In cricket, the term wicket has several meanings. Firstly, it is one of two bails at either end of the pitch; the wicket is guarded by a batsman who, with his bat, attempts to prevent the ball from hitting the wicket. Secondly, through metonymic usage, the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket, thirdly, the cricket pitch itself is sometimes called the wicket; the origin of the word is from a small gate. Cricket wickets had only two stumps and one bail and looked like a gate; the third stump was introduced in 1775. The size and shape of the wicket has changed several times during the last 300 years and its dimensions and placing is now determined by Law 8 in the Laws of Cricket, thus: Law 8: The wickets; the wicket consists of three wooden stumps. The stumps are placed along the batting crease with equal distances between each stump, they are positioned. Two wooden bails are placed in shallow grooves on top of the stumps; the bails must not project more than 0.5 inches above the stumps, must, for men's cricket, be 4.31 inches long.
There are specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. There are different specifications for the bails for junior cricket; the umpires may dispense with the bails. Further details on the specifications of the wickets are contained in Appendix D to the laws. For a batsman to be dismissed by being bowled, run out, stumped or hit wicket, his wicket needs to be put down. What this means is defined by Law 29. A wicket is put down if a bail is removed from the top of the stumps, or a stump is struck out of the grounds by the ball, the striker's bat, the striker's person, a fielder. A 2010 amendment to the Laws clarified the rare circumstance where a bat breaks during the course of a shot and the detached debris breaks the wicket; the wicket is put down if a fielder pulls a stump out of the ground in the same manner. If one bail is off, removing the remaining bail or striking or pulling any of the three stumps out of the ground is sufficient to put the wicket down. A fielder may remake the wicket, if necessary, in order to put it down to have an opportunity of running out a batsman.
If however both bails are off, a fielder must remove one of the three stumps out of the ground with the ball, or pull it out of the ground with a hand or arm, provided that the ball is held in the hand or hands so used, or in the hand of the arm so used. If the umpires have agreed to dispense with bails, for example, it is too windy for the bails to remain on the stumps, the decision as to whether the wicket has been put down is one for the umpire concerned to decide. After a decision to play without bails, the wicket has been put down if the umpire concerned is satisfied that the wicket has been struck by the ball, by the striker's bat, person, or items of his clothing or equipment separated from his person as described above, or by a fielder with the hand holding the ball or with the arm of the hand holding the ball; the dismissal of a batsman is known as the taking of a wicket. The batsman is said to have lost his wicket, the batting side is said to have lost a wicket, the fielding side to have taken a wicket, the bowler is said to have taken his wicket, if the dismissal is one of the types for which the bowler receives credit.
This language is used if the dismissal did not involve the stumps and bails in any way, for example, a catch. Though note that the other four of the five most common methods of dismissal do involve the stumps and bails being put down, or prevented from being put down by the batsman; the word wicket has this meaning in the following contexts: A team's score is described in terms of the total number of runs scored and the total number of wickets lost. The number of wickets taken is a primary measure of a individual bowler's ability, a key part of a bowling analysis; the sequence of time over which two particular batsmen bat together, a partnership, is referred to as a numbered wicket when discriminating it from other partnerships in the innings. The first wicket partnership is from the start of the innings until the team loses its first wicket, i.e. one of the first two batsmen is dismissed. The second wicket partnership is from when the third batsman starts batting until the team loses its second wicket, i.e. a second batsman is dismissed.
Etc... The tenth wicket or last wicket partnership is from when the eleventh batsman starts batting until the team loses its tenth wicket, i.e. a tenth batsman is dismissed. A team can win a match by a certain number of wickets; this means that they were batting last, reached the winning target with a certain number of batsmen still not dismissed. For example, if the side scored the required number of runs to win with only three batsmen dismissed, they are said to have won by seven wickets; the word wicket is sometimes used to refer to the cricket pitch itself. According to the Laws of Cricket, this usage is incorrect, but it is in common usage and understood by cricket followers; the term sticky wicket refers to a situation in which the pitch has become damp due to rain or high humidity. This makes the path of the ball more unpredictable thus making the
In cricket, a player's bowling average is the number of runs they have conceded per wicket taken. The lower the bowling average is, the better the bowler is performing, it is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler. When a bowler has taken only a small number of wickets, their bowling average can be artificially high or low, unstable, with further wickets taken or runs conceded resulting in large changes to their bowling average. Due to this, qualification restrictions are applied when determining which players have the best bowling averages. After applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75 runs per wicket. A cricketer's bowling average is calculated by dividing the numbers of runs they have conceded by the number of wickets they have taken; the number of runs conceded by a bowler is determined as the total number of runs that the opposing side have scored while the bowler was bowling, excluding any byes, leg byes, or penalty runs.
The bowler receives credit for any wickets taken during their bowling that are either bowled, hit wicket, leg before wicket or stumped. B o w l i n g a v e r a g e = R u n s c o n c e d e d W i c k e t s t a k e n A number of flaws have been identified for the statistic, most notable among these the fact that a bowler who has taken no wickets can not have a bowling average, as dividing by zero does not give a result; the effect of this is that the bowling average can not distinguish between a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one run, a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one hundred runs. The bowling average does not tend to give a true reflection of the bowler's ability when the number of wickets they have taken is small in comparison to the number of runs they have conceded. In his paper proposing an alternative method of judging batsmen and bowlers, Paul van Staden gives an example of this: Suppose a bowler has bowled a total of 80 balls, conceded 60 runs and has taken only 2 wickets so that..
30. If the bowler takes a wicket with the next ball bowled 20. Due to this, when establishing records for bowling averages, qualification criteria are set. For Test cricket, the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack sets this as 75 wickets, while ESPNcricinfo requires 2,000 deliveries. Similar restrictions are set for one-day cricket. A number of factors other than purely the ability level of the bowler have an effect on a player's bowling average. Most significant among these are the different eras; the bowling average tables in Test and first-class cricket are headed by players who competed in the nineteenth century, a period when pitches were uncovered and some were so badly looked after that they had rocks on them. The bowlers competing in the Howa Bowl, a competition played in South African during the apartheid-era, restricted to non-white players, during which time, according to Vincent Barnes: "Most of the wickets we played on were underprepared. For me, as a bowler, it was great." Other factors which provided an advantage to bowlers in that era was the lack of significant safety equipment.
Other variations are caused by frequent matches against stronger or weaker opposition, changes in the laws of cricket and the length of matches. Due to the varying qualifying restrictions placed on the records by different statisticians, the record for the lowest career bowling average can be different from publication to publication. In Test cricket, George Lohmann is listed as having the superior average by each of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive. Though all three use different restrictions, Lohmann's average of 10.75 is considered the best. If no qualification criteria were applied at all, three players—Wilf Barber, A. N. Hornby and Bruce Murray—would tie for the best average, all having claimed just one wicket in Test matches, without conceding any runs, thus averaging zero. ESPNcricinfo list Betty Wilson as having the best Women's Test cricket average with 11.80, while CricketArchive accept Mary Spear's average of 5.78. In One Day Internationals, the varying criteria set by ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive result in different players being listed as holding the record.
ESPNcricinfo has the stricter restriction, requiring 1,000 deliveries: by this measure, Joel Garner is the record-holder, having claimed his wickets at an average of 18.84. By CricketArchive's more relaxed requirement of 400 deliveries, John Snow leads the way, with an average of 16.57. In women's One Day International cricket, Caroline Barrs tops the CricketArchive list with an average of 9.52, but by ESPNcricinfo's stricter guidelines, the record is instead held by Gill Smith's 12.53. The record is again split for the two websites for Twenty20 International cricket. George O'Brien's average of 8.20 holds the record using those criteri
Joseph Green (rugby union and cricket)
Joseph Green was a rugby union international who represented England in 1871 in the first international match. Joseph Green was born on 28 April 1846 in West Ham, he was the second son of Frederick Green of the Blackwall shipbuilding family and his wife Elizabeth of Stepney. Joseph Green was educated at Rugby and upon leaving school to join his father's firm returned to London In London, Green chose to play for West Kent Football Club alongside A. G. Guillemard, it was written that "for several years was one of the most brilliant of half-backs, being an excellent field, when once under way as speedy a runner as was seen with a ball under his arm, his stride being magnificent." He was selected to play for England in the first international match on 27 March 1871 at Edinburgh in the Scotland vs England contest. However, Green sustained a knee injury. Joseph played first-class cricket for the Marylebone Cricket Club, he had been in his school's First XI and went on to play two first-class matches in 1870.
Of his cricketing skills it was written in the Rugby magazine: "Came out as a bowler at the beginning of the year, but lost precision the latter part, but with great care he may recover it. Three of his wife's brothers played for Kent, one of whom was Frank Penn an England International, as well as two of his nephews being first-class players. Joseph married Ellen Penn, the daughter of the famous marine engineer, John Penn of Blackheath on 1 August 1877; this was in the same year that his captain in the first international rugby match, Frederick Stokes, married Ellen's sister Isabella. Thus, he and Frederick were brothers-in-law. Joseph and Ellen had Ellen May, Daisy Maud and Doris. Joseph died on 28 August 1923. Joseph's elder brother was Sir Frederick Green and both brothers were involved in F. Green & Co. the passenger and cargo-managing arm of the Green family enterprise. F. Green & Co. was subsumed in the Orient Steam Navigation Co
Dr. Lennard Stokes was a rugby union international who represented England from 1875 to 1881, he captained his country on five occasions, notably in the first match against Wales. Like his brother Frederick Stokes, after captaining his country he went on to become the president of the Rugby Football Union. Lennard Stokes was born on 12 February 1856 in Greenwich, the son of Henry Graham Stokes, Proctor to the Admiralty and solicitor, his wife Elizabeth Sewell, he was one of at least nine children. Unlike his brother Frederick, who attended Rugby School, he attended Sydney College in Bath, he studied medicine at Guy's Hospital, becoming M. R. C. S. in 1881 and L. R. C. P. in 1882. Lennard began to play for Blackheath Football Club when he was seventeen, following in the footsteps of his older brothers, notably the first England international captain and at the time captain of Blackheath, Frederick Stokes. Like his brother he became captain of Blackheath and under his captaincy the club grew in reputation.
Lennard was responsible for Blackheath acquiring the Rectory Field, on which a number of international matches were played. During the five seasons from 1876-81 that Lennard Stokes captained the Club, Blackheath won 68 games and lost only 6 out of a total 83 played, he made his international debut as a 19-year-old on 15 February 1875 at The Oval in the England vs Ireland match. Of his 12 caps he was on the winning side eight times, he captained his country on five occasions, including the first international against Wales on 19 February 1881 at Richardson's Field, when he played full back. Having changed at the Princess of Wales public house half a mile from the ground, England faced Wales for the first time and under Stokes' leadership won by 7 goals to nil, one dropped goal and six tries to nil. Stokes retired from international service at the end of the 1881 season, he played his final match for England on 19 March 1881 at Edinburgh in the Scotland vs England match. His service to rugby continued, he served as president of the Rugby Football Union for three years from 1886 to 1888 aged just 30 when he began his term.
In his international career he played in both the last game of the 20 a-side era in 1876 against Scotland, the first of the 15 a-side in 1877 against Ireland. Of his ability, Arthur Budd, president of the RFU from 1888 to 1889, said in 1892 that "I do not believe that there is a three-quarter back playing, who, if we could transplant him to the past, could cover the entire field as Lennard Stokes used to.", Arthur Guillemard, president of the RFU from 1878 to 1882, said in 1892, "it is not too much to say that at this post his equal, either in science or play, has never been seen from the date of the foundation of the Union.". Steve Lewis, author of numerous books on the history of rugby union, commented that "It was with much justification that he was hailed as the greatest player of his day." Stokes, again like his brother Frederick, played cricket for Blackheath Cricket Club and for Kent from 1877 to 1880. He made his first-class debut for Kent on 4 June 1877 in the seven-wicket victory against Hampshire.
He played two more matches during the 1877 season, but did not appear for Kent over the following two campaigns. He played for an R Page XI against Colchester Garrison in a one-day first-class match on 12 August 1879. Stokes made his final first-class appearance on 22 July 1880, scoring the winning runs in a 10-wicket win over Sussex. After qualification as a doctor he served as housesurgeon and resident obstetrical officer at Guy's, began general practice at Blackheath. For a number of years he was honorary surgeon to Lewisham. Approaching sixty years of age, in 1921 he went to practise in Hampshire, he died at Hurstbourne Tarrant, near Andover, Hampshire, on 3 May 1933 having suffered with indifferent health for a number of months. "Football - The Rugby Union Game" by Rev. F. Marshall, published in 1892
Samuel Moses James Woods was an Australian sportsman who represented both Australia and England at Test cricket, appeared thirteen times for England at rugby union, including five times as captain. He played at county level in England at both soccer and hockey. At cricket—his primary sport—he played over four hundred first-class matches in a twenty-four-year career; the majority of these matches were for his county side, whom he captained from 1894 to 1906. A. A. Thomson described him thus: "Sammy... radiated such elemental force in hard hitting, fast bowling and electrical fielding that he might have been the forerunner of Sir Learie Constantine."Having moved to England at the age of sixteen to complete his education, Woods became entrenched in English sport. Having played cricket and rugby growing up in Australia, at Brighton College he began playing soccer, while still at the college, represented Sussex at the sport. Woods was part of a strong cricket team at the college, he made his first-class cricket debut shortly after leaving Brighton College, in August 1886, playing for GN Wyatt's XI against the touring Australians.
In the same month he made his first appearance for Somerset, a second-class match against Warwickshire. At Cambridge University he achieved blues in rugby. Woods played the first three of his six Test cricket matches during his first year at Cambridge, called up to the Australian squad to face England in 1888 after Sammy Jones contracted smallpox. During this early part of his career, Woods was considered among the finest bowlers in England, was named as one of the'Six Great Bowlers of the Year' in 1889, he twice claimed in excess of a hundred first-class wickets in an English season, averaged under twenty in five consecutive seasons from 1888. In an 1890 match for Cambridge University, Woods claimed all ten of the opposition's wickets in the second-innings. However, by the time he was selected as part of the England Test squad to tour South Africa in 1895–96, his bowling was beginning to lose its potency. Additionally curtailed by injuries, Woods claimed five wickets on the tour, thirty less than the leading wicket-taker George Lohmann.
While his bowling worsened, his batting improved. An aggressive batsman, Woods had fast footwork and was capable of powerful strokes all around the ground, though he favoured the square cut, his twelve-year Somerset captaincy is the longest at the county. He was an attacking captain, once observing: "Draws? They're only for bathing in." He served the club as secretary from 1920 to 1922. Samuel Moses James, or Sammy as he came to be known, was born to John Woods and Margaret Ewing on 13 April 1867, his parents, both born and raised in Ireland, had emigrated to Australia in 1853 shortly after their wedding. At the time of their wedding, John Woods was described as a'labourer', but by the birth of Samuel Woods, he was listed as a'gentleman', having carried out various contracts in the development of Sydney, served as the city's mayor for a term in 1865. Sammy Woods was one of five boys all of whom were athletic, at the age of ten he played a match for an under-16s team captained by one of his elder brothers.
A boy short for the match, Sammy was enlisted. Woods was educated at Royston College and Sydney Grammar School, while at Royston once claimed seven wickets in seven balls. One school season, he claimed seventy wickets at an average of five runs. Woods missed school to watch cricket, recounts that on more than one occasion he "got a jolly good caning". On one such occasion when he was 14, during the English tour of Australia of 1881–82, after buying a couple of the England team drinks, he bowled at George Ulyett in the nets, he played a number of matches for the Manly cricket club, taking part in challenge matches which on occasion included famous cricketers of the day such as Fred Spofforth and Billy Murdoch. When he was aged 16, Woods' father decided to send him and his younger brother, Harris, to complete their education in England. Both boys were sent to Silwood House in Kent, a preparatory school. While at the school, Woods played for the town cricket club, by the end of the season he was seventh in the published batting averages, with a top-score of 42 not out.
He joined Brighton College in August 1884, after playing a couple of cricket matches, the weather turned and the football season began. For Woods, whose Australian upbringing had consisted of cricket in the summer and rugby in the winter, the realisation that'soccer' was played at the school was one made with some dismay. After only a few weeks though, he was playing in goal for both the school and the Sussex county football team, his newly discovered prowess at soccer did not detract from his cricketing skills. The two summers in which Woods played for Brighton College were strong ones for the school, of the 23 matches they played, only 2 were lost. Alongside the Woods brothers were a number of other players who would go on to appear in county cricket. Woods topped the bowling averages in both his years at the school.
Baughurst is a village and civil parish in Hampshire, England. It is located west of the town of Tadley, 6 miles north of Basingstoke. In the 2001 census it had a population of 2,473; the village is known for its feud with Tadley in the manufacture of besom brooms. A number of tumuli are in the parish, suggesting that a settlement may have been in the Baughurst area in the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman times. Portway, the Roman road between London and Dorchester via nearby Silchester, ran through the parish; the recorded history of Baughurst traces to Anglo Saxon Britain. In 885, the area was given to the Bishop of Winchester, became part of Hurstbourne Priors near Andover. Baughurst was not mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 1086. During the late 13th century, a number of tithings within Baughurst were held by the Coudray family on behalf of Edward I. In 1440, Baughurst became part of the Manor of Manydown near Basingstoke. In the mid-16th century, Baughurst's tithings were bought by the Palmes family.
Around the same time, the Dissolution of the Monasteries occurred and Aldermaston returned to Winchester Cathedral in 1541. It swapped to Manydown once more, before being sold in 1649 and returned to Winchester in 1660. After the Civil War, the area became one of the wealthiest Quaker centres in the south of England. After George Fox's visit to Basingstoke in 1657, a dissident – James Potter – was imprisoned for standing up in church and reading from a Quaker paper which conflicted with standard church beliefs. After his release, Potter established a Friends meeting house in the village. After the Act of Toleration 1689, Baughurst became less valuable to the Quakers – many joined the Anglicans; the majority, began following the Methodist movement of John and Charles Wesley, who visited Baughurst. The Wesleys' friend, George Whitefield, lived in Baughurst around 1736. In the late 18th century, Jane Austen visited Baughurst Priory, she wrote about her visit in a letter to her sister Cassandra. In 1847, Baughurst became part of the Duke of Wellington's Stratfield Saye estate.
The subsequent dukes were the main land owners of Baughurst until 1943. In 1942, land was cleared to build RAF Aldermaston. One of the RAF base's hangars, located at Baughurst Plantation, was used to assemble Spitfires. Between 1943 and 1945, the plant produced 500 photo-reconnaissance aircraft, including Mark IX and XIX, it produced some Mark IX and XIV fighter aircraft. Over the next 30 years, the parish's population grew from 490 to 2,250; this because of the RAF base and the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment. A number of explanations for the name "Baughurst" exist. "Hurst" was Old English for wooded hill. "Baughurst" may either refer by badgers. The latter is referred to in the name of one of the village's pubs, "The Badger's Wood". A number of alternative spellings of Baughurst have been recorded, including Bagganhyrst, Bagehurst and Baghurst. Baughurst is 2.8 square miles in area, is neighboured by a number of parishes in Berkshire and Hampshire: The tithings of Ham and Inhurst are within the parish.
Baughurst Brook, a tributary of the River Enborne, is a Site of Nature Conservation Interest. Baughurst is situated on a natural ridge between Brimpton Common; the ridge, situated towards the north of the parish, is 100 metres above sea level. Moving south through the parish, the land drops by 30 metres to Baughurst Brook, before rising to 143 metres at the northern edge of the North Hampshire Downs; the brook leaves the lower land in the parish liable to flooding. The soil and subsoil of the area are clay; the Brook travels East to become the Foudry Brook. Some tributaries of the River Enborne are found in the area around Baughurst. Along with Tadley, Baughurst is associated with the manufacture of besom brooms. Much of the land in the parish was heathland used to grow birch trees, which were taken to Tadley to manufacture the brooms. Built in 1937, Lattice House was the depot for Kent's Buses and was built with a single span wooden Belfast truss roof, it was used for the storage of Spitfire aircraft parts during 1943–1945, which were assembled at the neighbouring RAF Aldermaston.
At one time the building's arched roof was the largest single-span wooden roof in Western Europe. The Hurst Community College is in the village, provides secondary education for students between the ages of 11 and 16, it is the main secondary school in the Tadley area. Aside from one independent school, the parish's primary education is in nearby Tadley; the parish church is dedicated to Saint Stephen, is in the Diocese of Winchester. The church consists of a chancel, nave and a tower; the tower, 100 feet tall, forms part of the porch. It incorporates earlier materials; the bell tower houses five bells, all of which were cast by Thomas Swaine in 1775. The current church was built by Benjamin Ferrey in 1845 on the site of an earlier chapel, which had collapsed the same year. Baughurst had a Primitive Methodist Church between 1872 and 1987; the Quakers established a meeting house at Brown's Farm in the mid 17th century, which operated until 1791. Baughurst AFC, the village's association football club, used to play in Tadley.
AFC Aldermaston train and play at the Atomic Weapons Establishment on the Baughurs
Rugby School is a day and boarding co-educational independent school in Rugby, England. Founded in 1567 as a free grammar school for local boys, it is one of the oldest independent schools in Britain. Up to 1667, the school remained in comparative obscurity, its re-establishment by Thomas Arnold during his time as Headmaster, from 1828 to 1841, was seen as the forerunner of the Victorian public school. It is one of the original seven Great Nine Public Schools defined by the Clarendon Commission of 1864. Rugby School was the birthplace of Rugby football. In 1845, three Rugby School pupils produced the first written rules of the "Rugby style of game"; as the nature of the school shifted, a new school – Lawrence Sheriff Grammar School – was founded in 1878 to continue Lawrence Sheriff's original intentions. Rugby expanded further in the 20th century and new buildings were built inspired by the Edwardian Era; the Temple Speech Room, named after former headmaster and Archbishop of Canterbury Frederick Temple is now used for whole-School assemblies, speech days, musicals – and BBC Mastermind.
Between the wars, the Memorial Chapel, the Music Schools and a new Sanatorium appeared. In 1975 three girls were admitted into the sixth form, the first girls’ house opened 3 years followed by three more. In 1992, the first 13-year-old girls arrived, in 1995 Rugby had its first-ever Head Girl, Louise Woolcock, who appeared on the front page of The Times. In September 2003 a last girls’ house was added. Today, total enrolment of day pupils, from forms 4 to 12, numbers around 800. Rugby School was founded in 1567 as a provision in the will of Lawrence Sheriff, who had made his fortune supplying groceries to Queen Elizabeth I of England. Since Lawrence Sheriff lived in Rugby and the neighbouring Brownsover, the school was intended to be a free grammar school for the boys of those towns. Up to 1667, the school remained in comparative obscurity, its history during that trying period is characterised by a series of lawsuits between the Howkins family, who tried to defeat the intentions of the testator, the masters and trustees, who tried to carry them out.
A final decision was handed down in 1667, confirming the findings of a commission in favour of the trust, henceforth the school maintained a steady growth. "Floreat Rugbeia" is the traditional school song. Pupils beginning Rugby in the F Block study various subjects. In a pupil's second year, they do nine subjects which are for their GCSEs, this is the same for the D Block; the school provides standard A-levels in 29 subjects. Students at this stage have the choice of taking three or four subjects and are offered the opportunity to take an extended project; the Governing Body provides financial benefits with school fees to families unable to afford them. Parents of pupils who are given a Scholarship are capable of obtaining a 10% fee deduction, although more than one scholarship can be awarded to one student. Rugby School claims its goal is to give pupils more than education with a new tagline being'Whole Person, Whole Point'; the school has many traditions including two annual carol services, as well as the pushcart race, an event in which the entire school competes, with each house designing and racing their own cart.
This race has been won by School house every year since 2012. The school has three magazines: Quod, it was no longer desirable to have only local boys attending and the nature of the school shifted, so a new school – Lawrence Sheriff Grammar School – was founded in 1878 to continue Lawrence Sheriff's original intentions. The core of the school was completed in 1815 and is built around the Old Quad, with its Georgian architecture. Notable rooms are the Upper Bench, the Old Hall of School House, the Old Big School. Thomas Hughes once carved his name on the hands of the school clock, situated on a tower above the Old Quad; the polychromatic school chapel, new quadrangle, Temple Reading Room, Macready Theatre and Gymnasium were designed by well-known Victorian Gothic revival architect William Butterfield in 1875, the smaller Memorial Chapel was dedicated in 1922. By the twentieth century Rugby expanded and new buildings were built inspired by this Edwardian Era; the Temple Speech Room, named after former headmaster and Archbishop of Canterbury Frederick Temple and now used for whole-School assemblies, speech days, musicals – and BBC Mastermind.
Oak-panelled walls boast the portraits of illustrious alumni, including Neville Chamberlain holding his piece of paper. Between the wars, the Memorial Chapel, the Music Schools and a new Sanatorium appeared. In 2005, Rugby School was one of fifty of the country's leading independent schools found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel allowing them to drive up fees for thousands of parents; each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who atte