Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
The Muhlenberg legend is an urban legend in the United States and Germany. According to the legend, the vote of Frederick Muhlenberg. The kernel of truth behind this legend is a vote in the United States House of Representatives in 1794 and this petition was rejected by a 42 to 41 vote and Muhlenberg was quoted as having said the faster the Germans become Americans, the better it will be. The United States has no official language, English has been used on a de facto basis. At times various states have passed their own official language laws, the legend has a long history, and led to a number of analyses and articles published from the late 1920s into the early 1950s explaining why the story was not true. The story was dubbed the Muhlenberg legend by at least the late 1940s, for example, in 1987, a letter from a former election official in Missouri emphasized the importance of voting in an Ann Landers column. He included a list of events allegedly decided by one vote from his local election manual, including that “in 1776 and this led to another round of news stories again pointing out that this was a myth.
Oblivious to corrections of this sort, Ann Landers ran the same list again in November 1996, a chorus of dismayed responses caused Landers to clear up the matter in a subsequent column. According to one writer, who begged Landers to stomp out that piece of fiction wherever you encounter it. Another version of the myth puts the vote in 1774 by the Continental Congress, Ripleys included the myth in a 1982 book as well. Ripleys version credits the story to a letter by Heinrich Melchior Muhlenberg published in Halle in 1887. Most accounts credit Franz von Löher as the source of the legend, Löher was a German visitor to America who published the book Geschichte und Zustände der Deutschen in Amerika in 1847. Löher seemingly placed the crucial vote only in Pennsylvania, to make German the official language of that state, according to Löher, the vote was tied, and Muhlenberg cast the tie-breaking vote for English. German language in the United States Languages of the United States Von Löher, Geschichte und Zustände der Deutschen in Amerika via archive. org
Bally is a borough in Berks County, United States. The population was 1,090 at the 2010 census, the Borough of Bally was originally called Goshenhoppen, possibly deriving from an Indian word meaning meeting place. Others claim the name derives from German settlers from Goshen, PA calling the area their haven or Hafen in German and Catholics settled it in the early 18th century. Clergyman Ulrich Beidler erected the first house of worship, the Mennonite Church in 1731, Father Theodore Schneider, a Jesuit priest, came to the area in 1741 and established what would be just the third Catholic mission church in the 13 original colonies. On land received from the Mennonite community, Father Schneider built St. Pauls Chapel in 1743, in 1743 Father Schneider started a Catholic school at the mission church. The school, originally called St. Aloysius Academy, marked the beginning of Catholic education in the 13 original colonies, after several name changes, it is currently known as St. Francis Academy, and is the oldest currently operating co-educational Catholic school in the nation.
To reflect the many churches in the town, Goshenhoppen was renamed Churchville, when the post office was established in 1883, the townsfolk changed the name to Bally in memory of Fr. Augustine Bally, S. J. A Catholic pastor beloved by all, who had died the previous year, Bally was incorporated as a borough in 1912, with Henry Eddinger, son of Frederick K. and Sophia Eddinger, appointed as the first Burgess. Bally has traditionally been a home of many Pennsylvania Dutch settlers, in 1912, Bally resident Annie Clemmer Funk, a Mennonite missionary to India, died during the sinking of the RMS Titanic. She was en route to Bally to visit her ailing mother, there are numerous business and industry in town, some of which are known internationally. Among the largest industries are Bally Ribbon Mills, Bally Block Co. two other major manufacturers, Great American Knitting Mills and Bally Case and Cooler were founded in Bally, and were located there for decades. The area is well known for its agriculture.
Bally lies in the heart of an area named Butter Valley, extending from Hereford, through Bally, the name is due to the large number of dairy farms in the valley. Renowned Italian artist, furniture designer and metal sculpture musician Harry Bertoia settled in the area, Bally is located at 40°24′4″N 75°35′18″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has an area of 0.5 square miles. As of the 2010 Census Bally had a population of 1090, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,062 people,413 households, and 304 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,030.4 people per square mile, there were 426 housing units at an average density of 814.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 98. 78% White,0. 47% African American,0. 19% Native American,0. 47% Asian, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 28% of the population
John Adams was an American patriot who served as the second President of the United States and the first Vice President. He was a lawyer, statesman, political theorist, and, as a Founding Father and he was a dedicated diarist and correspondent, particularly with his wife and closest advisor Abigail. He collaborated with his cousin, revolutionary leader Samuel Adams, Adams was a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, where he played a leading role in persuading Congress to declare independence. He assisted Thomas Jefferson in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776, as a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the eventual peace treaty with Great Britain, and acquired vital governmental loans from Amsterdam bankers. Adams was the author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780 which influenced American political theory. Adamss credentials as a revolutionary secured for him two terms as President George Washingtons vice president and his own election in 1796 as the second president.
In his single term as president, he encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans, as well as the dominant faction in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and built up the army, the major accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamiltons opposition. Due to his strong posture on defense, Adams is often called the father of the American Navy and he was the first U. S. president to reside in the executive mansion, now known as the White House. In 1800, Adams lost re-election to Thomas Jefferson and retired to Massachusetts and he eventually resumed his friendship with Jefferson upon the latters own retirement by initiating a correspondence which lasted fourteen years. He and his wife established a family of politicians, Adams was the father of John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the United States. He died on the anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.
Modern historians in the aggregate have favorably ranked his administration, John Adams was born on October 30,1735 to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. He had two brothers and Elihu. Adams birthplace was in Braintree, and is preserved at Adams National Historical Park, Adams mother was from a leading medical family of present-day Brookline, Massachusetts. His father was a Congregationalist deacon, a farmer, a cordwainer, the Deacon served as a selectman and supervised the building of schools and roads. Adams often praised his father and recalled their close relationship, though raised in modest surroundings, Adams felt an acute responsibility to live up to his familys heritage of reverence. Journalist Richard Brookhiser wrote that Adams Puritan ancestors believed they lived in the Bible, England under the Stuarts was Egypt, they were Israel fleeing
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14,1775, the Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war, most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war. The 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne and this became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796. The Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies, and after 1776, when the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the leading to the war.
Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774, colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea. On April 23,1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of an army consisting of 26 company regiments. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut soon raised similar, on July 18,1775, the Congress requested all colonies form militia companies from all able bodied effective men, between sixteen and fifty years of age. It was not uncommon for men younger than sixteen to enlist as most colonies had no requirement of consent for those under twenty-one. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals were appointed by the Second Continental Congress in the course of a few days, after Pomeroy did not accept, John Thomas was appointed in his place. As the Continental Congress increasingly adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, as a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units.
Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army, early in the war the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army. The army never numbered more than 17,000 men, turnover proved a constant problem, particularly in the winter of 1776–77, and longer enlistments were approved. Major General Philip Schuylers ten regiments in New York were sent to invade Canada, the Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and of its geographical focus. This army consisted of 36 regiments, most standardized to a battalion of 768 men strong and formed into eight companies. Enlistment terms extended to three years or to the length of the war to avoid the crises that depleted forces
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
Province of Pennsylvania
The Province of Pennsylvania, known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4,1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II. The name Pennsylvania, which translates roughly as Penns Woods, was created by combining the Penn surname with the Latin word sylvania, the Province of Pennsylvania was one of the two major Restoration colonies, the other being the Province of Carolina. The colonial government, established in 1683 by Penns Frame of Government, consisted of an appointed Governor, the proprietor, a 72-member Provincial Council, and a larger General Assembly. The General Assembly, known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, was the largest and most representative branch of government, succeeding Frames of Government, known as the Charter of Privileges, were produced in 1683,1696 and 1701. The fourth Frame remained in effect until the American Revolution and he was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Indians.
Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed, the province was divided first into 5 counties, plus the three lower counties on Delaware Bay. Philadelphia County is present-day Philadelphia City, montgomery County was west of Bucks and northwest of Philadelphia, and extended along the Schuylkill River to the area presently known as Minersville, in Schuylkill County. Chester County extended along the border of Pennsylvania from Marcus Hook to the western border of the province. The remainder of the province, which is now North Central and their borders remain unchanged to this day. William Penn and his fellow Quakers heavily imprinted their religious values on the early Pennsylvanian government, the Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to everyone monotheists and government was initially open to all Christians. Until the French and Indian War Pennsylvania had no military, few taxes, among the first groups were the Mennonites, who founded Germantown in 1683, and the Amish, who established the Northkill Amish Settlement in 1740. 1751 was an year for the colony.
Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the British American colonies, and The Academy and College of Philadelphia, Benjamin Franklin founded both of these institutions along with Philadelphias Union Fire Company fifteen years earlier in 1736. Likewise in 1751, the Pennsylvania State House ordered a new bell which would become known as the Liberty Bell for the new tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia. William Penn had mandated fair dealings with Native Americans and this led to significantly better relations with the local Native tribes than most other colonies had. The Quakers had previously treated Indians with respect, bought land from them voluntarily, according to Voltaire, the Shackamaxon Treaty was the only treaty between Indians and Christians that was never sworn to and that was never broken. The Quakers refused to provide any assistance to New Englands Indian wars, in 1737, the Colony exchanged a great deal of its political goodwill with the native Lenape for more land.
This purchase has become known as the Walking Purchase, although the document was most likely a forgery, the Lenape did not realize that
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress which, along with the Senate, composes the legislature of the United States. The composition and powers of the House are established by Article One of the United States Constitution, since its inception in 1789, all representatives are elected popularly. The total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435, the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration. The presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by the members thereof and is traditionally the leader of the controlling party. He or she and other leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conferences. The House meets in the wing of the United States Capitol. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a body in which each state was equally represented. All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates, the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
The House is referred to as the house, with the Senate being the upper house. Both houses approval is necessary for the passage of legislation, the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, the Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4,1789. The House began work on April 1,1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, during the first half of the 19th century, the House was frequently in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery. The North was much more populous than the South, and therefore dominated the House of Representatives, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery, One example of a provision repeatedly supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War.
Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, the war culminated in the Souths defeat and in the abolition of slavery. Because all southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, the years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Unions victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877, the ensuing era, the Democratic and the Republican Party held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw an increase in the power of the Speaker of the House
United States Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. Proposed following the oftentimes bitter 1787–88 battle over ratification of the U. S, on June 8,1789, Representative James Madison introduced nine amendments to the constitution in the House of Representatives. Among his recommendations Madison proposed opening up the Constitution and inserting specific rights limiting the power of Congress in Article One, Seven of these limitations would become part of the ten ratified Bill of Rights amendments. Contrary to Madisons original proposal that the articles be incorporated into the body of the Constitution. Articles Three through Twelve were ratified as additions to the Constitution on December 15,1791, Article Two became part of the Constitution on May 5,1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Article One is technically still pending before the states, the door for their application upon state governments was opened in the 1860s, following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Since the early 20th century both federal and state courts have used the Fourteenth Amendment to apply portions of the Bill of Rights to state, the process is known as incorporation. There are several original engrossed copies of the Bill of Rights still in existence, One of these is on permanent public display at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. However, the government that operated under the Articles of Confederation was too weak to adequately regulate the various conflicts that arose between the states. The Philadelphia Convention set out to correct weaknesses of the Articles that had been apparent even before the American Revolutionary War had been successfully concluded, the convention took place from May 14 to September 17,1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The convention convened in the Pennsylvania State House, and George Washington of Virginia was unanimously elected as president of the convention, the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution are among the men known as the Founding Fathers of the new nation.
Thomas Jefferson, who was Minister to France during the convention, Rhode Island refused to send delegates to the convention. However, the motion was defeated by a vote of the state delegations after only a brief discussion. Madison, an opponent of a Bill of Rights, explained the vote by calling the bills of rights parchment barriers that offered only an illusion of protection against tyranny. The quick rejection of this motion, endangered the entire ratification process, thirty-nine delegates signed the finalized Constitution. Thirteen delegates left before it was completed, and three who remained at the convention until the end refused to sign it, Gerry, elbridge Gerry wrote the most popular Anti-Federalist tract, Hon. Mr. Gerrys Objections, which went through 46 printings, the essay particularly focused on the lack of a bill of rights in the proposed constitution, many were concerned that a strong national government was a threat to individual rights and that the president would become a king.
Jefferson wrote to Madison advocating a Bill of Rights, Half a loaf is better than no bread, if we cannot secure all our rights, let us secure what we can
Pennsylvania's at-large congressional district
Pennsylvania elected its United States representatives at-large on a general ticket for the first and third United States Congresses. General ticket representation was prohibited by the 1842 Apportionment Bill and subsequent legislation, some representatives, including Galusha A. Grow, served at-large after 1842. This was allowed because Pennsylvania had received an increase in the number of its representatives yet its legislature didnt pass an apportionment bill during those years, representatives were elected statewide at-large on a general ticket. After 1795, most representatives were elected in districts, occasionally, at-large representatives were elected. No at-large representatives were apportioned after the 78th Congress, the Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts, Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
The terms of the treaty were designed primarily by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and strongly supported by chief negotiator John Jay and by President George Washington. The treaty gained many of the primary American goals, the Americans were granted limited rights to trade with British colonies in the Caribbean in exchange for some limits on the American export of cotton. The treaty was hotly contested by the Jeffersonians in each state and they feared that closer economic ties with Great Britain would strengthen Hamiltons Federalist Party, promote aristocracy, and undercut republicanism. Washingtons announced support proved decisive, and the treaty was ratified by a majority of the U. S. Senate in November 1794 without a single vote to spare. The treaty became an issue of contention, leading to the formation of the First Party System, with the Federalists favoring the British. The treaty was for ten years duration, efforts failed to agree on a replacement treaty in 1806 when Jefferson rejected the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty, as tensions escalated toward the War of 1812.
The outbreak of war between France and Great Britain in 1793 ended the peace that had enabled the new nation to flourish in terms of trade. The United States now emerged as an important neutral country with a large shipping trade, from the British perspective, improving relations with the United States was a high priority lest it move into the French orbit. British negotiators ignored elements that wanted harsher terms in order to get a suitable treaty, the British government used the Royal Navy to capture nearly 250 neutral American merchant ships carrying goods from French colonies in the West Indies. Americans were outraged and Republicans in Jeffersons coalition demanded a declaration of war, British officials told Indian tribes near the Canada-U. S. border that the border no longer existed and sold weapons to them. Congress voted for an embargo against Britain in March 1794. Hamilton devised a framework for negotiations, and President George Washington sent Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Jay to London to negotiate a comprehensive treaty, Britain said it was in response to American refusals to pay debts that had been agreed upon.
The British were continuing to impress American sailors into the Royal Navy to fight against France, American merchants wanted compensation for 250 merchant ships which the British had confiscated in 1793 and 1794. Southern interests wanted monetary compensation for slaves owned by Loyalists who were away to the West Indies along with their masters in 1781-83. American merchants wanted the British West Indies to be reopened to American trade, the boundary with Canada was vague in many places, and needed to be more sharply delineated. The British were providing munitions for Indian attacks on settlers in the Northwest, several issues were sent to arbitration, which were resolved amicably mostly in favor of the U. S. Britain paid $11,650,000 for damages to American shipping, while international arbitration was not entirely unknown, the Jay Treaty gave it a strong impetus and is generally taken as the start of modern International arbitration. The British agreed to vacate the western forts by June 1796, the treaty was surprisingly generous and allowing Americans to trade with the British Isles on a most-favored-nation basis
Pennsylvania's 2nd congressional district
Before the 113th Congress, the district did not contain Lower Merion Township but instead contained Cheltenham Township. The district has an overwhelming Democratic majority, with the 113th Congress, it is the third most Democratic Congressional District out of the 435 in the nation, according to the Cook Partisan Voting Index, with a score of D +39. It is the most Democratic district outside of New York, congressman Chaka Fattah represented the district from 1995 to 2016. On July 29,2015, Fattah and a group of associates were indicted on charges related to their alleged roles in a racketeering. On April 26,2016, Dwight Evans toppled Fattah in a competitive Democratic primary election, Evans won a special election to fill Fattahs seat. He won election for the term beginning January 3,2017. The district was organized from Pennsylvanias At-large congressional district in 1791, District created in 1795 from Pennsylvanias At-large congressional district Two additional seats were added in 1803. The third seat was eliminated in 1813, and the second seat eliminated in 1823, in 1833, the second seat was restored.
In 1843, it returned to being a single-member district, list of United States congressional districts Pennsylvanias congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, the Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present District map, via nationalatlas. gov Census Bureau profile Congressional redistricting in Pennsylvania