Fredrikstad is a city and municipality in Østfold county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the city of Fredrikstad, the city of Fredrikstad was founded in 1567 by King Frederick II, and established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The rural municipality of Glemmen was merged with Fredrikstad on 1 January 1964, the rural municipalities of Borge, Onsøy, Kråkerøy, and Rolvsøy were merged with Fredrikstad on 1 January 1994. The city straddles the river Glomma where it meets the Skagerrak, along with neighboring Sarpsborg, Fredrikstad forms the fifth largest city in Norway, Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg. As of 1 January 2013, according to Statistics Norway, these two municipalities have a population of 128,916 with 75,583 in Fredrikstad and 53,333 in Sarpsborg. Fredrikstad was built at the mouth of Glomma as a replacement after Sarpsborg was burned down by the Swedes, almost half the population of Sarpsborg stayed behind, and rebuilt their old town at its original site. The city centre is on the west bank of the Glomma, Fredrikstad used to have a large sawmill industry and was an important harbour for timber export, later on shipbuilding, until the main yard was closed in the 1980s.
The main industries are currently various chemical plants and other light industry, in 2005, Fredrikstad was the final host port for the Tall Ships Race, attracting thousands to the city. The city was named after the Danish king Frederick II in 1569, the last element stad means city. Prior to 1877, the name was spelled Frederiksstad, from 1877–1888 it was written as Fredriksstad, the coat-of-arms is from modern times. They were granted on 21 April 1967, the old arms are based on the oldest known seal of the city, which dates from 1610. They showed a fortress being guarded by a bear, Fredrikstad had no fortifications in 1610. Fredrikstad was founded by citizens of Sarpsborg and both the fortress and the bear are taken from the old arms of Sarpsborg, the composition of the seal was used as arms since the beginning of the 19th century. The new arms were granted at the 400th anniversary of the city in 1967 and show a modern variation on the fortress. This new sites proximity to the sea and the open land surrounding it made it a better location than the old one.
The name Fredrikstad was first used in a letter from the King dated 6 February 1569, the temporary fortification built during the Hannibal War between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, became permanent in the 1660s. The work on the fortifications was first led by William de Coucheron, during the next 60 years, several fortifications at the Fredrikstad Fortress were built, including Isegran and Cicignon. In 1735, a suburb on the side of Glomma
Hans Knieper was a Flemish painter and draughtsman. He became a painter and tapestry carton designer at the Royal Danish Court. Very little is known about Knieper’s early life and training in Flanders and he was likely born in Antwerp, as he was referred to by the name Johannes de Antwerpia in his initial contract with the Danish king. The B mark was a mark of a Brussels weaving workshop. The only work attributed to him in his country is a watercolour of an allegorical figure now in Gaasbeek in Belgium. Rather than decorating the castle by importing finished art works, Frederick decided to invite artists to produce their work in situ, Knieper arrived in Kronborg in the company of the Flemish master weaver Anthonius de Goech. Anthonius de Goech brought all materials to execute the tapestries with him, Knieper was given the post of director of the weaving workshop. He travelled back and forth between Denmark and Flanders to import further materials and skilled workers and he managed to establish a high-quality workshop near Kronborg Castle which had about 20 weavers and executed many works for the king.
He probably appointed another master weaver to manage the actual weaving work in the shop and he delivered in the same year a further five tapestries of the Susanna series and two more Daniels. It has been speculated that between 1579 and 1581 the weaving activities ceased and it is not clear whether the Flemish weavers returned to their home country. In this period, Knieper continued to work as the royal painter and he made paintings for the king’s chamber and other rooms as well as the altarpiece for the castle’s chapel. Knieper was responsible for the maintenance and preservation of the castle’s tapestries, a similar Swedish tapestry cycle with no less than 143 kings had already been planned in 1560 by the Swedish king Erik XIV. When this series was completed in 1585, the king commissioned Knieper to make the Throne Baldaquin, the Throne Baldaquin was made of 8 separate tapestry pieces which were woven with silver and silk. It was intended to hang above the heads of the king and its rich materials and distinguished and refined style make it probably Northern Europes most beautiful piece of fabric.
It was completed in 1586 and was in 1659 taken by the Swedes as war loot after they sacked Kronborg and it remained in the Swedish royal family until after Karl XVs death it was transferred to the State and is now in the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. Knieper is said to have revived Danish portrait painting, portraits of king Frederick II, the queen Sophie, the queens father, the Duke Ulrich III of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, and the crown prince Christian have been attributed to him. Kniepers portrait painting and in particular the portrait of Frederick II represent a break with the domestic portrait tradition and it is the oldest known full-length profane portrait that is furthermore set into a three-dimensional pictorial space. The famous Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe invited Knieper in 1587 to come to the island Hven that he had received as a gift from king Frederick II
Christian III of Denmark
Christian III reigned as king of Denmark from 1534 until his death and Norway from 1537 until his death. During his reign, Christian established Lutheranism as the religion within his realms as part of the Protestant Reformation. Christian was the eldest son of future king Frederick I and Anna of Brandenburg and he was born at Gottorf Castle which Frederick I had made a primary residence. In 1514, when he was just ten years old, Christians mother died, four years later, his father remarried to Sophie of Pomerania. In 1523, Frederick I was elected king of Denmark in the place of his nephew, the young prince Christians first public service after his father became king was gaining the submission of Copenhagen, which stood firm for the fugitive Christian II. As stadtholder of the Duchies of Holstein and Schleswig in 1526, Christians earliest teacher, Wolfgang von Utenhof, and his Lutheran tutor, the military general Johann Rantzau, were both zealous reformers who had an influence on the young prince.
At their urging, while traveling in Germany in 1521, he made present at the Diet of Worms to hear Martin Luther speak. The prince made no secret of his Lutheran views and his outspokenness brought him into conflict, not only with the Roman Catholic Rigsraad, but with his cautious and temporizing father. At his own court at Schleswig he did his best to introduce the Protestant Reformation and he made the Lutheran Church the State Church of Schleswig-Holstein with the Church Ordinance of 1528. After his fathers death, in 1533, Christian was proclaimed king at an assembly in Rye, Christian II had supported both the Roman Catholics and Protestant Reformers at various times. In opposition to King Christian III, Count Christopher was proclaimed regent at the Ringsted Assembly and this resulted in a two-year civil war, known as the Counts Feud, between Protestant and Catholic forces. Count Christopher had the support of most of Zealand, the Hanseatic League, Christian III found his support among the nobles of Jutland.
In 1534, peasants under Skipper Clement began an uprising in northern Jutland, an army of nobles and their vassals assembled at Svendstrup and suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of the peasants. Clement and his army fled north, taking refuge inside the walls of Aalborg, in December, Rantzaus forces breached the walls and stormed the city. In the following days 3,000 people were massacred and the city was plundered by the Protestant German mercenaries, Clement managed to escape the slaughter, but was apprehended a few days later. He was tried and beheaded in 1535, with Jutland more or less secure, Christian next focused on gaining control of Scania. He appealed to the Protestant Swedish king Gustav Vasa for help in subduing the rebels, Gustav immediately obliged by sending two armies to ravage central Scania and Halland. The peasants suffered a defeat at Loshult in Scania
Eric XIV of Sweden
Eric XIV was King of Sweden from 1560 until he was deposed in 1568. Eric XIV was the eldest son of Gustav I and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg and he was ruler of Estonia, after its conquest by Sweden in 1561. Some scholars claim that his illness began early during his reign, having been deposed and imprisoned, was most likely murdered. An examination of his remains in 1958 confirmed that he died of arsenic poisoning. Eric XIV was born at Tre Kronor castle, at 9 oclock on the morning of 13 December 1533, before the age of two, he lost his mother. In 1536, his father, Gustav Vasa, married Margaret Leijonhufvud, Erics first teacher was the learned German Georg Norman, whose services were shortly thereafter needed elsewhere within the Swedish state. He was replaced by French Calvinist Dionysius Beurraeus, Dionysius taught both Eric and his brother John, and seems to have been appreciated by both. Eric was very successful in foreign languages and mathematics and he was an informed historian, a good writer and familiar with astrology.
When Eric started to appear in public, he was referred to as the king and after the meeting of parliament in Stockholm in 1560. In 1557, Eric was assigned the fiefdoms of Kalmar, Kronoberg and he took up residence in the city of Kalmar. Against his fathers wishes, Eric entered into negotiations with the future Queen Elizabeth I of England. Tensions between Eric and his father grew, Eric made unsuccessful marriage proposals to, among others, Queen of Scots, Renata of Lorraine, Anna of Saxony and Christine of Hesse. He was crowned as Eric XIV, but was not necessarily the 14th king of Sweden named Eric and he and his brother Charles IX adopted regnal numbers according to Johannes Magnuss partly fictitious history of Sweden. There had, been at least six earlier Swedish kings with the name of Eric, in domestic politics, Erics ambitions were strongly opposed by the Swedish nobility, including his half-brother, the John III of Sweden. John was the Duke of Finland and was married to a Polish princess, John pursued an expansionist policy in Livonia which led to contention between the brothers.
In 1563, John was seized and tried for treason by Erics order. This expansionism resulted in a clash with his cousin, Frederick II of Denmark, from 1563 onwards, his insanity became pronounced, his rule became even more arbitrary and marked by violence. In 1567, suspicious of high treason, he killed several members of the Sture family, the King probably thought of the killing as an execution rather than murder
John III of Sweden
John III was King of Sweden from 1568 until his death. He was the son of King Gustav I of Sweden and his second wife Margaret Leijonhufvud and he was also, quite autonomously, the ruler of Finland, as Duke John from 1556 to 1563. In 1581 he assumed the title Grand Prince of Finland and he attained the Swedish throne after a rebellion against his brother Eric XIV. He is mainly remembered for his attempts to close the gap between the newly established Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Catholic church and his first wife was Catherine Jagellonica of the Polish-Lithuanian ruling family, and their son Sigismund eventually ascended both the Polish-Lithuanian and Swedish thrones. He was the son of Gustav Vasa. His mother was Margareta Leijonhufvud, a Swedish noblewoman, as a Duke of Finland, he opposed his half-brother Eric XIV of Sweden and was imprisoned in 1563. After his release from prison, probably because of his brothers insanity, John again joined the opposition, deposed Eric and his important ally was his maternal uncle Sten Leijonhufvud, who at deathbed was made Count of Raseborg.
Shortly after this John executed his brothers most trusted counsellor, Jöran Persson, after two more years of fighting, this war was concluded without many Swedish concessions in the Treaty of Stettin. During the following years he successfully fought Russia in the Livonian War, concluded by the Treaty of Plussa in 1583, as a whole his foreign policy was affected by his connection to Poland of which country his son Sigismund III Vasa was made king in 1587. In domestic politics John showed clear Catholic sympathies, inspired by his Polish queen and he launched the Red Book, which reintroduced several Catholic customs and resulted in the Liturgical Battle, which was not to end for twenty years. In 1575, he gave his permission for the remaining Catholic convents in Sweden to start receiving novices again, from time to time he was at odds with his younger brother Duke Charles of Sudermannia. John III was a patron of art and architecture. In January 1569, John was recognized as king by the riksdag that forced Eric XIV off the throne.
But this recognition was not without influence from John, Duke Karl received confirmation on his dukedom without the restrictions of his power that the Arboga articles imposed, the nobilities power and rights were extended and their responsibilities lessened. John was still concerned about his position as king as long as Eric was alive. The fear of a liberation of the locked up king worried him to the point that in 1571 he ordered the guards to, in any suspicion of liberation attempt. It is possible this is how his life ended in 1577, John married his first wife, Catherine Jagellonica of Poland, house of Jagiello, in Vilnius on 4 October 1562. In Sweden, she is known as Katarina Jagellonica and she was the sister of king Sigismund II Augustus of Poland
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel, other cities are Lübeck. Also known in more dated English as Sleswick-Holsatia, the Danish name is Slesvig-Holsten, the Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, the name can refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County in Denmark. The term Holstein derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land, originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe, Tedmarsgoi and Sturmarii. The area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, and after Christianization, their church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagnes Saxon campaigns in the eighth century. Since 811, the frontier of Holstein was marked by the River Eider. The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig, around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg.
Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, the exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the part of Schleswig. This would prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, the administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen. The German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a popular movement in Holstein. This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and this movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig.
The ensuing conflict is called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. e. Not only in the Kingdom of Denmark, but to Danes living in Schleswig, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig. A liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen and these demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, and the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
The ceremony can be conducted for the monarchs consort, either simultaneously with the monarch or as a separate event. A ceremony without the placement of a crown on the head is known as an enthronement. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom, Tonga, in addition to investing the monarch with symbols of state, Western-style coronations have often traditionally involve anointing with holy oil, or chrism as it is often called. Wherever a ruler is anointed in this way, as in Great Britain and Tonga, some other lands use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country, in the past, concepts of royalty and deity were often inexorably linked. Rome promulgated the practice of worship, in Medieval Europe. Coronations were once a direct expression of these alleged connections. Thus, coronations have often been discarded altogether or altered to reflect the nature of the states in which they are held.
However, some monarchies still choose to retain an overtly religious dimension to their accession rituals, others have adopted simpler enthronement or inauguration ceremonies, or even no ceremony at all. In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites. The ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC, judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11,12 and II Chronicles 23,11. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one gradually evolved over the following century, the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers, he wore a jewel-studded diadem.
Later emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperors head. Historians debate when exactly this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II. This ritual included recitation of prayers by the Byzantine prelate over the crown, after this event, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the ecclesiastical element in the coronation ceremonial rapidly develop. This was usually performed three times, following this, the king was given a spear, and a diadem wrought of silk or linen was bound around his forehead as a token of regal authority
Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark was Queen consort of Scotland and Ireland as the wife of King James VI and I. The second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark, Anne married James in 1589 at age 15, Anne appears to have loved James at first, but the couple gradually drifted and eventually lived apart, though mutual respect and a degree of affection survived. In England, Anne shifted her energies from factional politics to patronage of the arts and constructed her own magnificent court, after 1612, she suffered sustained bouts of ill health and gradually withdrew from the centre of court life. Though she was reported to have been a Protestant at the time of her death, historians have traditionally dismissed Anne as a lightweight queen and self-indulgent. However, recent reappraisals acknowledge Annes assertive independence and, in particular, Anne was born on 12 December 1574 at the castle of Skanderborg on the Jutland Peninsula in the Kingdom of Denmark. Her birth came as a blow to her father, King Frederick II of Denmark, but her mother, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, was only 17, three years she did bear Frederick a son, the future Christian IV of Denmark.
With her older sister, Anne was sent to be raised at Güstrow in Germany by her maternal grandparents, the Duke and Duchess of Mecklenburg. Christian was sent to be brought up at Güstrow but two later, in 1579, the Rigsraad successfully requested his removal to Denmark, and Anne. Anne enjoyed a close, happy family upbringing in Denmark, thanks largely to Queen Sophie, James other serious possibility, though 8 years his senior, was Catherine, sister of the Huguenot King Henry III of Navarre, who was favoured by Elizabeth I of England. The constitutional position of Sophie, Annes mother, became difficult after Fredericks death in 1588, when she found herself in a power struggle with the Rigsraad for control of King Christian. As a matchmaker, Sophie proved more diligent than Frederick and, overcoming sticking points on the amount of the dowry, Anne herself seems to have been thrilled with the match. Whatever the truth of the rumours, James required a match to preserve the Stuart line. On 20 August 1589, Anne was married by proxy to James at Kronborg Castle, Anne set sail for Scotland within 10 days, but her fleet was beset by a series of misadventures.
Finally being forced back to the coast of Norway, from where she travelled by land to Oslo for refuge, accompanied by the Earl Marischal and others of the Scottish and Danish embassies. According to a Scottish account, he presented himself to Anne, with boots and all and James were formally married at the Old Bishops Palace in Oslo on 23 November 1589, with all the splendour possible at that time and place. So that both bride and groom could understand, Leith minister David Lindsay conducted the ceremony in French and she giveth great contentment to his Majesty. The couple moved on to Copenhagen on 7 March and attended the wedding of Annes older sister Elizabeth to Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick and they arrived in the Water of Leith on 1 May. Five days later, Anne made her entry into Edinburgh in a solid silver coach brought over from Denmark
Johan Rantzau was a German-Danish general and statesman known for his role in the Counts Feud. Rantzau was born at the castle of Steinburg near Itzehoe into nobility and his family had come into the service of the Danish king after the union between Denmark and the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, but he was loyal to the rulers of the latter. From his early years he sought a career and was educated an officer and a lansquenet. When King Christian II of Denmark in 1523 was overthrown by Frederick I in 1523 and he became a member of the Danish Privy Council as well as governor of the duchies and was the most important of the king’s non-Danish advisors. At the same time he emerged a squire of Holstein, making the house of Breitenburg his entailed estate. Among his military missions was his fight against the Scanian peasant rebellion of 1525 that was bloodily crushed, during these years he became a devout Protestant, working together with his Danish colleagues on advancing the Lutheran cause.
Rantzau became especially notable due to his participation in the Count’s Feud from 1534–1536, together with the Holstein nobility, he supported Christian III in spite of the latter’s desperate situation. Next year he successfully conquered Funen, defeating Count Christopher of Oldenburg’s army at Øksnebjerg, after the war, Rantzau continued being the king’s general and advisor, but he was pushed into the background in Denmark while concentrating on Holstein affairs. However, he went back into service in 1559 as the leader of the conquest of Dithmarschen. As an outstanding figure of history of the 16th century. Earlier historians have called him a brilliant general, loyal to the royal house of Denmark. Rantzau’s son Heinrich Rantzau was an outstanding Holstein cattle lord and his biography of his father is the main source of the latter’s life. He was the great-grandfather of Josias von Rantzau, politikens Danmarkshistorie, vol 5, by Johan Hvidtfeldt. Politikens Danmarkshistorie, vol 6, by Svend Cedergreen Bech, media related to Johann Rantzau at Wikimedia Commons
Niels Kaas was a Danish politician who served as Chancellor of Denmark from 1573 until his death. He was influential in the negotiation of the Peace of Stettin and in the upbringing of Christian IV, Kaas played an important role in the emancipation of Schleswig-Holstein. Kaas belonged to a noble family and his parents were Niels, who died seven months before he was born, and Anne Bjørn, who died when he was five. As a result, Kaas was raised by his uncle Mogens Kaas, the dean of the district of Jelling and he was educated at the Viborg school, where he studied for nine years, concentrating on theology and classical studies. In 1549, Kaas moved to Copenhagen, where he was taken in by theologian Niels Hemmingsen under the direction of his brother Bjørn, under Hemmingsen, he completed his theological and historical training. In 1554, Kaas began studying under Philipp Melanchthon in Wittenberg and he studied in Frankfurt and Leuven, and saw the Battle of St. Quentin in 1557. He returned to Copenhagen in 1557, entering the Danish Chancery three years and his knowledge of history and Latin became invaluable in negotiations with other countries.
During the Northern Seven Years War, Kaas remained in Copenhagen, in 1570, he helped complete the Peace of Stettin. After the death of Chancellor Johan Friis in December 1570, Kaas was appointed Chancellor by the Herredag in May 1573, in 1575, he became the second-most powerful person in the country on the death of the Steward of the Realm, Peder Oxe. Frederick II greatly relied on Kaass negotiating skills, as chancellor, Kaas helped solve the question of succession for John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev and John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg in 1582. He served as the Chancellor of the University of Copenhagen, many of his writings survive from this time. He took special interest in the research of astronomy under Tycho Brahe, upon the death of Frederick II in 1588, Kaas became the guardian of government. During this time, he dealt with issues, such as the influence wielded by the dowager queen Sophia. Kaas was a supporter of the two, but the Folketing opposed their influence and sought to limit it, in 1593, Kaas helped emancipate the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein from the Holy Roman Empire and secure the rule over them of Fredericks successor, Christian IV.
Farewell king, farewell kingdoms and lands, father surely all the world, come, O Jesus, if you will, now I die happy. Dansk biografisk Lexikon, tillige omfattende Norge for tidsrummet 1537–1814