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Frederick William I of Prussia

Frederick William I, known as the "Soldier King", was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740, as well as Prince of Neuchâtel. He was succeeded by Frederick the Great, he was born in Berlin to Sophia Charlotte of Hanover. During his first years, he was raised by the Huguenot governess Marthe de Roucoulle, his father had acquired the title King for the margraves of Brandenburg. On ascending the throne in 1713 the new King sold most of his father's horses and furniture. Throughout his reign, Frederick William was characterized by his frugal and militaristic lifestyle, as well as his devout Calvinist faith, he practiced rigid management of the treasury, never started a war, led a simple and austere lifestyle, in contrast to the lavish court his father had presided over. At his death, Prussia had a sound exchequer and a full treasury, in contrast to the other German states. Frederick William I did much to improve Prussia economically and militarily, he replaced mandatory military service among the middle class with an annual tax, he established schools and hospitals.

The king encouraged reclaimed marshes, stored grain in good times and sold it in bad times. He dictated the manual of Regulations for State Officials, containing 35 chapters and 297 paragraphs in which every public servant in Prussia could find his duties set out: a minister or councillor failing to attend a committee meeting, for example, would lose six months' pay. In short, Frederick William I concerned himself with every aspect of his small country, ruling an absolute monarchy with great energy and skill. In 1732, the king invited the Salzburg Protestants to settle in East Prussia, depopulated by plague in 1709. Under the terms of the Peace of Augsburg, the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg could require his subjects to practice the Catholic faith, but Protestants had the right to emigrate to a Protestant state. Prussian commissioners accompanied 20,000 Protestants to their new homes on the other side of Germany. Frederick William I welcomed the first group of migrants and sang Protestant hymns with them.

Frederick William intervened in the Great Northern War, allied with Peter the Great of Russia, in order to gain a small portion of Swedish Pomerania. More aided by his close friend Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau, the "Soldier-King" made considerable reforms to the Prussian army's training and conscription program—introducing the canton system, increasing the Prussian infantry's rate of fire through the introduction of the iron ramrod. Frederick William's reforms left his son Frederick with the most formidable army in Europe, which Frederick used to increase Prussia's power; the observation that "the pen is mightier than the sword" has sometimes been attributed to him. Although a effective ruler, Frederick William had a perpetually short temper which sometimes drove him to physically attack servants with a cane at the slightest provocation, his violent, harsh nature was further exacerbated by his inherited porphyritic disease, which gave him gout and frequent crippling stomach pains. He had a notable contempt for France, would sometimes fly into a rage at the mere mention of that country, although this did not stop him from encouraging the immigration of French Huguenot refugees to Prussia.

Frederick William was interred at the Garrison Church in Potsdam. During World War II, in order to protect it from advancing allied forces, Hitler ordered the king's coffin, as well as those of Frederick the Great and Paul von Hindenburg, into hiding, first to Berlin and to a salt mine outside of Bernterode; the coffins were discovered by occupying American Forces, who re-interred the bodies in St. Elisabeth's Church in Marburg in 1946. In 1953 the coffin was moved to Burg Hohenzollern, where it remained until 1991, when it was laid to rest on the steps of the altar in the Kaiser Friedrich Mausoleum in the Church of Peace on the palace grounds of Sanssouci; the original black marble sarcophagus collapsed at Burg Hohenzollern—the current one is a copper copy. His eldest surviving son was Frederick II, born in 1712. Frederick William wanted him to become a fine soldier; as a small child, Fritz was awakened each morning by the firing of a cannon. At the age of 6, he was given his own regiment of children to drill as cadets, a year he was given a miniature arsenal.

The love and affection Frederick William had for his heir was soon destroyed due to their different personalities. Frederick William ordered Fritz to undergo a minimal education, live a simple Protestant lifestyle, focus on the Army and statesmanship as he had. However, the intellectual Fritz was more interested in music and French culture, which were forbidden by his father as decadent and unmanly; as Fritz's defiance for his father's rules increased, Frederick William would beat or humiliate Fritz. Fritz was beaten for wearing gloves in cold weather. After the prince attempted to flee to En

Ivan Alekseevich Dwigubski

Ivan Alekseevich Dwigubski was a Russian naturalist, professor end rector of the Imperial University of Moscow. Student of the medical faculty of the Imperial Moscow University. Elected professor of the Imperial University of Moscow. Dvigubsky lectured in Russian and called on Russian scientists to write scientific works in Russian: «Until the Russian language is respected by the Russians themselves, it is difficult to produce anything good until then; when they write for Russians, they teach their sciences not in Russian, where can one get a knowledge of the native language and attachment to it? In a whole Europe, maybe one Russia is not proud of its language...»The standard author abbreviation Dwig. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name

The Ill-Conceived P. D. Q. Bach Anthology

The Ill-Conceived P. D. Q. Bach Anthology is a collection of works by Peter Schickele writing as P. D. Q. Bach recorded on the Telarc label by the composer. Professor Peter Schickele, bass, devious instruments The Greater Hoople Area Off-Season Philharmonic, Newton Weyland, conductor The Okay Chorale Members of The New York Pick-Up Ensemble Grandmaster Flab and the Hoople Funkharmonic Turtle Mountain Naval Base Tactical Wind Ensemble, Lowell Graham, conductor Donna Brown as Blondie Elliott Forrest as Jocko Pamela South, soprano Dana Krueger, mezzo-soprano, chef Frank Kelley Brice Audrus, horn Peter Lurye, Station ID Christopher O'Riley, piano 1; this is Professor Pete 2. 1712 Overture, S. 1712 3. Introduction Oedipus Tex, dramatic oratorio for soloists and orchestra, S. 150 4. II. Aria with chorus: "Howdy There" 5. Recitative: "It Wasn't Long" 6. III. My Heart 7. Recitative: "When Oedipus Heard" 8. VI. Chorale and Finale 9. Introduction 10. "Love Me" 11. WTWP Station ID 12. Oo-La-La Introduction 13. Oo-La-La: Cookin' French Like the French Cook French 14.

IntroductionThe Musical Sacrifice, S. 50% off 15. I. Fuga Meshuga 16. Introduction 17. "Classical Rap", S. 1-2-3 18. IntroductionThe Short-Tempered Clavier and Fugues in All the Major and Minor Keys Except for the Really Hard Ones, S. 3.14159, easy as 19. I. C Major 20. IntroductionGrand Serenade for an Awful Lot of Winds & Percussion, S. 1000 21. II. Grand Minuet 22. IntroductionFour Folk Song Upsettings, S. 4 23. Little Bunny Hop Hop Hop 24. Introduction 25. "Minuet Militaire", S. 1A 26. Enough Already The Ill-Conceived P. D. Q. Bach Anthology