth Hughes Gossett, daughter of U. S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes. Banting and Macleod were jointly awarded the 1923 Nobel Prize in Medicine. Banting split his half of the Prize money with Best, Macleod split the other half of the Prize money with James Collip. Banting was appointed Senior Demonstrator in Medicine at the University of Toronto in 1922; the following year he was elected to the new Banting and Best Chair of Medical Research, endowed by the Legislature of the Province of Ontario. He served as Honorary Consulting Physician to the Toronto General, the Hospital for Sick Children, the Toronto Western Hospital. At the Banting and Best Institute, he focused his research on silicosis and the mechanisms of drowning.

In 1938, Banting's interest in aviation medicine resulted in his participation with the Royal Canadian Air Force in research concerning the physiological problems encountered by pi

Danger (unreleased film)

Danger is an upcoming Indian Bollywood horror thriller film and directed by Faisal Saif under his own banner Faith Pictures Inc. The film is inspired by true events of Gaya Hotel's brutal owner who killed people and used their meat to serve others. Khan plays a Gujrati stockbroker in the film who gets trapped in this hotel along with his wife played by Vedita Pratap Singh. Faisal Khan Vedita Pratap Singh Kavita Radheshyam Sony Charishta Nishant Pandey Asif Basra Meera The official announcement of the film was announced in the end of July 2016; the title of the film was said to be Danger. Saif approached actor Aamir Khan's brother Faisal Khan to play the main lead role and Khan found the script exciting and became a part of it. Khan claimed that he worked hard on nailing the Gujrati accent required for the film. Vedita Pratap Singh and Saif's regular fixture Kavita Radheshyam were added to the cast. Television actor Nishant Pandey was approached along with Sony Charishta to play other lead characters in the film.

The principal photography of the film commenced sometime in September 2016 and wrapped up with Pakistani actress Meera's song in December 2016. On 23 December, the makers released the First Look poster of the film. News sites such as praised the First Look poster by calling it "Aamir Khan's brother Faissal Khan's comeback film looks creepy AF!". Official page on Facebook

Factor VII

Factor VII is one of the proteins that causes blood to clot in the coagulation cascade. It is an enzyme of the serine protease class. A recombinant form of human factor VIIa has U. S. Food and Drug Administration approval for uncontrolled bleeding in hemophilia patients, it is sometimes used unlicensed in severe uncontrollable bleeding, although there have been safety concerns. A biosimilar form of recombinant activated factor VII is available, but does not play any considerable role in the market; the main role of factor VII is to initiate the process of coagulation in conjunction with tissue factor. Tissue factor is found on the outside of blood vessels - not exposed to the bloodstream. Upon vessel injury, tissue factor is exposed to the blood and circulating factor VII. Once bound to TF, FVII is activated to FVIIa by different proteases, among which are thrombin, factor Xa, IXa, XIIa, the FVIIa-TF complex itself; the complex of factor VIIa with TF catalyzes the conversion of factor IX and factor X into the active proteases, factor IXa and factor Xa, respectively.

The action of the factor is impeded by tissue factor pathway inhibitor, released immediately after initiation of coagulation. Factor VII, discovered around 1950, is vitamin K-dependent and produced in the liver. Use of warfarin or similar anticoagulants decreases hepatic synthesis of FVII. Factor VII shares a common domain architecture with factors IX and X; the gene for factor VII is located on chromosome 13. Factor VII deficiency inherited recessively, it presents as a hemophilia-like bleeding disorder. It is treated with recombinant factor VIIa. Gene therapy approaches for treating FVII deficiency are promising Recombinant factor VIIa, marketed under the trade names AryoSeven and NovoSeven, is used for people with hemophilia who have developed antibodies against replacement coagulation factor, it has been used in the setting of uncontrollable hemorrhage, but its role in this setting is controversial with insufficient evidence to support its use outside of clinical trials. The first report of its use in hemorrhage was in an Israeli soldier with uncontrollable bleeding in 1999.

Risks of its use include an increase in arterial thrombosis. However, animal studies have not shown complications as seen in humans, in fact same of the studies show a better prognosis. In the military settings it is used as an off label intervention in complications related to disseminated intravascular coagulation related haemorrhage caused by penetrating trauma. Recombinant human factor VII while looking promising in intracerebral hemorrhage failed to show benefit following further study and this is no longer recommended. Factor VII has been shown to interact with tissue factor and protein kinase C. Official website The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: S01.215 CHES - Comprehensive Health Education Services LLC - Factor VII treatment and awareness

Mission 31

Mission 31 was an undersea expedition organized by Fabien Cousteau. It was scheduled for November 2013, but was delayed to June 2014. On June 1, Cousteau and six crew members descended to the undersea laboratory Aquarius in the Florida Keys. Halfway through the expedition, three of crew were replaced. After 31 days and the crew ascended on July 2. Throughout Mission 31, Cousteau's team conducted extended scuba diving expeditions to collect scientific data and IMAX footage, they hosted various one-day guests, conversed live with classrooms, kept in touch with the outside world via social media. Cousteau estimated that his team collected the equivalent of two years' worth of surface dive data, enough for 10 scientific papers. Mission 31 was envisioned as a tribute to Cousteau's grandfather, Jacques Cousteau, who spent 30 days living underwater in 1963. Fabien Cousteau thus beat his grandfather's record for time spent underwater by a film crew by one day. In 1963, French oceanographer and filmmaker Jacques Cousteau spent 30 days living underwater in Conshelf Two, in the Red Sea.

The footage was turned into the Academy Award-winning film World Without Sun. Subsequently, his television show, The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau, was seen by audiences around the world. Cousteau was one of the world's first advocates for governmental action in environmental protection and, by the time of his death in 1997, was one of the world's most famous television personalities. Jacques Cousteau's grandson, Fabien Cousteau, organized Mission 31 as a tribute to his late grandfather; the mission had two goals — to gather scientific data and to raise funds for Aquarius, an underwater laboratory located at a depth of 63 feet below the surface, about 9 miles south of Key Largo. Aquarius is the world's only operating undersea laboratory. Measuring 43 feet by 9 feet, it holds up to six people, it is pressurized, air conditioned, has wireless Internet access. A typical mission lasts 10 days, with the longest previous mission lasting 18 days. Aquarius is owned by the United States government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and run by Florida International University.

Fabien Cousteau hoped to break his grandfather's record for longest time spent underwater by a film crew, draw the public's attention to environmental issues. According to Guinness World Records, the longest time anyone has spent. Fabien Cousteau got the idea for Mission 31 when visiting Aquarius during a fundraiser aiming to keep the laboratory operating in the wake of federal budget cuts, it was scheduled to take place in November 2013, fifty years after Jacques Cousteau's original mission. When the United States federal government shutdown in October 2013, Fabien Cousteau elected to postpone the mission until the spring of 2014. On June 1, 2014, Cousteau and five team members dived down to Aquarius. Joining Cousteau for the entire 31-day expedition were habitat technicians Mark "Otter" Hulsbeck and Ryan LaPete; the other three crew members — Kip Evans, Andy Shantz, Adam Zenone — were replaced according to plan midway through the mission by Matt Ferraro, Liz Magee, Grace C. Young; the crew included researchers from Florida International University, Northeastern University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

For most of the crew, including Cousteau, it was their first saturation diving experience. Periodically, they were joined by "VIP guests" for a day, including Cousteau's father, Jean-Michel and sister Céline, actor Ian Somerhalder, marine biologist Sylvia Earle. Rapper and businessman-explorer Richard Branson were tentatively scheduled to visit had the expedition taking place in October 2013 as planned. Days were spent diving to conduct experiments and gather data to study the effects of climate change and pollution on coral reefs, while the evenings were spent in Aquarius on lab work and stress tests: Cousteau and his crew made themselves available for physiological and psychological tests to determine the effects of long-term living under the sea and without sunlight; the crew appeared on Weather Channel broadcasts periodically. They used a sonar device that records a wide range of frequencies and a slow-motion camera to capture more thorough data and installed tiny probes, less than the width of a human hair, into the coral reef.

Among the animals seen during the expedition were eels, manta shrimp, plankton, snook, spotted eagle rays, starfish and various reef sharks. The crew observed an Atlantic goliath grouper attack a barracuda, a scene which Shantz described as "something I never imagined happening". Mission 31 was broadcast live 24 hours a day via the Internet, although the cameras were turned off to give the divers some privacy. Filming was done with sonar cameras to avoid disturbing the underwater life with artificial light. Team members were able to conduct live lectures for students and interact with the public through social media; the team ate "astronaut-type food", as the limited space did not allow for ordinary food. Early in the expedition, the air conditioning in Aquarius broke, leading to 95 °F temperatures at 95% humidity until it could be fixed; as they were undergoing 16 hours of decompression before resurfacing, the Mission 31 crew watched World Without Sun. Mission 31 cost an estimated US$1.8 million.

It was paid for through corporate sponsorship and private donations, including a crowdfunding campaign on Indiegogo. Swiss watchmaker Doxa sold a Mission-31 dive watch for $2,890, with 25% of the funds going to the expedition. Aquarius costs cost $15,000 a day to operate. By working out of Aquarius inste

Texas A&M Transportation Institute

The Texas A&M Transportation Institute in College Station, Texas is the largest transportation research agency in the United States. Created in 1950 in response to the needs of the Texas Highway Department, TTI has since broadened its focus to address all modes of transportation–highway, water, rail and automated/connected vehicles. TTI is a member of the Texas A&M University System. TTI’s cooperative relationship with the Texas Department of Transportation has helped the Institute develop and implement work for numerous other sponsors. TTI researchers contribute to the growth of the transportation profession by participating in, leading over 250 local and national organizations. Over 100 TTI researchers publish papers and give presentations at the Transportation Research Board annual meeting, with around 50 serving on TRB committees. Since the inception of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program in 1962, TTI has led over 70 NCHRP projects, more than any other participant in the program.

TTI researchers serve as objective transportation experts, providing an important resource to local and national agencies and groups. The Institute maintains a close association with the Texas A&M University Dwight Look College of Engineering, the College of Architecture, the George Bush School of Government and Public Service, as well as other academic units within the Texas A&M University System and at other collaborating universities. Over 40 TTI researchers hold joint academic positions at Texas A&M University. TTI plays a role in training and educating students. Headquartered on the Texas A&M University campus in College Station, Texas, TTI maintains a full-service roadside safety proving ground facility in Bryan and has offices in Arlington, Dallas, Doha, El Paso, Houston, Mexico City, San Antonio and Washington, D. C; as part of its research program, TTI operates seven formal centers of excellence. The director is Gregory D. Winfree, J. D, he is assisted by three executive associate agency directors, one associate agency director, one assistant agency director.

The agency is organized into four research area groups, one interdisciplinary research group, one business operations group. ET2000 – In 1991, the TTI-patented ET2000 guardrail end treatment was developed. Over 250,000 units have been shipped around the world. TxDOT and TTI received the Federal Highway Administration’s 1991 Administrator’s Biennial Safety Award for their development of the ET2000. Ground Penetrating Radar – GPR is a nondestructive geophysical method that "sees" underground and produces a record of subsurface features—without drilling, digging, or coring. Since 1988, researchers at TTI have been developing and implementing GPR technology for TxDOT to use in its road repair and maintenance activities. Roadway Congestion Index – To evaluate mobility levels on Texas streets and freeways, TTI developed the RCI, now computed annually for over 85 major U. S. cities. Intelligent Transportation Systems – TTI’s ITS research has been implemented in several major Texas cities. Real-time train detection and analysis systems have expedited emergency vehicle dispatch, enhanced signal operations, averted major accidents.

HOV Lanes and Managed Lanes – Since the 1980s, many major metropolitan areas have developed HOV or High Occupancy Vehicle lanes to help with traffic flow and provide incentives for carpooling and public transit. TTI has become known as the nation’s leader in HOV lane research; some cities have taken the HOV lane concept one step further in the development of what’s being called Managed Lanes. Teens in the Driver Seat – TTI has developed a peer-to-peer driving safety program unlike any safety program in the nation. Teens in the Driver Seat relies on young drivers themselves to create safety messages and serve as the messengers to make their peers aware of the risks of teen driving. Clearview - Official Website Texas Department of Transportation Texas A&M University System Texas A&M University Transportation Research Board National Cooperative Highway Research Program Texas A&M University Dwight Look College of Engineering Texas A&M University College of Architecture George Bush School of Government Public Service

Danny Hart (cyclist)

Danny Hart is a British downhill mountain biker who rides for Madison Saracen. He won 2016 UCI Mountain Bike World Championships. Hart was educated at Rye Hills School in Redcar, he had received Cleveland Young People's Trust as a junior rider. In October 2011, after winning the World Championships and former Olympic triple-jumper Jonathan Edwards and world paratriathlete Charlotte Ellis helped launch a £31m project to build a leisure centre in Redcar. Hart won the 2007 youth national championship at Rheola, Wales in conditions he described as'really terrible'. In 2008, when 16, he began competing the elite class internationally, with a best DH World Cup result of 22nd at Vallnord, Andorra in June. In 2009 he won the Maxxis Cup in Vigo and came second in the junior national championship at Innerleithen, third at the junior world championship in Canberra, Australia and 20th in the Elite class at the Fort William, Scotland round of the World Cup in June of that year. 2011 4th Overall UCI Mountain Bike World Cup 22nd place, Round 1, South Africa 2nd place, Round 2, Fort William, Scotland 6th place, Round 3, Austria 4th place, Round 4, Mont Sainte-Anne, Quebec 9th place, Round 5, Windham, USA 13th place, Round 6, La Bresse, France 2nd place, Round 7, Val di Sole, Italy 1st place, UCI World Championships 2012 7th Overall UCI Mountain Bike World Cup 2nd place, Round 3, Fort William, Scotland 3rd place, Round 4, Mont Sainte-Anne, Quebec2013 9th Overall UCI Mountain Bike World Cup 2nd place, Round 5, Norway2014 8th Overall UCI Mountain Bike World Cup 3rd place, Round 3, Fort William, Scotland 3rd place, Round 5, Mont Sainte-Anne, Quebec2015 1st place, British National Downhill Championships 2016 2nd place, British National Downhill Championships 2nd Overall UCI Mountain Bike World Cup 3rd place, Round 1, France 3rd place, Round 3, Fort William, Scotland 1st place, Round 5, Switzerland 1st place, Round 6, Mont Sainte-Anne, Quebec 1st place, Round 7, Andorra 1st place, UCI World Championships 2017 3rd place, British National Downhill Championships 6th Overall UCI Mountain Bike World Cup 3rd place, Round 4, Andorra 3rd place, Round 5, Switzerland 3rd place, Round 6, Mont Sainte-Anne, Quebec2018 2nd place, British National Downhill Championships 2nd Overall UCI Mountain Bike World Cup 3rd place, Round 4, Val di Sole, Italy 3rd place, Round 6, Mont Sainte-Anne, Quebec2019 1st place, British National Downhill Championships UCI Mountain Bike World Cup 2nd place, Round 1, Slovenia Official website