Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Lauritz de Thurah
Laurids Lauridsen de Thurah, known as Lauritz de Thurah, was a Danish architect and architectural writer. He became the most important Danish architect of the baroque period. As an architectural writer and historian he made a contribution to the understanding of both Denmarks architectural heritage and building construction in his day. De Thurah was an architect who learned much of what he knew by studying the inspiring buildings he saw on his travels outside Denmark between 1729 and 1731. He brought home the baroque style, which was popular, throughout his life he maintained a loyalty to the baroque, even as the world around him continued to change and he lost work assignments to others who mastered the newer, more popular styles. Lauritx de Thurah was born Laurids Lauridsen Thura in Aarhus, the son of parish priest Laurids Thura, Bishop of Ribe. He was educated at home by the elder Thura, a literate scholar, by chance he come into contact with the royal house when King Frederik IV called on the Bishop, and chose the boy and his older brother Didrich for military service.
In 1719 he went to Copenhagen as a cadet, a landkadet in Danish. He was employed in 1725 as Assistant Resident Engineer in the Holstein Engineering Corps, in order to attain this he made carefully detailed drawings of Rendsburgs fortifications and houses, and a preliminary construction drawing for a suspension bridge. The king was impressed, and promised to give him funds, Thura made drawings and measurements of the newest castle in Denmark, which were given as a gift to the Count of Hesse, before he traveled. Thura and Rosenkrantz left in 1729, and visited a number of German cities, including Kassel and they traveled further to Italy, France and England before returning to Denmark in 1731. After his return home, Thura rose rapidly up the ranks and he became resident engineer in 1732. In 1733 he was named Royal Building Master with supervisory responsibility for royal buildings on Zealand, at the same time, he was promoted to captain in the Engineering Corps. In 1732–1736, he designed and built the palace in Roskilde, known as the Yellow Palace.
The four-wing baroque building became the headquarters of the Duke of Wellington during the English siege of Copenhagen in 1807, in 1733–1739, he worked on the first remodelling and expansion of Hirschholm Palace for King Christian VI and his consort, Queen Sophie Magdalene. In 1734–36, de Thurah built the Eremitage Palace, a hunting lodge overlooking Jægersborg Dyrehave north of Copenhagen. The grey-stone house with copper-clad mansard roof replaced another hunting lodge named Hubertus, the original design featured an elevator-table, similar to a dumbwaiter, which could be raised from the cellar up to the dining room. In this way, servants stayed in the kitchen, where they prepared and set the table
Rigshospitalet is one of the largest hospitals in Denmark and the most highly specialised hospital in Copenhagen. The hospitals main building is a 16 storey functionalist highrise, one of the tallest structures in the parts of the city. Rigshospitalet neighbours the Panum Building which houses the Faculty of Health, as a teaching hospital it is part of the framework organisation Copenhagen University Hospital. The Danish name is not usually translated to English and it is the genitive of rige and the cognate word is used similarly in Norwegian, Swedish and Dutch. The prefix Stats- is more used, but implies a slightly lower level in the hierarchy. Although Rigshospitalet was founded as a hospital, as opposed to the normal hospitals operated by counties. The hospital itself explains the name was given because its predecessor, Royal Fredericks Hospital, was handed over to the state, Rigshospitalet was founded on 30 March 1757 as Kongelig Frederiks Hospital, named after King Frederick V and situated in Bredgade in central Copenhagen.
The buildings are now occupied by the Danish Museum of Art & Design, since 1903 the state has been the owner of the hospital. In 1910 the hospital was renamed and moved to its present location in ten low buildings surrounding a garden designed by architect Martin Borch. In 1995 the hospital was handed over to Hovedstadens Sygehusfællesskab which in 2007 was absorbed by the Capital Region, in 2007 a helipad was built on top of the hospital. Until then, rescue helicopters and helicopters transferring patients would land in the neighbouring park Fælledparken, rigshospitalets mission is to be Denmarks leading hospital for patients needing highly specialized treatment. Its main specialist role has been enhanced in recent years by the decision that it should serve as the host institution for many of Copenhagens speciality departments, because of this, other hospitals refer patients to Rigshospitalet for the unique expertise available there. Rigshospitalet’s neighbor, the Panum Building, houses the University of Copenhagens Faculty of Health and this proximity optimizes a close cooperation between the two in the fields of research and development.
The Nordic Cochrane Centre and the University Centre for Nursing and Care Research are in Rigshospitalet, with 1,120 beds, Rigshospitalet has responsibility for 65,000 inpatients and approximately 420,000 outpatients annually. Rigshospitalet has a trauma centre specialised at receiving severely injured patients, ordinary emergency department treatment has been relegated to the other hospitals in Copenhagen. The hospital was the location of Lars von Triers television horror mini-series The Kingdom and it is the hospital in which Crown Princess Mary gave birth to her four children by Crown Prince Frederik, Isabella and Josephine. Also Prince Joachims children were born here, Felix, queen Margrethe and Prince Henriks children, Crown Prince Frederik and Prince Joachim, were born at Rigshospitalet. Prince Carl Fredrik and Princess Nathalie of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburgs third child and second son, Prince Frederik, in 2007 Rigshospitalet celebrated its 250th anniversary
Posten Norge or Norway Post is the name of the Norwegian postal service. The company, owned by the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications has a monopoly on distribution of letters weighing less than 50g throughout the country, there are 30 post offices in Norway, in addition to 1400 outlets in retail stores. Posten was founded in 1647 as Postvesenet by general post master Henrik Morian and it was established as a private company, and the King Christian IV gave his blessing to the founding of the company. Postvesenet was privately run until 1719, when the took over. From that point on, national service was a state monopoly. Local city postal services remained private, but in 1888 a new law was introduced which expanded the monopoly to the entire country. In 1933, Postvesenet was renamed Postverket, in 1996, Posten Norge BA was established as a state-owned company in which the Norwegian state had limited liability. In 2002 Posten changed its structure to that of a stock company. Posten Norge AS is still owned by the Norwegian state.
The postal service is divided into four divisions, Logistics, Distribution Network, the latter specialized in electronic services and outsourcing. ErgoGroup merged with EDB to form Evry ASA, which Posten now jointly owns with the Norwegian multinational telecommunications company Telenor ASA, in 2002 Norway Post acquired 57% of the shares of a private Swedish postal company, CityMail and acquired the remaining 43% in the first quarter of 2006. Norway Post owns, or partly owns Nor-Cargo as well as Frigoscandia, Pan Nordic Logistics, Scanex B. V. Nettlast Hadeland, many of which have their own subsidiaries. Posten, the Swedish postal service List of oldest companies English version of the site of Norway Post The four divisions Norway Post Logistics subsidiaries
Nicolai Eigtved, known as Niels Eigtved, Danish architect and was the leading proponent of the French rococo style in Danish architecture during the 1730s–1740s. He designed and built some of the most prominent buildings of his time and he played an important role in the establishment of the Royal Danish Academy of Art, and was its first native-born leader. He was born Niels Madsen on the farm in Egtved village in Skjoldenæsholms Birk on the island of Zealand, Denmark to Mads Nielsen and he was trained locally as a gardener, and was promoted to a position at the Frederiksberg Palace Gardens ca. July 1723 he got an opportunity to travel out of the country as a royal gardening apprentice and he travelled to Berlin and Dresden, among other places in Germany, earned his keep with jobs as a gardener, and learned to speak German. From 1725 he lived in Warsaw, where he caught the attention of German architect and draughtsman Colonel Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann, Pöppelmann was connected to the Saxon-Polish court under Frederick Augustus I, and got him a position as second lieutenant in the Saxon-Polish Engineer Corps.
Eigtved had the luck to come into an architectural environment. In 1730 Eigtved was promoted to lieutenant in Engineer Corps, and he made excellent military drawings, and became acquainted with Danish statesman General Poul Løvenørn, who after his return to Denmark interested Christian VI in Eigtved. The King summoned Eigtved to Denmark, and with the title of captain he was dismissed from foreign service and he was made Danish lieutenant in 1732, and Christian VI let Eigtved further educate himself in Italy between 1732 and 1735 in civil architecture. Building construction was at a pitch, with construction of Christiansborg Palace having been begun three years earlier. He was named captain in the Engineer Corps, and named royal building master with supervisory responsibility for Jutland, thus began a lifelong rivalry with colleague Lauritz de Thurah, another royal building master and the leading proponent of baroque architecture at the time. Eigtved became the preferred architect, and Eigtved’s rococo style was the preferred building style.
As a result, de Thurah was often overlooked, while Eigtved got the best assignments and he participated along with German architect Elias David Hausser and Lauritz de Thurah in the interior construction of Christiansborg Palace, with wood sculpting by Louis August le Clerc. Eigtved and de Thurah, for the most part, divided up the interior assignments. Eigtved designed the king’s apartments, the staircase, the chapel’s interior, the riding grounds. Most of Eigtved’s accomplishments at Christiansborg were lost in the fire of 1794, who had been the original architect for the project, lost his influence as the younger de Thurah and Eigtved took on larger assignments in the castle project. In 1738 the king set up a royal commission that would lead the continued work on the castle. Eigtved designed and built, along with Boye Junge, The Princes mansion in Frederiksholms Canal, 1743–1744, the building is now the National Museum. At the same time, he designed a mansion for Schulin of the Building Commission in Frederiksdal
Frederick V of Denmark
Frederick V was king of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 1746 until his death. He was the son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophia Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, Frederick was born on 31 March 1723 at Copenhagen Castle. He was the grandson of King Frederick IV of Denmark and the son of Crown Prince Christian, on 12 October 1730, King Frederick IV died and Fredericks father ascended the throne as King Christian VI. Christian VI and Sophia Magdalene were deeply devoted to Pietism, although not unfamiliar with religious sentiments, Frederick grew into a hedonist who enjoyed the pleasures of life such as wine and women. His mother ironically referred to him as Der Dänische Prinz because he occasionally spoke Danish, Fredericks propensity for debauchery accelerated his marriage negotiations. He was married at Altona, Holstein, on 11 December 1743 to Princess Louise of Great Britain, daughter of King George II and they were the parents of six children, but one was stillborn.
Meanwhile, Frederick continued to enjoy liaisons with others. During the years 1746-51, the king had a favorite named Madam Hansen who bore him five children, the Norwegian Masonic historian Karl Ludvig Tørrisen Bugge claims that Frederik V as crown prince was included in the Copenhagen Masonic Lodge St. Martin. This was probably third June 1744, and inspired by the Prussian king Frederick the Great who was included in a masonic lodge in his youth. They both had fathers who were opposed to the Masons, but unlike the Prussian king. As an active Freemason, he set up on 24 June 1749 the first Masonic lodge in Norway, on 6 August 1746 – the day before his parentss silver marriage festivities– his father died at Hirschholm Palace, the royal familys summer retreat. Christian VI was interred in Roskilde Cathedral and Louise immediately ascended Denmark-Norways throne, being anointed in Frederiksborg Palaces Chapel the following year. The personal influence of Frederick was limited, making him one of absolute rulers who least made for the states strength and these men marked his reign by the progress of commerce and the emerging industry of gunpowder plant and cannon foundry in Frederiksværk, built by Johan Frederik Classen.
They avoided involving Denmark in the European wars of his time, in the same period the Royal Frederiks Hospital and the Royal Orphanage was created, a school intended for poor boys that still exists today, opened in Christianshavn on 1 October 1753. On 29 June 1753 Frederick V created Denmarks first lottery, called the Royal Copenhagen Lottery - a lottery that exists to this day as Klasselotteriet, one of his main tasks was to take care that his dissolute Majesty didnt damage the Royal households reputation with his constant orgies. Frederick purchased what would become known as the Danish West Indies from the Danish West India Company in 1754. Louise died suddenly on 19 December 1751 at Christiansborg Palace, predeceasing her husband by fourteen years and causing great impact on the family and the courts life. She was buried with great pomp at Roskilde Cathedral, at the time of her death, she was pregnant with her sixth child, who died
Bredgade is one of the most prominent streets in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is lined with a number of mansions as well as other historic buildings. Many law firms, trade unions, fashion stores and art galleries are based in the street, the street was mainly lined by large gardens with small houses and pavilions. When the course of the Eastern Rampart was changed over the first century, at that point Bredgade was renamed Norgesgade to commemorate the Kings possessions to the north and escape the rural connotations of the old name. When Esplanaden was laid out at its far end in the 1780s, the name Norgesgade never gained popularity and in 1877 the streets official name was finally changed back to Bredgade. Ansgars Cathedral Frederiks Hospital, now the Danish Museum of Art & Design Mash Bredgade on indenforvoldene. dk
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the hospital, which typically has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire. A district hospital typically is the health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care. Specialised hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals, a teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical students and nurses. The medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic. Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology, some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology, Hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, by health organisations, by health insurance companies, or by charities, including direct charitable donations.
Historically, hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals. During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions, Middle Ages hospitals were almshouses for the poor, hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools. The word hospital comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a stranger or foreigner, another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, that is the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guests lodging, hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel. The German word Spital shares similar roots, the grammar of the word differs slightly depending on the dialect. Some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight, while others are admitted and stay overnight or for several days or weeks or months. Hospitals usually are distinguished from other types of facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others.
Larger cities may have several hospitals of varying sizes and facilities, some hospitals, especially in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital typically is the health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care. In California, district hospital refers specifically to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of beds in many local communities. Twenty-eight of Californias rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are District hospitals, Californias District hospitals are formed by local municipalities, have Boards that are individually elected by their local communities, and exist to serve local needs
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Frederiksstaden is a district in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was developed to commemorated the 300 years jubilee of the House of Oldenburg ascending to the Danish throne, a. G. Moltke was in charge of the project and Nicolai Eigtved was the main architect. The district is characterized by broad streets in a straight-angled street layout. The streets are lined by houses and palaces. Another important building in the district is the royal Frederiks Hospital which was Denmarks first hospital in the meaning of the word. It now houses the Danish Museum of Art & Design, amalienborg Frederiks Church The Odd Fellow Mansion Moltkes Mansion Royal Danish Playhouse
Danish Museum of Art & Design
The Danish Museum of Art & Design is a museum in Copenhagen for Danish and international design and crafts. The exhibition features a variety of Chinese and German porcelain, the museum houses the biggest library for design in Scandinavia. The museum was founded in 1890 at the initiative of, among others, a purpose-built building designed by Vilhelm Klein and located next to Industriforeningens premises on City Hall Square was completed in 1894 and opened to the public the following year. The exhibitions were housed in galleries, each dedicated to a particular field such as porcelain, silver, glass. In 1926 the museum moved to its current building, the defunct Fredericks Hospital from 1757, the architects Kaare Klint and Ivar Bentsen had undertaken the necessary alterations and furnishings. The museum is home to the largest library in Scandinavia dedicated to decorative arts, open to the general public, the library is at once a museum library, research library, and Danish central library within its field.
Opening hours are Tuesday–Friday from 11–17, the library contains more than 1,000 journals. The latest issues of the 75 journals and magazines which the museum subscribes to can be read in the reading room. The reading room of the library hosts public lectures on design-related topics which draw upon the collections in both the museum and the library, the Danish Design Archive and the Poster Collection are located on the museums first floor. The museum has an auditorium on the first floor seating 120 people. It is rented out for lectures, concerts and other events, among the events which take place in the auditorium are chamber music concerts with musicians from Copenhagen Philharmonic. Marketed under the name ½12 Concerts, they place on Sundays at 11.30 am