Auguste von Harrach
Auguste von Harrach, was the second spouse of King Frederick William III of Prussia. Since the marriage was morganatic, she was not named Queen, Frederick reportedly stated, that he did not wish to have another queen after his first one. Auguste was the issue of Count Ferdinand Joseph von Harrach of Rohrau and she met Frederick on a spa in Teplitz in Bohemia in 1822. Auguste and Frederick married at Charlottenburg Palace 9 November 1824, as Auguste was a Catholic and a non-royal, the marriage was initially kept a secret. In many quarters the marriage was greeted with surprise and some initially refused to believe it. The Princess of Liegnitz converted to Protestantism in 1826, Auguste was put more or less outside the protocol in the court life of Berlin, she ranked after all the princes and princesses of the royal family. She was not politically active and had no children and she nursed Frederick when he died in 1840, but was not allowed to attend the funeral. Auguste was given an allowance and allowed to continue to live in the royal palace as a widow.
She made many travels during her years, to Italy. She was the god-mother to her nephew, the painter Ferdinand von Harrach, wichard Graf Harrach, Auguste Fürstin von Liegnitz. Seite König Friedrich Wilhelms III. von Preussen Stapp, Berlin 1987, gisela und Paul Habermann, Fürstin von Liegnitz. Ein Leben im Schatten der Königin Luise Nicolaische, Berlin 1988 ISBN3875842294
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg. It directly borders the German capital Berlin and is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region and it is situated on the River Havel,24 kilometres southwest of Berlins city centre. Potsdam was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser, around the city there are a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks, in particular the parks and palaces of Sanssouci, the largest World Heritage Site in Germany. The Potsdam Conference in 1945 was held at the palace Cecilienhof, the Filmstudio Babelsberg is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world. Potsdam developed into a centre of science in Germany in the 19th century, there are three public colleges, the University of Potsdam, and more than 30 research institutes in the city. The area was formed from a series of large moraines left after the last glacial period, the city is three-quarters green space, with just a quarter as urban area.
There are about 20 lakes and rivers in and around Potsdam, such as the Havel, the Griebnitzsee, Templiner See, Tiefer See, Teltowkanal, Heiliger See, the highest point is the 114-metre high Kleiner Ravensberg. Potsdam is divided into seven city districts and nine new Ortsteile. The appearances of the city districts are quite different, the districts in the north and in the centre consist mainly of historical buildings, the south of the city is dominated by larger areas of newer buildings. Potsdam has an Oceanic climate, with cool, snowy winters, the average winter high temperature is 3.5 °C, with a low of −1.7 °C. Snow is common in the winter, summers are mild, with a high of 23.6 °C and a low of 12.7 °C. The name Potsdam originally seems to have been Poztupimi, a common theory is that it derives from an old West Slavonic term meaning beneath the oaks, i. e. the corrupted pod dubmi/dubimi. The area around Potsdam shows occupancy since the Bronze Age and was part of Magna Germania as described by Tacitus.
After the great migrations of the Germanic peoples, Slavs moved in and it was first mentioned in a document in 993 AD as Poztupimi, when Emperor Otto III gifted the territory to the Quedlinburg Abbey, led by his aunt Matilda. By 1317, it was mentioned as a small town and it gained its town charter in 1345. In 1573, it was still a market town of 2,000 inhabitants. Potsdam lost nearly half of its due to the Thirty Years War. After the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Potsdam became a centre of European immigration and its religious freedom attracted people from France, the Netherlands and Bohemia
German Campaign of 1813
The German Campaign was fought in 1813. This was the factor in the outbreak of the German Campaign the following year. The Spring Campaign between members of the Sixth Coalition and the First French Empire ended inconclusively with a summer truce. Via the Trachenberg Plan, developed during a period of ceasefire in the summer of 1813, in the following Autumn Campaign, Austria eventually sided with the coalition, thwarting Napoleons hopes of reaching a separate agreement with the major powers Austria and Russia. The Coalition allies now had a numerical superiority, which they eventually brought to bear on Napoleons main forces. The high point of allied strategy was the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813 and this completely broke Napoleons power to the east of the river Rhine. Napoleon was forced to abdicate and Louis XVIII regained the French Throne, the war came to a formal end with the Treaty of Paris in November 1814. They advocated limitations to the princes of Germany and a joint effort by all Germans to eject the French.
From 1810 Arndt and Jahn asked high-ranking figures in Prussian society again and again to prepare such an uprising, Jahn himself organised the German League and made a major contribution to the founding of the Lützow Free Corps. These forerunners took part in the outbreak of hostilities in Germany, even before the German Campaign, there had been uprisings against the French troops occupying Germany – these had broken out from 1806 onwards in Hesse and in 1809 in the Tyrolean Rebellion. These uprisings intensified in the year under Wilhelm von Dörnberg, the initiator and commander-in-chief of the Hessian uprising. This was the factor in the outbreak of the German Campaign the following year. On 17 March 1813 – the day Alexander I of Russia arrived in the Hoflager of Frederick William III of Prussia – Prussia declared war on France. On 20 March 1813 the Schlesische privilegierte Zeitung newspaper published Fredericks speech entitled An Mein Volk, delivered on 17 March and calling for a war of liberation.
Already busy with maintaining naval supremacy and fighting the Peninsular War, Great Britain did not take any part in the German campaign. The Convention of Tauroggen became the starting-point of Prussias regeneration, meanwhile Napoleon in Paris had been organizing a fresh army for the reconquest of Prussia. Levies were made with rigorous severity in the states of the Rhine Confederation, on 25 April Napoleon reached Erfurt and assumed the chief command. On this day his troops stood in the following positions, meanwhile the Russians and Prussians had concentrated all available men and were moving on an almost parallel line, but somewhat to the south of the direction taken by the French
In spiritual terminology, piety is a virtue that may include religious devotion, spirituality, or a mixture of both. A common element in most conceptions of piety is humility and religiosity, the word piety comes from the Latin word pietas, the noun form of the adjective pius. Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue, a man with pietas respected his responsibilities to gods, parents, in its strictest sense it was the sort of love a son ought to have for his father. Piety in modern English usage can refer to a way to win the favour or forgiveness of God, according to some, this type of piety does not necessarily require spiritual piety, while others refrain from distinguishing the two. It is used by others to refer only to signs that result from the spiritual aspect of piety. That is, according to some, if one is truly pious, piety in a historical context implied high morality, as religious diversity was unlike what is seen in modern populations. Piety now often refers to devotion to ones own religion.
In Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy and Anglicanism, piety is one of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, piety can be demonstrated by position or state of mind, such as prayer. The best known gestures demonstrating piety are kneeling in Christianity, bowing down to pray in Islam, and prostration
Prussian Union of Churches
Although not the first of its kind, the Prussian Union was the first to occur in a major German state. It became the biggest independent religious organisation in the German Empire and Weimar Germany, the church underwent two schisms, due to changes in governments and their policies. After being the state church of Prussia in the 19th century, it suffered interference and oppression at several times in the 20th century. In the course of the Second World War, Church property was damaged or destroyed by strategic bombing. After the war, complete ecclesiastical provinces vanished following the flight, the two post-war periods saw major reforms from within the Church, strengthening the parishioners democratic participation. In the early 1950s the Church body was transformed into an umbrella, following the decline in number of parishioners due to the German demographic crisis and growing irreligion, the Church was subsumed into the Union of Evangelical Churches in 2003. The many changes in the Church throughout its history are reflected in its name changes.
20 November 1934 –1945, The Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union, two church bodies–one Nazi-recognised and one gradually driven underground–each claimed to represent the true church. 1945–1953, The Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union partially cleansed its leading bodies from German Christians and appointed Nazi opponents, 1953–2003 Evangelical Church of the Union, an independent ecclesiastical umbrella among other recognised Protestant umbrellas and church bodies. 2004 The Evangelical Church of the Union merged in the Union of Evangelical Churches and their descendants made up the bulk of the Calvinists in Brandenburg. At issue over many decades was how to unite into one church, the king, a Reformed Christian, lived in a denominationally mixed marriage with the Lutheran Queen Louise, which is why they never partook of the Lords Supper together. A commission was formed in order to prepare this common agenda, Major reforms to the administration of Prussia were undertaken after the defeat by Napoléons army at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt.
In 1808 the Reformed Friedrich Schleiermacher, pastor of Trinity Church, issued his ideas for a reform of the Protestant Churches. This differed from the old structure in that the new leadership administered the affairs of all faiths, Jews, Mennonites and the Calvinists. In 1814 the Principality of Neuchâtel had been restituted to the Berlin-based Hohenzollern, in 1815 Frederick William III agreed that this French-speaking territory of his joined the Swiss Confederation as Canton of Neuchâtel. Furthermore, no Lutheran congregation existed in Neuchâtel, thus the Reformed Church of Neuchâtel Canton was not an object of Frederick Williams Union policy. In January 1817 the cult and public instruction section was hived off as the Prussian Ministry of the Spiritual and Medical Affairs, Karl vom Stein zum Altenstein was appointed as minister. The Reformed churches and the Lutheran church were administered by one department within the same ministry
Frederick William II of Prussia
Frederick William II was King of Prussia, from 1786 until his death. He was in personal union the Prince-elector of Brandenburg and sovereign prince of the Canton of Neuchâtel, pleasure-loving and indolent, he is seen as the antithesis to his predecessor, Frederick II. Under his reign, Prussia was weakened internally and externally, and his religious policies were directed against the Enlightenment and aimed at restoring a traditional Protestantism. However, he was a patron of the arts and responsible for the construction of notable buildings. Frederick William was born in Berlin, the son of Prince Augustus William of Prussia and his mothers elder sister, was the wife of Augustus Williams brother King Frederick II. Frederick William became heir-presumptive to the throne of Prussia on his fathers death in 1758, the boy was of an easy-going and pleasure-loving disposition, averse to sustained effort of any kind, and sensual by nature. His marriage with Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg, daughter of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and he married Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt, daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt on 14 July 1769 in Charlottenburg.
He was a talented cellist, for his part, Frederick William, who had never been properly introduced to diplomacy and the business of rulership, resented his uncle for not taking him seriously. The misgivings of Frederick II appear justified in retrospect, Frederick William terminated his predecessors state monopolies for coffee and tobacco and the sugar monopoly. However, under his reign the codification known as Allgemeines Preußisches Landrecht, initiated by Frederick II, on 26 August 1786 Wöllner was appointed privy councillor for finance, and on 2 October 1786 was ennobled. Though not in name, he in fact prime minister, in all internal affairs it was he who decided. Bischoffswerder, still a major, was called into the king′s counsels. From this position Wöllner pursued long lasting reforms concerning religion in the Prussian state, the king proved eager to aid Wöllners crusade. On 18 December 1788 a new law was issued, to secure the orthodoxy of all published books. This forced major Berlin journals like Christoph Friedrich Nicolais Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek, people like Immanuel Kant were forbidden to speak in public on the topic of religion.
Finally, in 1791, a Protestant commission was established at Berlin to watch over all ecclesiastical, although Wöllners religious edict had many critics, it was an important measure which, in fact, proved an important stabilizing factor for the Prussian state. The edict was a step forward regarding the rights of Jews and Herrnhut brethren. But far more fateful for Prussia was the attitude towards the army
Frederick William IV of Prussia
Frederick William IV, the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. In politics, he was a conservative, and in 1849 rejected the title of Emperor of the Germans offered by the Frankfurt Parliament as not the Parliaments to give, in 1857, he suffered a stroke and was left incapacitated until his death. Born to Frederick William III by his wife Queen Louise, he was the favourite son. Frederick William was educated by tutors, many of whom were experienced civil servants. He gained experience by serving in the Prussian Army during the War of Liberation against Napoleon in 1814. In 1823 he married Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria, since she was a Roman Catholic, the preparations for this marriage included difficult negotiations which ended with her conversion to Lutheranism. There were two wedding ceremonies—one in Munich, and another in Berlin, the couple had a very harmonious marriage, but childless. Frederick William opposed the idea of a unified German state, believing that Austria was divinely ordained to rule over Germany, Frederick William became King of Prussia on the death of his father in 1840.
Through a personal union, he became the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. In 1842, he gave his fathers menagerie at Pfaueninsel to the new Berlin Zoo, despite being a devout Lutheran, his Romantic leanings led him to settle the Cologne church conflict by releasing the imprisoned Clemens August von Droste-Vischering, the Archbishop of Cologne. He patronized further construction of Cologne Cathedral, Cologne having become part of Prussia in 1815, in 1844, he attended the celebrations marking the completion of the cathedral, becoming the first king of Prussia to enter a Roman Catholic building. He committed himself to German unification, formed a government, convened a national assembly. Once his position was more secure again, however, he quickly had the army reoccupy Berlin and in December dissolved the assembly, Frederick William would only accept the imperial crown after being elected by the German princes, as per the former empires ancient customs. In the kings eyes, only a reconstituted College of Electors could possess such authority, with the failed attempt by the Frankfurt Parliament to include the Habsburgs into a newly unified German Empire, the Parliament turned to Prussia.
Seeing Austrian ambivalence towards Prussia taking a powerful role in German affairs. All German states, excluding those of the Habsburgs, would be unified under Hohenzollern authority, the German Confederation remained the common government of German Europe. The lower house was elected by all taxpayers, but in a system based on the amount of taxes paid. This constitution remained in effect until the dissolution of the Prussian kingdom in 1918, Frederick William IV is buried with his wife in the crypt underneath the Church of Peace in the park of Sanssouci, at Potsdam
War of the Fourth Coalition
The Fourth Coalition against Napoleons French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807. Coalition partners included Prussia, Saxony, several members of the coalition had previously been fighting France as part of the Third Coalition, and there was no intervening period of general peace. On 9 October 1806, Prussia joined a coalition, fearing the rise in French power after the defeat of Austria. Prussia and Russia mobilized for a campaign, and Prussian troops massed in Saxony. Napoleon decisively defeated the Prussians in a campaign that culminated at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt on 14 October 1806. French forces under Napoleon occupied Prussia, pursued the remnants of the shattered Prussian Army and they advanced all the way to East Prussia and the Russian frontier, where they fought an inconclusive battle against the Russians at the Battle of Eylau on 7–8 February 1807. Napoleons advance on the Russian frontier was briefly checked during the spring as he revitalized his army, Russian forces were finally crushed by the French at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807, and three days Russia asked for a truce.
By the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, France made peace with Russia, these acquisitions were incorporated into his brother Jérôme Bonapartes new Kingdom of Westphalia, and established the Duchy of Warsaw. The end of the war saw Napoleon master of almost all of western and central continental Europe, except for Spain, Austria, despite the end of the Fourth Coalition, Britain remained at war with France. Hostilities on land resumed in 1807 when a Franco-Spanish force invaded Britains ally Portugal, a further Fifth Coalition would be assembled when Austria re-joined the conflict in 1809. The Fourth Coalition of Prussia, Saxony, despite the death of William Pitt in January 1806, Britain and the new Whig administration remained committed to checking the growing power of France. Peace overtures between the two early in the new year proved ineffectual due to the still unresolved issues that had led to the breakdown of the Peace of Amiens. One point of contention was the fate of Hanover, a German electorate in personal union with the British monarchy that had been occupied by France since 1803, dispute over this state would eventually become a casus belli for both Britain and Prussia against France.
This issue dragged Sweden into the war, whose forces had deployed there as part of the effort to liberate Hanover during the war of the previous coalition. The path to war seemed inevitable after French forces ejected the Swedish troops in April 1806, there was an escalation in the ongoing economic warfare between the two powers. With Britain still retaining its dominance of the seas, Napoleon looked to break this dominance with his issuance of the Berlin Decree, Britain retaliated with its Orders in Council several months later. In the meantime, Russia spent most of 1806 still licking its wounds from the years campaign. Napoleon had hoped to establish peace with Russia and a peace treaty was signed in July 1806, but this was vetoed by Tsar Alexander I
Paretz is a village in the German state of Brandenburg in the district of Havelland, west of Berlin. Recently, a reform made Paretz into a borough of the city of Ketzin. It has a population of approximately 400, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries the village was the summer residence King Frederick William III of Prussia and of his wife Queen Louise. The manorial estate of Paretz was originally property of the von Bredow family from whom, in 1677 and it was from here that his daughter Wilhelmina eloped with Ernst Christian von Weiler, a married man, in 1689. The estate was inherited by Count Hans von Blumenthal, former commander of the Gardes du Corps, the Crown Prince had a sad childhood, but he was always happy staying with his tutor at Paretz. For this reason, in 1795 he bought the estate of Paretz from his tutors son, his former playmate Count Heinrich von Blumenthal, the Berlin architect David Gilly was put in charge of the construction of the building and it was planned to become a country palace.
Just remember always that you are building for a poor farmer, flanking the palace were placed two barn buildings each, on the left and right, thus forming a semi circular yard. In 1804 the royal couple had the village rebuilt to conform to David Gillys designs. After the death of Queen Louise in 1810 the palace was left unchanged until 1840 when Frederick William IV had the wallpaper, the appeal of the Schloss-Still-im-Land was lost however and the palace remained untouched and empty until early in the 20th century. The palace continued to be owned by the Hohenzollern until 1945, in 1888 Prince Heinrich took over the palace and his wife Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine continued after his death in 1929. In April 1945 the Red Army took possession of the grounds, a year later, refugees moved into the buildings and in 1948 ownership of the palace was transferred to the Zentrale Verwaltung der gegenseitigen Bauernhilfe. Modifications to the complex through 1950 completely changed the look of the palace, special attractions of the palace are the tapestries that are adorned with exotic plant motives, bird renditions and depictions of landscapes in the Potsdam area.
The tapestries survived World War II as they had been removed, the Gothic House is a former royal forge. It is notable as the only neo-Gothic structure among the rather simple buildings. Currently, a restaurant is being operated in the building, during the 19th century the production of bricks was an important industry for the area as they could be sold to the ever growing city of Berlin. Therefore, many villages had several tile producing companies, to make the bricks, clay was needed and mined from the clay ground common to the area. When the business slowed down after World War I, the clay filled with ground water and turned into small lakes. After World War II, some holes were backfilled with rubble from bombed Berlin, the German poet and author Theodor Fontane liked the village a lot and came to visit Paretz three times, in the spring of 1861,1869 and in May 1870
The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which had raged on for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. Napoleon became the First Consul of France in 1799, Emperor five years later, inheriting the political and military struggles of the Revolution, he created a state with stable finances, a strong central bureaucracy, and a well-trained army. The British frequently financed the European coalitions intended to thwart French ambitions, by 1805, they had managed to convince the Austrians and the Russians to wage another war against France. At sea, the Royal Navy destroyed a combined Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in October 1805, Prussian worries about increasing French power led to the formation of the Fourth Coalition in 1806. France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July, although Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, it did not bring a lasting peace for Europe.
Hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia, the Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, the Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Unwilling to bear the consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse and retreat of the Grand Army along with the destruction of Russian lands. In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France, a lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814 and he was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power.
However, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again, the Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June. The Congress of Vienna, which started in 1814 and concluded in 1815, established the new borders of Europe and laid out the terms, Napoleon seized power in 1799, creating a de facto military dictatorship. The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleons assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, for its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers. The British quickly enforced a blockade of France to starve it of resources. Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, and sought to eliminate Britains Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him, the so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France
Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Duchess Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was Queen consort of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III. The couples happy, though short-lived, marriage produced nine children, including the future monarchs Frederick William IV of Prussia and she was already well loved by her subjects, but her meeting with Napoleon led Louise to become revered as the soul of national virtue. Her early death at the age of thirty-four preserved her youth in the memory of posterity, the Order of Louise was founded by her grieving husband four years as a female counterpart to the Iron Cross. In the 1920s conservative German women founded the Queen Louise League, Duchess Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was born on 10 March 1776 in a one storey villa, just outside the capital in Hanover. She was the daughter and sixth child of Duke Charles of Mecklenburg and his wife Landgravine Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt. At the time of her birth, Louises father was not yet the ruler of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and consequently she was not born in a court, the family subsequently moved to Leineschloss, the residence of Hanoverian kings, though during the summer they usually lived at Herrenhausen.
Louise was particularly close to her sister Frederica, who was two years younger, as well as with their only brother George and her siblings were under the care of their governess Fraulein von Wolzogen, a friend of their mothers. After Duchess Charles death, the family left Leineschloss for Herrenhausen, Duke Charles remarried two years to his first wifes younger sister Charlotte, producing a son, Charles. Louise and her new stepmother became close until Charlottes early death the year after their marriage, the twice widowed and grieving duke went to Darmstadt, where he gave the children into the care of his mother-in-law and Louises godmother, the widowed Landgravine Marie Louise. Their grandmother preferred to raise them simply, and they made their own clothes and she received religious instruction from a clergyman of the Lutheran Church. Complementary to her lessons was an emphasis on charitable acts, and Louise would often accompany her governess when visiting the houses of the poor and needy.
Louise was encouraged to give out as much as was in her means, from the age of ten until her marriage at 17, Louise spent most of her time in the presence of her grandmother and governess, both well-educated and refined. Louise loved history and poetry, and not only enjoyed reading Schiller, in 1793, Marie Louise took the two youngest duchesses with her to Frankfurt, where she paid her respects to her nephew King Frederick William II. Louise had grown up into a young woman, possessing an exquisite complexion and large blue eyes. Louises uncle, the Duke of Mecklenburg, hoped to strengthen ties between his house and Prussia, consequently, on one evening carefully planned by the Duke, seventeen-year-old Louise met the kings son and heir, Crown Prince Frederick William. The crown prince was twenty-three, serious-minded, and religious and she made such a charming impression on Frederick William that he immediately made his choice, desiring to marry her. Frederica caught the eye of his younger brother Prince Louis Charles and Louise were subsequently married on 24 December that same year, with Louis and Frederica marrying two days later.
In the events leading up to her marriage, Louises arrival in Berlin, the Prussian capital, caused quite a sensation, all hearts go out to meet her, and her grace and goodness leaves no one unblessed