Eleanor of Anjou
Eleanor of Anjou was the Queen consort of Frederick III of Sicily. She was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou by birth, she was the third daughter of Charles II of Mary of Hungary. Eleanor was firstly married in 1299 to son of Narjot de Toucy and Lucia of Tripoli, their marriage was dissolved on 17 January 1300 by Pope Boniface VIII because they were related and had not sought permission from the pope to marry. On 17 May 1302, Eleanor married secondly to Frederick III of Sicily, her father and her new husband had been engaged in a war for ascendancy in the Mediterranean Sea and Sicily and the Mezzogiorno. The marriage was part of a diplomatic effort to establish peaceful relations which would lead to the Peace of Caltabellotta; the peace divided the old Kingdom of Sicily into a peninsular portion. The island, called the Kingdom of Trinacria, went to Frederick, ruling it, the Mezzogiorno, called the Kingdom of Sicily contemporaneously, but called the Kingdom of Naples by modern scholarship, went to Charles II, ruling it.
Thus, the peace was formal recognition of an uneasy status quo. Eleanor and Frederick had nine children: Peter II of Sicily, successor Roger, died young Manfred, Duke of Athens and Neopatria, Duke of Athens and Neopatria Constance, married on December 29, 1331 to Leo IV of Armenia Elisabeth, married Stephen II of Bavaria William, Prince of Taranto, Prince of Taranto, Duke of Athens and Neopatria Giovanni di Randazzo, Duke of Randazzo, Duke of Athens and Neopatria, Regent of Sicily Catherine Margaret, married Rudolf II of the PalatinateEleanor died on the 9 August 1341 at the Monastery of San Nicolo di Arena, she had been a widow since 1337, she was buried at a Franciscan monastery in Catania. Dunbabin, Jean; the French in the Kingdom of Sicily, 1266–1305. Cambridge University Press. Hulme, Edward Maslin; the Renaissance: The Protestant Revolution and the Catholic Reformation in Continental Europe. The Century Co. Musto, Ronald G.. Apocalypse in Rome: Cola di Rienzo and the Politics of the New Age.
University of California Press
Albrecht III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg
Albert III was Elector of Brandenburg from 1471 until his death, the third from the House of Hohenzollern. A member of the Order of the Swan, he received the cognomen Achilles because of his knightly qualities and virtues, he ruled in the Franconian principalities of Ansbach from 1440 and Kulmbach from 1464. Albert was born at the Brandenburg residence of Tangermünde as the third son of the Nuremberg burgrave Frederick I and his wife, the Wittelsbach princess Elisabeth of Bavaria-Landshut, his father served as governor in Brandenburg. After passing some time at the court of Emperor Sigismund, Albert took part in the Hussite Wars, afterwards distinguished himself whilst assisting Sigismund's successor, the Habsburg king Albert II of Germany, against the Hussites and their Polish allies. In 1435, he and is eldest brother. On the division of territory which followed his father's death in 1440, Albert received the Principality of Ansbach, while John took over the rule as Brandenburg elector. Although Albert's resources were meager, he soon took a leading place among the German princes and was prominent in resisting the attempts of the towns to obtain self-government.
Albert's plans to re-unite the former Duchy of Franconia under his rule failed: in 1443, he formed a league directed against the Imperial City of Nuremberg, over which his late father had exercised the rights of burgrave. It was not until 1448, that he found a pretext for attack. After initial military successes in the First Margrave War, he was defeated at the Battle of Pillenreuther Weiher, resulting in the Treaty of Bamberg, which forced Albert to return all of the conquered territory and to recognize the independence of Nuremberg and its associated towns. Albert supported the Habsburg emperor Frederick III in his struggle with the princes who desired reforms in the Holy Roman Empire, in return for this loyalty received many marks of favour from Frederick, including extensive judicial rights which aroused considerable irritation among neighbouring rulers. In 1457, Albert arranged a marriage between his eldest son John, Margaret, daughter of William III, Landgrave of Thuringia, who inherited the claims upon Hungary and Bohemia of her mother, a granddaughter of Emperor Sigismund.
The attempt to secure these thrones for the Hohenzollerns through this marriage failed, a similar fate befell Albert's efforts to revive in his own favour the disused title of duke of Franconia. The sharp dissensions which existed among the princes over the question of reform culminated in the Bavarian War from 1459 to 1463, when Albert was confronted with a league under the leadership of Elector Palatine Frederick I and his Wittelsbach cousin Duke Louis IX of Bavaria-Landshut. Though defeated in the struggle, Albert continued fighting against Prince-bishop Rudolf II of Würzburg and forged an alliance with his former enemy, the Bohemian king George of Poděbrady, a step which caused Pope Paul II to place him under the ban. Albert permanently resided at Ansbach from 1460. In 1471, Albert became Elector of Brandenburg, owing to the abdication of his remaining brother, Elector Frederick II, the year before. Now sole ruler over the entire Hohenzollern estates, he was soon engaged in their administration.
By the 1472 Treaty of Prenzlau he ended the War of the Succession of Stettin, bringing the Duchy of Pomerania under his supremacy. Having established his right to levy a tonnage on wines in the mark, he issued in February 1473 the Dispositio Achillea, which decreed that the Margraviate of Brandenburg should descend in its entirety to the eldest son, while the younger sons should receive the Franconian possessions of the family. After treating in vain for a marriage between one of his sons and Princess Mary of Burgundy and heiress of Duke Charles the Bold, Albert handed over the government of Brandenburg to his eldest son John Cicero, returned to his Franconian possessions. Albert's main attention afterwards was claimed by the business of the empire. Ill, he took part in the imperial election of 1486 which selected Maximilian of Habsburg as King of the Romans at Frankfurt Cathedral. A few weeks in March, Albert died while still staying in Frankfurt, he left a considerable amount of treasure. Albert was married twice.
First, he married 12 November 1446 Margaret of Baden, daughter of Margrave Jakob I of Baden and Catherine of Lorraine. From this marriage he had following children: Wolfgang and died in 1450. John Cicero, Elector of Brandenburg. Friedrich, died young. Ursula, married Duke Henry I, Duke of Münsterberg-Oels. Elisabeth, married Eberhard II, Duke of Württemberg. Margareta, abbess of the Poor Clares convent at Hof. Margaret died 24 October 1457 and in 1458 Albert married Anna, daughter of Frederick II, Elector of Saxony and Margarete of Austria, their children were: Frederick I, Margrave in Ansbach since 1486 and Bayreuth since 1495. Amalie, married Kaspar, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken. Anna and died in 1462. Barbara, married: in Berlin 11 October 1472 to Duke Henry XI
Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. The city law customary in Central Europe dates back to Italian models, which in turn were oriented towards the traditions of the self-administration of Roman cities Judicially, a borough was distinguished from the countryside by means of a charter from the ruling monarch that defined its privileges and laws. Common privileges involved the establishment of guilds; some of these privileges were permanent and could imply that the town obtained the right to be called a borough, hence the term borough rights. Some degree of self-government, representation by diet, tax-relief could be granted. Multiple tiers existed.
Neustadt an der Aisch
Neustadt an der Aisch is a small town of around 12,000 in the northern part of Bavaria, within the Franconian administrative region Middle Franconia. It is the district town of the district Neustadt -Bad Windsheim. In 741, for the first time, the town's root settlement, was documented as the German king's court. However, in 1285 the town's name is documented for the first time as "Nivenstadt". At the end of the 12th century, Neustadt became part of the sovereign territory of the burgraves of Nuremberg, the dynasty of the Hohenzollern; the House of Hohenzollern developed Neustadt into an economical and cultural centre of its region because of its favourable geographical position in the middle of the main trade route between Würzburg and Nuremberg. At the end of the 15th century, Margrave Albrecht Achilles and Kurfürstin Anna completed Neustadt as a stronghold. In 1553, in the Second Margrave War, the town was burnt down. Afterwards, a long lasting phase of construction and extension began; this phase ended with the destructions of the Thirty Years' War.
The rebuilding after that war lasted several hundred of years. From 1791 through to 1806, Neustadt was part of the sovereign territory of Prussia was military governed by the French, in 1810 became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria; the political importance of Neustadt faded thereafter, but trade and industry kept growing due to the deployment of a garrison of the Uhlans, in 1865 due to the opening of its station on the Nuremberg–Würzburg Railway. In 1934, the town was the scene of an organized boycott against all Jewish merchants, violence broke out against Christian Germans who patronized stores owned by Jews. All of the Jews of Neustadt were expelled, many relocating to Nuremberg, the Jewish synagogue was razed to the ground. During the 20th century, traditional handicrafts completely vanished. With the resettlement of expellees from Sudetenland, new handicraft industries were imported: construction of musical instruments and the textile industry flourished. From 1969 through to 1980, in total 16 Ortsteile were incorporated.
In the course of an administrative reorganization, Neustadt became capital of the newly formed district "Neustadt -Bad Windsheim". In the 1980s and 1990s, the infrastructure was improved on a grand scale: a beltway was built, a pedestrian area around the market place was created. Birkenfeld Diebach Eggensee Herrnneuses Kleinerlbach Obernesselbach Unterschweinach Oberschweinach Schauerheim Schellert Unternesselbach Elias Levita, humanist, Hebrew grammarian, Yiddish writer Johannes Gramann, Protestant Reformer and poet of chants Lazarus Nürnberger, merchant, in cooperation with Jacob and Hans Cromberger founder of the Deutscher Amerikahandel Johann Mützel, master builder of several castles in ernestinian principalities of Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, in the principalities Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Arnstadt, in Schlitz, in Tann. Informations for genealogists in GenWiki
House of Hohenzollern
The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of former princes, electors and emperors of Hohenzollern, Prussia, the German Empire, Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle; the first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061. The Hohenzollern family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch, which became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch; the Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, ruled Romania from 1866 to 1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525; the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were ruled in personal union after 1618 and were called Brandenburg-Prussia. The Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701 leading to the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871, with the Hohenzollerns as hereditary German Emperors and Kings of Prussia.
Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy. Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia is the current head of the royal Prussian line, while Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern is the head of the princely Swabian line. Zollern, from 1218 Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire, its capital was Hechingen. The Hohenzollerns named their estates after Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps; the Hohenzollern Castle lies on an 855 meters high mountain called Hohenzollern. It still belongs to the family today; the dynasty was first mentioned in 1061. According to the medieval chronicler Berthold of Reichenau, Burkhard I, Count of Zollern was born before 1025 and died in 1061. In 1095 Count Adalbert of Zollern founded the Benedictine monastery of Alpirsbach, situated in the Black Forest; the Zollerns received the comital title from Emperor Henry V in 1111.
As loyal vassals of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty, they were able to enlarge their territory. Count Frederick III accompanied Emperor Frederick Barbarossa against Henry the Lion in 1180, through his marriage was granted the Burgraviate of Nuremberg by Emperor Henry VI in 1192. In about 1185 he married the daughter of Conrad II, Burgrave of Nuremberg. After the death of Conrad II who left no male heirs, Frederick III was granted Nuremberg as Burgrave Frederick I. In 1218 the burgraviate passed to Frederick's elder son Conrad I, he thereby became the ancestor of the Franconian Hohenzollern branch, which acquired the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1415; until 1061: Burkhard I before 1125: Frederick I between ca. 1125 and 1142: Frederick II, eldest son of Frederick I between ca. 1143 and 1150–1155: Burkhard II, 2nd oldest son of Frederick I between ca. 1150–1155 and 1160: Gotfried of Zimmern, 4th oldest son of Frederick I before 1171 – c. 1200: Frederick III/I After Frederick's death, his sons partitioned the family lands between themselves: Conrad I received the county of Zollern and exchanged it for the burgraviate of Nuremberg with his younger brother Frederick IV in 1218, thereby founding the Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
Members of the Franconian line became the Brandenburg-Prussia branch. The Franconian line converted to Protestantism. Frederick IV received the burgraviate of Nuremberg in 1200 from his father and exchanged it for the county of Zollern in 1218 with his brother, thereby founding the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern; the Swabian line remains Catholic. The senior Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Conrad I, Burgrave of Nuremberg; the family supported the Hohenstaufen and Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th to 15th centuries, being rewarded with several territorial grants. Beginning in the 16th century, this branch of the family became Protestant and decided on expansion through marriage and the purchase of surrounding lands. In the first phase, the family added to their lands, at first with many small acquisitions in the Franconian region of Germany: Ansbach in 1331 Kulmbach in 1340In the second phase, the family expanded their lands further with large acquisitions in the Brandenburg and Prussian regions of Germany and current Poland: Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1417 Duchy of Prussia in 1618These acquisitions transformed the Franconian Hohenzollerns from a minor German princely family into one of the most important dynasties in Europe.
1192–1200/1204: Frederick I 1204–1218: Frederick II 1218–1261/1262: Conrad I/III 1262–1297: Frederick III, son of 1297–1300: John I, son of 1300–1332: Frederick IV, brother of 1332–1357: John II, son of 1357–1397: Frederick V, son ofAt Frederick V's death on 21 January 1398, his lands were partitioned between his two sons: 1397–1420: John III/I 1397–1427: Frederick VI/I/I, After John III/I's death on 11 June 1420, the margraviates of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach were reunited under Frederick VI/I/I. He ruled the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach after 1398. From 1420, he became Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. From 1411 Frederick VI became governor of Brandenburg and Elector and M
Starting in the 12th century, the Margraviate Electorate, of Brandenburg was in conflict with the neighboring Duchy of Pomerania over frontier territories claimed by them both, over the status of the Pomeranian duchy, which Brandenburg claimed as a fief, whereas Pomerania claimed Imperial immediacy. The conflict turned into open war, despite occasional success, none of the parties prevailed permanently until the House of Pomerania died out in 1637. Brandenburg would by have have prevailed, but this was hindered by the contemporary Swedish occupation of Pomerania, the conflict continued between Sweden and Brandenburg-Prussia until 1815, when Prussia incorporated Swedish Pomerania into her Province of Pomerania. In the 10th century, the area of the future Brandenburg and Pomerania was inhabited by West Slavic tribes, collectively known as Wends; the tribes east of the Oder and north of the Warta rivers constituted the Pomeranians and the tribes west of the Oder the Luticians. The classification is uncertain for the tribes living close to the lower Oder, the Velunzani on the islands in the Oder estuary, the Prissani on the eastern bank of the lower Oder, the Ukrani and Recani on the western bank of the lower Oder, which became known as the Uckermark.
The tribes west of the Oder were organized in marches of the Ottonian realm, which became the Holy Roman Empire with the coronation of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in 962. The marches set up in the area of the future Brandenburg and Pomerania were the Billung March in the north, the Saxon Eastern March in the south; the Saxon Eastern March was soon partitioned, with the area of future northern Brandenburg and southwestern Pomerania re-organized in the Northern March. A rebellion of the Liuticians overthrew the margraves' rule in most of the Northern and Billung marches between 983 and 995. In the 11th century, the Liutician confederation collapsed due to internal struggles, leaving its territory vulnerable to its neighbors' campaigns, including expeditions of the margraves of the Northern March. Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania and first verified member of the House of Pomerania, conquered the Peene and Tollense areas west of the lower Oder from the Luticians during the 1120s. Albert the Bear, invested with the March of Lusatia in 1123, was ready to succeed deceased Henry, Count of Stade as margrave of the Northern March in 1128, was invested with the march by Holy Roman Emperor Lothair of Supplinburg in 1134, after he had secured his succession of Pribislaw of the Hevelli in 1129.
In 1128, Albert participated in the organization of the mission of Otto of Bamberg in the Lutician areas held by Wartislaw I of Pomerania, supplied him with an escort. When in 1136 Emperor Lothair gave lands in the Peene area to Otto's bishopric of Bamberg, Albert was asked to approve first. Focussed on the Northern March, Albert renounced his post as the margrave of Lusatia in 1136, fused into the March of Meißen and became the basis of the state of the House of Wettin. In 1138, Conrad III of Germany invested Albert the Bear with the Duchy of Saxony, but Albert resigned in 1142 due to the opposition of the Saxon nobility, who had favoured and installed minor Henry the Lion as their duke. In 1147, Albert participated in the Wendish Crusade to the Pomeranian strongholds of Demmin and Stettin, which however did not result in the acquisition of territories — the size of the Northern March controlled by Albert differed from what Emperor Lothair had promised. Instead, as a result of the crusade, several Saxon nobles had established petty realms in the march, the Pomeranians still held vast areas south of the Peene river as well as the Uckermark.
Albert however succeeded Pribislaw in the Hevellian territories in 1150, when he defeated Jaxa of Köpenick and incorporated the latter's territory into his march in 1157, the term Margraviate of Brandenburg replaced the designation Northern March. Albert upheld his claims to Western Pomerania, campaigned in the Pomeranian-held Uckermark since 1157. Albert the Bear's successor in Saxony, Henry the Lion, had by established himself as one of the most powerful nobles in Germany. In pursuit of his own interests in the Wendish territories and with Danish support, Henry defeated his rebellious Obodrite subjects and their Pomeranian allies in the Battle of Verchen near the Pomeranian stronghold of Demmin in 1164; as a consequence, the Pomeranian dukes became Henry's vassals, supported Henry in subsequent campaigns against the margraves of Brandenburg. However, Henry lost the struggle he was engaged in with Holy Roman Emperor Barbarossa, in 1180 was deprived of his ducal titles; the Pomeranian duke pledged allegiance to Barbarossa in 1181, thwarting Ascanian ambitions.
Constant Danish military pressure resulted in Danish vassalage of Pomerania in 1184/85. The Ascanian margraves launched several expeditions into Danish Pomerania between 1198 and 1199, between 1211 and 1214. Despite a temporary sack of Stettin in 1214 and more permanent territorial gains in the Finow area, they were unable to establish themselves in Pomerania, Danish superiority led Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor to renounce all German claims to the area in favour of Denmark in 1214. By the margraves restricted themselves to guard the contemporary Brandenburg-Pomeranian frontier by erecting the Oderberg fortress "contra Sclavos" in 1214. Only after the utter defeat of the Danish forces in the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227, was the area reclaimed by the empire; the Brandenburgian margraves re-enforced their claims on Pomerania, were invested with the duchy by Frederick II in 1231 in Ravenna. In the 1
Frederick IV, Burgrave of Nuremberg
Frederick IV of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern was Burgrave of Nuremberg from 1300 to 1332. He was the younger son of Burgrave Frederick III from his second marriage with the Ascanian princess Helene, daughter of Duke Albert I of Saxony, he succeeded to the burgraviate when his elder brother John I died in 1300. In 1307, he and King Albert I of Germany led an Imperial Army into the Battle of Lucka against the Wettin margraves Frederick I of Meissen and Dietrich IV of Lustia, were defeated. Frederick IV fought more alongside the Wittelsbach king Louis the Bavarian at the Battle of Mühldorf on 28 September 1322, capturing the Habsburg rival Frederick the Fair. In 1331 he purchased the town of Ansbach, nucleus of the Hohenzollern Principality of Ansbach established in 1398. A year Frederick died, was succeeded by his son, John II, he married before 2 August 1307 Margaret of Görz-Tyrol, a granddaughter of Duke Meinhard of Carinthia. Their children were: John Burgrave of Nuremberg. Conrad III of Nuremberg.
Frederick, Bishop of Regensburg in 1340-1365. Albert "der Schöne". Berthold, Bishop of Eichstädt in 1354-1365, Chancellor to Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. Helene, married to: c. 1321 Count Otto V of Orlamünde. Anna, married Ulrich I of Leuchtenberg. Margarete, married 1332 Adolph I, Count of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein. Agnes, married to: in 1336 Berthold V of Neuffen, Count of Marstetten and Graisbach. Katharina, married in 1338 to Eberhard of Wertheim