Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick II was King of Sicily from 1198, King of Germany from 1212, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 and King of Jerusalem from 1225. He was the son of emperor Henry VI of the Hohenstaufen dynasty and of Constance, heiress to the Norman kings of Sicily, his political and cultural ambitions were enormous as he ruled a vast area, beginning with Sicily and stretching through Italy all the way north to Germany. As the Crusades progressed, he styled himself its king. However, the Papacy became his enemy, it prevailed. Viewing himself as a direct successor to the Roman emperors of antiquity, he was Emperor of the Romans from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; as such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, of Burgundy. At the age of three, he was crowned King of Sicily as a co-ruler with his mother, Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily, his other royal title was King of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage and his connection with the Sixth Crusade. At war with the papacy, hemmed in between Frederick's lands in northern Italy and his Kingdom of Sicily to the south, he was excommunicated three times and vilified in pro-papal chronicles of the time and after.

Pope Gregory IX went so far as to call him an Antichrist. Speaking six languages, Frederick was an avid patron of the arts, he played a major role in promoting literature through the Sicilian School of poetry. His Sicilian royal court in Palermo, beginning around 1220, saw the first use of a literary form of an Italo-Romance language, Sicilian; the poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and on what was to become the modern Italian language. He was the first king to formally outlaw trial by ordeal, which had come to be viewed as superstitious. After his death his line did not survive, the House of Hohenstaufen came to an end. Furthermore, the Holy Roman Empire entered a long period of decline during the Great Interregnum from which it did not recover until the reign of Charles V, 250 years later. Historian Donald Detwiler wrote: A man of extraordinary culture and ability – called by a contemporary chronicler stupor mundi, by Nietzsche the first European, by many historians the first modern ruler – Frederick established in Sicily and southern Italy something much like a modern, centrally governed kingdom with an efficient bureaucracy.

Born in Jesi, near Ancona, Italy, on 26 December 1194, Frederick was the son of the emperor Henry VI. He was known as the puer Apuliae, his mother Constance gave birth to him at the age of 40, Boccaccio related in his De mulieribus claris about the empress: as a Sicilian princess and paternal aunt of William II of Sicily, a prediction that "her marriage would destroy Sicily" led to her confinement in a convent as a nun from childhood to remain celibate and her late engagement to Henry at the age of 30. Some chronicles say that Constance gave birth to him in a public square in order to forestall any doubt about his origin such as son of a butcher. Frederick was baptised in Assisi. At birth Frederick was named Constantine by his mother; this name, a masculine form of his mother's name, served to identify him with both his Norman heritage and his imperial heritage. It was still his name at the time of his election as King of the Romans, he was only given his grandfathers' names, becoming Frederick Roger, at his baptism when he was two years old.

This dual name served the same purpose as Constantine: emphasising his dual heritage. Frederick's birth was accompanied by rumour on account of his mother's advanced age. According to Albert of Stade and Salimbene, he was not the son of Henry and Constance but was presented to Henry as his own after a faked pregnancy, his real father was variously described as a butcher of a physician, a miller or a falconer. Frederick's birth was associated with a prophecy of Merlin. According to Andrea Dandolo, writing at some distance but recording contemporary gossip, Henry doubted reports of his wife's pregnancy and was only convinced by consulting Joachim of Fiore, who confirmed that Frederick was his son by interpretation of Merlin's prophecy and the Erythraean Sibyl. A legend claims that Constance gave birth in the public square of Jesi to silence doubters. None of these stories have any validity, although it is clear that Constance took unusual measures to prove her pregnancy and its legitimacy. Roger of Howden reports that she swore on the gospels before a papal legate that Frederick was her son and Henry's.

It is probable that these public acts of affirmation on account of her age gave rise to some false rumours. In 1196 at Frankfurt am Main the infant Frederick was elected King of the Romans and thus heir to his father's imperial crown, his rights in Germany were to end up disputed by Henry's brother Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick. At the death of his father in 1197, Frederick was in Italy, traveling towards Germany, when the bad news reached his guardian, Conrad of Spoleto. Frederick was hastily brought back to his mother Constance in Palermo, where he was crowned king on 17 May 1198, at just three years of age. Constance of Sicily was in her own right queen of Sicily, she established herself as regent. Upon Constance's death in 1198, Pope Innocent III succeeded as Frederick's guardian. Frederick's tutor during this period was Cencio, who would become Po

George Young (rock musician)

George Redburn Young was an Australian musician and record producer. He was a founding member of the bands the Easybeats and Flash and the Pan, was one-half of the songwriting and production duo Vanda & Young with his long-time musical collaborator Harry Vanda. Born in Scotland, Young moved to Australia with his family as a teenager, became a naturalised citizen, he was a member of the 1960s Australian rock band the Easybeats, co-wrote with bandmate Harry Vanda the international hits "Friday on My Mind" and "Love Is in the Air", the latter recorded by John Paul Young. Vanda and Young were the producers of early work by the Australian hard rock band AC/DC, formed by his younger brothers Malcolm and Angus Young. Vanda & Young were inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988 and the Easybeats were inducted in 2005. William Young and his family lived at 6 Skerryvore Road in the Cranhill district of Glasgow in Scotland. William worked first as a wheel boy in a rope works and as a machine and saw operator in an asbestos and cement business.

In 1940 William joined the Royal Air Force serving in World War II as a flight engine mechanic. After the war, William worked as a yard man for a builder and as a postman, his wife Margaret was a housewife. The'big freeze' of 1962–63 was the worst winter on record in Scotland with snow eight feet deep. A TV advertisement at the same time offered assisted travel for families for a different life in Australia. 15 members of the Young family left Scotland by aeroplane in late June 1963 including fifth son George, younger brothers Malcolm and Angus. Aboard were his eldest brother Stephen, his only sister, Mrs Margaret Horsburgh and brother, William Jr. Another elder brother, stayed in the UK, was a member of London-based group Grapefruit. A final brother, John Young, had migrated to Australia separately. Malcolm described the family's musical background, "All the males in our family played, the oldest played accordion and John were the first couple to play guitar, being older it was sort of passed down to George myself Angus."Initially staying at Villawood Migrant Hostel in Nissen huts, George Young met and became friends with another migrant, Harry Vanda.

The Young family moved into a semi-detached house at 4 Burleigh Street in the Sydney suburb of Burwood. For secondary schooling Young attended Sefton High School. George Young started his music career in Sydney, he formed there a beat pop band, the Easybeats, in late 1964, himself playing rhythm guitar alongside Dick Diamonde on bass guitar, Gordon "Snowy" Fleet on drums, Harry Vanda on lead guitar and Stevie Wright on lead vocals. All of the members had a connection with Villawood Migrant Hostel, their early rehearsals were held in its laundry room. Aside from performing and recording, Young co-wrote nearly all of their tracks. Early top 10 hits on the Australian singles chart for the Easybeats were co-written by Young with bandmate Wright: "She's So Fine", "Wedding Ring", "Women", "Come and See Her", "I'll Make You Happy", "Sorry". Top 10 hits were written with Vanda, "Friday on My Mind" and "Heaven and Hell"; the Easybeats relocated to the UK to record and perform, but the group disbanded in late 1969.

After the Easybeats dissolved, Young formed a production and songwriting duo with Vanda in 1970, as Vanda & Young living in London. They provided pop and rock songs for other recording artists, for themselves under various stage names: Paintbox, Eddie Avana, Haffy's Whiskey Sour, Band of Hope; the pair worked with Young's elder brother Alex in Grapefruit. Young and Vanda returned to Sydney in 1973 where they worked for Ted Albert, at his Albert Productions recording studio to become the in house producers. One studio-based group, Marcus Hook Roll Band, was joined in 1974 by Young's brothers and Angus; the brothers had formed a hard rock group, AC/DC, in 1973. Young helped them with AC/DC, he declared to his brothers "that he didn't believe a band can call itself a band until it's done at least 200 gigs". With Vanda he co-produced AC/DC's early albums, High Voltage, T. N. T. High Voltage, Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap, Let There Be Powerage. Young played as AC/DC's bass guitarist for a short stint, early in their career.

He and Vanda co-produced the title track and two instrumental tracks on AC/DC's Who Made Who album in 1986 and the Blow Up Your Video album in 1988. Young alone handled production duties for AC/DC's Stiff Upper Lip album in 2000. In mid-1976 Young formed Flash and the Pan as a studio-based duo with himself on guitar and vocals, Vanda on guitar and keyboards, they had local top 10 hits on the Kent Music Report Singles Chart with "Hey, St. Peter" and "Down Among the Dead Men"; the group's ninth single, "Waiting for a Train", had lead vocals by their former bandmate, Stevie Wright. When the single was issued in Europe in April 1983 it peaked at No. 7 in the UK, No. 15 in Be

Wednesfield High Specialist Engineering Academy

Wednesfield High Specialist Engineering Academy is a mixed secondary school and sixth form located in the Wednesfield area of Wolverhampton in the West Midlands of England. A community school administered by Wolverhampton City Council, Wednesfield High School converted to academy status in January 2015 and was renamed Wednesfield High Specialist Engineering Academy; the school is now sponsored by the University of Wolverhampton's Education Central Multi Academy Trust. However the school continues to coordinate with Wolverhampton City Council for admissions. Wednesfield High Specialist Engineering Academy offers GCSEs, BTECs and Cambridge Nationals as programmes of study for pupils, while students in the sixth form have the option to study from a range of A-levels and further BTECs; the school has a specialism in engineering. Wednesfield High Specialist Engineering Academy official website