In English criminal law, attainder or attinctura was the metaphorical "stain" or "corruption of blood" which arose from being condemned for a serious capital crime. It entailed losing not only one's life and hereditary titles, but also the right to pass them on to one's heirs. Both men and women condemned of capital crimes could be attainted. Attainder by confession resulted from a guilty plea at the bar before judges or before the coroner in sanctuary. Attainder by verdict resulted from conviction by jury. Attainder by process resulted from a legislative act outlawing a fugitive; the last form is obsolete in England, the other forms have been abolished. Medieval and Renaissance English monarchs used acts of attainder to deprive nobles of their lands and their lives. Once attainted, the descendants of the noble could no longer inherit his income. Attainder amounted to the legal death of the attainted's family. Monarchs used attainders against political enemies and those who posed potential threats to the king's position and security.
The attainder eliminated any advantage. In many cases of attainder, the king could coerce the parliament into approving the attainder and there would be a lower or non-existent burden of proof than there would be in court. Prior to the Tudors, most rulers reversed their attainders in return for promises of loyalty. For example, Henry VI reversed all 21 attainders, Edward IV 86 of 120, Richard III 99 of 100. However, this changed with Henry VII. Regnants who used attainder include: Margaret of Anjou: her attainder of Richard of York compelled him to invade England and attempt to seize the throne after the Battle of Northampton, which led to the penultimate phases of the War of the Roses. Edward IV of England: used attainder after killing his brother, George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence for high treason; this allowed Richard III of England to seize the throne when he claimed that Edward IV's sons were illegitimate. Henry VII: attainted men after he ascended the throne, he used the threat of attainder as a means to keep the few nobles who survived the War of the Roses in line.
However, he would penalize them with exorbitant fees and fines, or force them to have bonds which would be forfeit unless they exhibited good behaviour Henry VII attainted 138 men, of whom he reversed only 46 attainders, some of these were conditional. Henry VIII: compelled parliament to attaint many nobles during his lifetime, including magnates with major land holdings, any magnates whom he came to mistrust. Examples include: Anne Boleyn: Before her execution, she was stripped of her title, her marriage was annulled. Catherine Howard: Henry VIII had an Act of Attainder passed against Catherine Howard, which made it treason for a woman with an unchaste reputation to marry the king. Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, one of the wealthiest magnates in England, whom Henry had executed on flimsy charges in 1521. Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury: One of the last surviving noble Plantagenets of senior line. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey: The poet son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. Charles I: subsequent to the failed impeachment of his former Lord Deputy of Ireland, Sir Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, was attainted during the political crisis of 1640 -1641.
The Bill of Attainder, having passed the depleted House of Commons and House of Lords, was enacted by Charles I as a concession to his political opponents. During his reign, the Long Parliament of 1641 passed an Act of Attainder against William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, beheaded in 1645. Charles II: Although deceased by the time of the Restoration, the regicides John Bradshaw, Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and Thomas Pride were served with a Bill of Attainder on 15 May 1660 backdated to 1 January 1649. William III: James, III and VIII, the Old Pretender, 1702 George II of Great Britain, following the Jacobite rising of 1745: Attainder of Earl of Kellie and others Act 1746Once attainted, nobles were considered commoners, as such, could be subjected to the same treatments, including torture and methods of execution. For example, commoners could be burned at the stake. Nobles would refer to the act of being attainted as the person's "destruction". In the Westminster system, a bill of attainder is a bill passed by Parliament to attaint persons who are accused of high treason, or, in rare cases, a lesser crime.
A person attainted need not have been convicted of treason in a court of law. A rumour circulated that a bill of attainder against Thomas Jefferson occurred in 1774 because of his authorship of A Summary View of the Rights of British America. A bill of attainder was last passed in Britain against Lord Edward FitzGerald. Attainders by confession and process were abolished in the United Kingdom by the Forfeiture Act 1870. Section 9 of Article One of the United States Constitution provides that no bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed by Congress; the following section forbids states from passing them. Corruption of blood is one of the consequences of attainder; the descendants of an attainted person could not inherit either from the attainted person or from their other relatives through him. For example, if a person is executed for a crime leaving innocent children, the
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Beverley Robinson, was a soldier and wealthy colonist of the Province of New York. Born in the Colony of Virigina, he was a son of the Hon. John Robinson, a President of its House of Burgesses. In 1745 he raised in Virginia an independent company and relocated it to New York to defend that state's frontier against Indian attack. In 1748 he married Susanna Philipse, wealthy one-quarter future heir to the 250 square miles Highland Patent on the lower Hudson River in the Province of New York. Upon his wife's inheritance of her interest in the Patent, the couple settled on her land. With the onset of the American Revolutionary War he sought to remain uninvolved, but in time relented. In 1777, Robinson formed the Loyal American Regiment, which proved a active Loyalist force in that conflict. In addition to serving as its commander through the British defeat 1783, Robinson is known for his work with the British secret service during the war in regards to the betrayal of Continental general Benedict Arnold in the André Affair.
His sons Beverly Robinson, Jr. and Frederick Philipse Robinson served beneath him. During the war the inherited Philipse Patent lands were confiscated by the Revolutionary government of the New York Colony sold off. In spite of a provision in the 1783 Treaty of Paris assuring restitution, no compensation was paid the Robinson family. Following the war the Robinsons retired to Britain with some of their family, where both lived out their days. Beverley Robinson was born in Middlesex County, Virginia of John Robinson, President of the Virginia Colony House of Burgesses in Williamsburg, Catherine Beverley, daughter of Robert Beverley, Esq. of Beverley, Yorkshire. The senior Robinsons were, among the leading families in that province. John Robinson was nephew to Dr. John Robinson, Bishop of London, had gone to America as secretary to government. F Beverley Robinson is said to have been a childhood friend of George Washington - something which would come into bittersweet play during the American Revolution.
It is possible he was married during his time in Virginia to a Sarah Downing. In mid-1745s Robinson raised an independent company in Virginia and moved it to New York, where he captained it in defense of that Province's frontier against Indian attack. On 7 July 1748, he married in Trinity Church, New York City Susanna Philipse 1724–1768, she was the eldest surviving daughter of Frederick Philipse II, second Lord of Philipsburg Manor, a prosperous 81 sq mi hereditary estate in lower Westchester County, heiress to an interest in the Highland Patent, a 250 square miles landed estate on the Hudson River spanning between the Hudson Highlands and the Connecticut Colony border. In 1752 she, her elder brother Philip, younger sister Mary, each inherited a one-third share of what became known at the "Philipse Patent" today's Putnam County, New York. Through his wife Mr. Robinson became rich, although the Patent itself was only settled by tenant farmers and lacked the commerce and industry of the Manor belonging to her eldest brother, Frederick Philipse III.
When the American Revolutionary War began the Robinsons were living on one of their Patent holdings, it is there that Beverley desired to remain in the quiet enjoyment of country life and management of his large domain. He was opposed to the measures of the British Ministry, gave up the use of imported merchandise, clothed himself and his family in fabrics of domestic manufacture. Robinson was opposed to the separation of the Colonies from England. However, he wished to take no part in the conflict of arms. Before long, friends helped to overrule his own judgment, he entered the military service of the Crown, his standing entitled him to high rank, upon raising the "Loyal American Regiment", principally in New York, he was commissioned its Colonel. He commanded the corps of Guides and Pioneers, which included black Loyalist soldiers from the Black Company of Pioneers, his sons figured prominently in the selection of officers for the Loyal American Regiment, with Beverley serving as Lieutenant-Colonel and Frederick an ensign.
The regiment, which saw much fighting in the course of the war, figured most prominently in the attack on the Hudson River's Fort Montgomery, on October 6, 1777, when British and Loyalist forces overwhelmed the Colonials in the Battle of Fort Montgomery. Robinson was heavily involved in the treason of Benedict Arnold, it is believed that he was acquainted with the traitor's purpose before it was known to Sir Henry Clinton, or any other person, and it appears certain that Arnold addressed him a letter on the subject of going over to the Royal side, before soliciting the command of West Point. As the plot matured, he accompanied Major John André, Adjutant General of the British Army in America and head of British Secret Service, to Dobb's Ferry to meet Arnold, according to a previous arrangement. Subsequently, he went up the Hudson River in the Vulture, for the purpose of furthering the objects in view. Arnold now sent Smith on board of the Vulture with a letter, delivered to Colonel Robinson, on the faith of which André went on shore.
The treacherous Whig had been expected on the ship in person, it has been said that Robinson was much opposed to André's trusting himself to the honour "of a man, seeking to betray his country." But the zealous young officer would not listen to the prudent counsel, determined to embark upon the duty from which he never returned. On the 23rd of September, 1780, André was captured and on t
Percy Smythe, 6th Viscount Strangford
Percy Clinton Sydney Smythe, 6th Viscount Strangford was an Anglo-Irish diplomat. He was the son of 5th Viscount Strangford and Maria Eliza Philipse. In 1769, his sixteen-year-old father left Ireland, joined the army and served during the American War of Independence. While quartered in New York in the winter of 1776 to 1777, he courted Maria, she was the daughter of Frederick Philipse III, the third and last Lord of Philipsburg Manor and a descendant of the Dutch founder of the city. At first, her father rejected Lionel, however, as Philipse was a Loyalist during the war, the New York Legislature confiscated his estate, one of the largest in the province, Philipse changed his mind, they married in September 1779 at Trinity Church in Manhattan and they returned to the United Kingdom. Upon the withdrawal of the British troops from New York in 1783, Philipse went to England, where he died. Smythe was educated at Harrow and graduated from Trinity College, Dublin in 1800, entered the diplomatic service, in the following year succeeded to the title of Viscount Strangford in the Peerage of Ireland.
He had literary tastes, in 1803 published Poems from the Portuguese of Camoēns, with Remarks and Notes, Byron at this time describing him as "Hibernian Strangford". In 1806, he served as chargé d'affaires under the Earl of Rosslyn and the Earl of St Vincent, the Extraordinary Envoys of the United Kingdom to Portugal. In 1807, he was appointed British Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Portugal under the reign of King George III. In 1807, as Britain's envoy to Portugal, Lord Strangford coordinated the Portuguese royal family's flight from Portugal to Brazil. Lord Clinton, as he was known in Brazil, he arrived with the Royal Family in Salvador in January 1808 and soon they moved to Rio de Janeiro where they arrived on 8 March 1808. Lord Clinton and the Brazilian accountant Dom Fernando José de Portugal had a hard work to do in the Brazilian Imperial Palace, they had to raise the money moved from Portugal to Brazil under the English escort. Their work was during thirty days; the tax service of 2% was according to the Prize Money.
They counted one hundred million Pounds and two million pounds in taxes.. After that, the payment delayed fourteen years to be paid after the English recognizance of the Brazilian Independence; that was the money. Napoleon said in his memoirs, he was British Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of Stockholm in Sweden from 1817 to 1820, during the reign of Charles XIII of Sweden and Charles XIV John of Sweden. The Levant Company nominated Lord Strangford and his appointment was confirmed in 1820 as the British Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire; as ambassador to the Sublime Porte, he had opportunities to assemble fragments of Greek sculpture. Among his collection of antiquities was the "Strangford Shield", a 3rd-century CE Roman marble that reproduces the shield of Athena Parthenos, Phidias' sculpture in the Parthenon; the "Strangford Shield" is conserved in the British Museum. He left Turkey in 1824. From 1825 to 1826, he served as British Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary at St. Petersburg, when he was created Baron Penshurst, of Penshurst in the County of Kent, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, enabling him to sit in the House of Lords.
His diplomatic career went into decline after he was caught falsifying dispatches to the British government and revealing confidential documents to the Austrian ambassador in St Petersburg. In 1817, he married Ellen Burke Browne, daughter of Sir Thomas Burke, 1st Baronet and sister of Sir John Burke, 2nd Baronet. Ellen had been married to Nicholas Browne, Esq. of Mount Hazel, in Galway, with whom she had Katherine Eleanor Browne who married High-Sheriff Robert French of Monivea Castle. Together and Ellen had five children. George Augustus Frederick Percy Sydney Smythe the 7th Viscount Strangford who had a scandalous relationship with Lady Dorothy, daughter of Horatio Walpole, 3rd Earl of Orford, who married Margaret Lennox-Kincaid-Lennox, daughter of John Lennox-Kincaid-Lennox shortly before his death. After Smythe's death, she married Charles Bateman-Hanbury-Kincaid-Lennox. Philippa Eliza Sydney Smythe, who married Henry James Baillie, the Under-Secretary of State for India. Lionel Philip Thomas Henry Smythe, who died young of tuberculosis Louisa Ellen Frances Augusta Smythe, who married George Browne, 3rd Marquess of Sligo in 1847.
Percy Ellen Algernon Frederick William Sydney Smythe the 8th Viscount Strangford, who married Emily Anne Beaufort. Ellen Sydney Smythe After the death of his wife in 1826, Smythe had three children by Katherine Benham, the eldest of whom was the artist. Lionel Percy Smythe, the artistOn his death on 29 May 1855, he was succeeded by his eldest son George Smythe, 7th Viscount Strangford, an active figure in the Young England movement of the early 1840s. After his death, Benham married William Morrison Wyllie, the artist with whom she had William Lionel Wyllie and Charles William Wyllie artists, he was appointed Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1815 and Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order in 1825. In February 1825, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society He translated the Rimas of Luís de Camões in 1825. A window in his family c
Bay of Fundy
The Bay of Fundy is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an high tidal range. Portions of the Bay of Fundy, Shepody Bay and Minas Basin, form one of six Canadian sites in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, are classified as a Hemispheric site, it is administered by the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the Canadian Wildlife Service, is managed in conjunction with Ducks Unlimited Canada and the Nature Conservancy of Canada. Some sources believe the name "Fundy" is a corruption of the French word Fendu, meaning "split", while others believe it comes from the Portuguese funda, meaning "deep"; the bay was named Baie Française by Samuel de Champlain during a 1604 expedition to St. Croix Island; the Bay of Fundy has a high tidal range. Oceanographers attribute it to tidal resonance resulting from a coincidence of timing: the time it takes a large wave to go from the mouth of the bay to the inner shore and back is the same as the time from one high tide to the next.
During the 12.4-hour tidal period, 115 billion tonnes of water flow out of the bay. According to the Canadian Hydrographic Service, there is a 16.8-metre tidal range in Leaf Basin for Ungava Bay and 17 metres at Burntcoat Head for the Bay of Fundy. The range at Leaf Basin is higher on average than at Minas Basin; the highest water level recorded in the Bay of Fundy system occurred at the head of the Minas Basin on the night of October 4–5, 1869 during a tropical cyclone named the "Saxby Gale". The water level of 21.6 metres resulted from the combination of high winds, abnormally low atmospheric pressure, a spring tide. The tides in the Bay of Fundy are semidiurnal, which means that they have two highs and two lows each day; the height that the water rises and falls to each day during these tides are equal. There are six hours and thirteen minutes between each high and low tide. Alternative forms of energy are being explored in depth in a number of unique areas. Tidal energy harnesses the movement of ocean water to generate electricity through a number of mechanisms.
A process of gathering tidal energy called "In-stream turbine technology" is being tested in the Minas Passage, Nova Scotia. This project is being spearheaded by the Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy or FORCE. In-stream tidal turbine technology is a simple design. An elevated turbine is submerged under water in a location that enables its movement with tidal cycles; as the blades of the turbine move, they create energy. From here the power travels to a cable attached to the seafloor and back to an offsite facility, where it can be added to the power grid. While this technology has shown to be successful in its early stages of testing, FORCE has not begun the process for energy collection. However, the installation of the undersea cable in December 2013 indicates that the project is moving along swiftly. A megawatt-scale turbine was installed at Cape Sharp near Partridge Island in November 2016, its owner, Open Hydro, went into insolvency in August 2018. The Bay of Fundy lies in a rift valley called the Fundy Basin.
These flood basalts poured out over the landscape. Sections of the flood basalts have been eroded away, but still form a basaltic mountain range known as North Mountain; as a result, much of the basin floor is made of tholeiitic basalts giving its brown colour. The rift valley failed as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge continued to separate North America and Africa; the upper part of the bay splits into Chignecto Bay in the northeast and the Minas Basin in the east. Chignecto Bay is further subdivided into Cumberland Basin and Shepody Bay and the extreme eastern portion of Minas Basin is called Cobequid Bay; some of these upper reaches exhibit exposed red bay muds. Cape Chignecto defines Chignecto Bay whereas Cape Split defines the Minas Channel, leading to the Minas Basin; the Minas Channel connects the Minas Basin with the main body of the bay. The channel is 5.6 kilometres across and 106.7 metres deep. The tides that flow through the channel are powerful, they are as powerful as 25 million horses. Facing Cape Split at the entrance to the Minas Channel are the basalt cliffs of Cape d'Or.
The lower part of the bay is home to four important sub-basins: Passamaquoddy Bay and Back Bay on the New Brunswick shore, Cobscook Bay on the Maine shore, the Annapolis Basin on the Nova Scotia shore. The bay is home to several islands, the largest of, Grand Manan at the boundary with the Gulf of Maine. Other important islands on the north side of the bay include Campobello Island, Moose Island, Deer Island in the Passamaquoddy Bay area. Brier Island and Long Island can be found on the south side of the bay while Isle Haute is in the upper bay off Cape Chignecto. Smaller islands and islets exist in Passamaquoddy Bay, Back Bay, Annapolis Basin; the Five Islands, in the Minas Basin, are scenic. The Bay of Fundy is home to another interesting geologic feature, the Hopewell Rocks formation; this formation is where the "famous flower-pot rocks" are l
The Connecticut Panhandle is the southwestern appendage of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State. It is contained in Fairfield County and includes all of Greenwich, New Canaan, Darien, as well as parts of Norwalk and Wilton, it has some of the most expensive residential real estate in the United States. The irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating with New York giving up its claim to this area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut. In exchange, New York received an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield, Connecticut to the Massachusetts border, as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York; the two British colonies negotiated an agreement on November 28, 1683, establishing the New York–Connecticut border as 20 miles east of the Hudson River, north to Massachusetts. The 61,660 acres east of the Byram River making up the Connecticut Panhandle were granted to Connecticut, in recognition of the wishes of the residents.
In exchange, Rye was granted to New York, along with a 1.81-mile wide strip of land known as the "Oblong" running north from Ridgefield to Massachusetts, alongside the New York counties of Westchester and Dutchess. Philipse Patent Border disputes between New York and Connecticut: Settling of the boundary Connecticut's "Panhandle"
The Federalist Papers
The Federalist is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution. The first 77 of these essays were published serially in the Independent Journal, the New York Packet, The Daily Advertiser between October 1787 and April 1788. A two-volume compilation of these 77 essays and eight others was published as The Federalist: A Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution, as Agreed upon by the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787 by publishing firm J. & A. McLean in March and May 1788; the collection was known as The Federalist until the name The Federalist Papers emerged in the 20th century. The authors of The Federalist intended to influence the voters to ratify the Constitution. In "Federalist No. 1", they explicitly set that debate in broad political terms: It has been remarked, that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend, for their political constitutions, on accident and force.
"Federalist No. 10" is regarded as the most important of the 85 articles from a philosophical perspective. In it, Madison discusses the means of preventing rule by majority faction and advocates a large, commercial republic; this is complemented by "Federalist No. 14", in which Madison takes the measure of the United States, declares it appropriate for an extended republic, concludes with a memorable defense of the constitutional and political creativity of the Federal Convention. In "Federalist No. 84", Hamilton makes the case that there is no need to amend the Constitution by adding a Bill of Rights, insisting that the various provisions in the proposed Constitution protecting liberty amount to a "bill of rights". "Federalist No. 78" written by Hamilton, lays the groundwork for the doctrine of judicial review by federal courts of federal legislation or executive acts. "Federalist No. 70" presents Hamilton's case for a one-man chief executive. In "Federalist No. 39", Madison presents the clearest exposition of what has come to be called "Federalism".
In "Federalist No. 51", Madison distills arguments for checks and balances in an essay quoted for its justification of government as "the greatest of all reflections on human nature." According to historian Richard B. Morris, the essays that make up The Federalist Papers are an "incomparable exposition of the Constitution, a classic in political science unsurpassed in both breadth and depth by the product of any American writer." The Federal Convention sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which in turn submitted it to the states for ratification at the end of September 1787. On September 27, 1787, "Cato" first appeared in the New York press criticizing the proposition; these and other articles and public letters critical of the new Constitution would become known as the "Anti-Federalist Papers". In response, Alexander Hamilton decided to launch a measured defense and extensive explanation of the proposed Constitution to the people of the state of New York, he wrote in Federalist No. 1 that the series would "endeavor to give a satisfactory answer to all the objections which shall have made their appearance, that may seem to have any claim to your attention."Hamilton recruited collaborators for the project.
He enlisted John Jay, who after four strong essays, fell ill and contributed only one more essay, Federalist No. 64, to the series. Jay distilled his case into a pamphlet in the spring of 1788, An Address to the People of the State of New-York. James Madison, present in New York as a Virginia delegate to the Confederation Congress, was recruited by Hamilton and Jay and became Hamilton's primary collaborator. Gouverneur Morris and William Duer were considered. However, Morris turned down the invitation, Hamilton rejected three essays written by Duer. Duer wrote in support of the three Federalist authors under the name "Philo-Publius," or "Friend of Publius." Alexander Hamilton chose the pseudonymous name "Publius". While many other pieces representing both sides of the constitutional debate were written under Roman names, Albert Furtwangler contends that "'Publius' was a cut above'Caesar' or'Brutus' or even'Cato'. Publius Valerius helped, his more famous name, meant'friend of the people'." It was not the first time Hamilton had used this pseudonym: in 1778, he had applied it to three letters attacking fellow Federalist Samuel Chase.
Chase's patriotism was questioned when Hamilton revealed that Chase had taken advantage of knowledge gained in Congress to try to dominate the flour market. At the time of publication, the authors of The Federalist Papers attempted to hide their identities for fear of prosecution. Astute observers, however discerned the identities of Hamilton and Jay. Establishing authorial authenticity of the essays that comprise The Federalist Papers has not always been clear. After Alexander Hamilton died in 1804, a list emerged, claiming that he alone had written two-thirds of The Federalist essays; some believe. The scholarly detective work of Douglass Adair in 1944 postulated the following assignments of authorship, corroborated in 1964 by a computer analysis of the text: Alexander Hamilton (51 articles: No. 1, 6–9, 11–13, 15–