Christian VII of Denmark
Christian VII was a monarch of the House of Oldenburg who was King of Denmark-Norway and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein from 1766 until his death. For his motto he chose, Gloria ex amore patriae, Christian VIIs reign was marked by mental illness and for most of his reign Christian was only nominally king. His half-brother Frederick was designated as regent of Denmark in 1772, from 1784 until Christian VIIs death in 1808, Christians son, Frederick VI, acted as unofficial regent. Christian was the son of King Frederick V and his first wife Louise of Great Britain and he was born in the Queens Bedchamber at Christiansborg Palace, the Royal residence in Copenhagen. He was baptized a few hours the same day and his godparents were King Frederick V, Queen Dowager Sophie Magdalene, Princess Louise and Princess Charlotte Amalie. A former heir to the throne, named Christian, had died in infancy in 1747, therefore and his mother Queen Louise died in 1751, two years after his birth. The following year his father married to Juliane Marie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, after a long period of infirmity, Frederick V died 14 January 1766, just 42 years old.
Later the same day, Christian was proclaimed king from the balcony of Christiansborg Palace, Christians reign was marked by mental illness which affected government decisions, and for most of his reign Christian was only nominally king. His court physicians were especially worried by his frequent masturbation and his royal advisers changed depending on who won power struggles around the throne. In the late 1760s, he came under the influence of his personal physician Johann Friedrich Struensee, from 1770 to 1772, Struensee was de facto regent of the country, and introduced progressive reforms signed into law by Christian VII. The dynastic marriage took place at Christiansborg Palace on 8 November 1766, after his marriage, he abandoned himself to the worst excesses, especially sexual promiscuity. In 1767, he entered into a relationship with the courtesan Støvlet-Cathrine and he publicly declared that he could not love Caroline Matilda, because it was unfashionable to love ones wife. He ultimately sank into a condition of mental stupor, symptoms during this time included paranoia, self-mutilation and hallucinations.
Struensee was a protégé of an Enlightenment circle of aristocrats that had been rejected by the court in Copenhagen and he was a skilled doctor, and having somewhat restored the kings health while visiting the Schleswig-Holstein area, he gained the kings affection. He was retained as travelling physician on 5 April 1768, and accompanied the entourage on the King’s foreign tour to Paris and he was given the title of State Councilor on 12 May 1768, barely a week after leaving Altona. The neglected and lonely Caroline Matilda entered into an affair with Struensee, in 1772, the kings marriage with Caroline Matilda was dissolved by divorce. Christians marriage with Caroline Matilda produced two children, the future King Frederick VI and Princess Louise Auguste, however, it is widely believed that Louise was the daughter of Struensee—portrait comparisons tend to support this hypothesis. Struensee, following a deluge of modernising and emancipating reforms, was arrested and executed the same year, Christian signed Struensees arrest and execution warrant under pressure from his stepmother, Queen Juliane Marie, who had led the movement to have the marriage ended
Lorry is a former entertainment venue in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It takes its name after its founder, Frederik Laurentius Feilberg, the listed building complex now houses TV2/Lorry, TV2s local news station for the Copenhagen area, a small theatre, and a café. Lorrys history as an entertainment venue goes back to 1834 when the country house Enighedslyst was converted into a tea garden, in the mid-1860s it became an entertainment venue where female singers performed in front of an audience consisting mainly of local craftsmen. The restaurateur Carl Kehlet took the place over in 1877 and his business enabled him to purchase the entire property. He turned the floor into a restaurant and moved the singing girls upstairs to Café Chantant. The establishment gradually began to attract a larger audience, among the well-known guests were the writer and painter Holger Drachmann, who found his muse, among the singers. In 1896, Kehlet sold his establishment to Frederik Laurentius Feilberg, known as Lorry and he changed the name of Café Chantant inro Operetten.
The tradition with singing girls was discontinued in 1914 when Operetten was renamed Riddersalen and it served as a venue for cabarets. In 1909 and 1913, he acquired two neighbouring buildings for expanding his entertainment establishment, in 1910, he expanded the ground floor into a new venue, Landsbyen. The interior walls were painted as facades of half-timbered farmhouses and there were a forge, a farmers kitchen, the audience was seated at small tables spread out across the floor. In 1913, Kehlet opened Drachmenn Kroen, a popular restaurant named after a former guest who had died in 1909. The room was decorated with a series of paintings by Aksel Jørgensen which incorporated Drachmann, Drachmann had plans to convert it into an elegant hall where afternoon guests could have tea accompanied by subtle music while it could be rented out for private celebrations in the evening. However, due to an illness which prompted him to sell, Feilberg never put his plans through but they were realized by his successor, Valdemar Nielsen, the Landsbyen venue saw another expansion in 1929.
The decorations were adapted to resemble tyrolean houses with balconies and murals of snow-capped mountains painted on the rear walls, an expansion of the stage created room both for an orchestra and soloists. The inspiration was Haus Vaterland on Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, in 1945, Landsbyen was hit by Schalburgtage but it was rebuilt just a few month later. TV2/Lorry rented the complex from its establishment and purchased it from Frederiksberg Municipality in 1999 and they now have their television studios in Landsbyen while Guldaldersalen and Drachmann Kroen serve as editorial rooms. It has been run by Jytte Abildstrøn since 1970, dating from 1881,11 Allégade now houses a café, Café Grock. Danish Revue Museum TV2 Lorry clip about Aksel Jørgensens paintings PDF about the locality Aksel Hørgensens paintings in Drachmannskroen
Frederiksberg Palace is a Baroque residence, located in Frederiksberg, adjacent to the Copenhagen Zoo. It commands a view over Frederiksberg Gardens, originally designed as a palace garden in the Baroque style. Constructed and extended from 1699 to 1735, the served as the royal family’s summer residence until the mid-19th century. Since 1869, it has housed the Royal Danish Military Academy, as crown prince, Frederick IV had broadened his education by travelling in Europe. The original building, probably designed by Ernst Brandenburger, was completed in 1703 for Frederick IV as a small, one-storey summer residence. The first major extension, when it was converted into a three-storey H-shaped building, was completed in 1709 by Johan Conrad Ernst, giving the palace an Italian Baroque appearance. It was Lauritz de Thurah who executed the third and final extension from 1733 to 1738 when the palace received extensions to the lateral wings encircling the courtyard, Frederick IV spent many happy years at the palace.
Christian VII who was married to the English princess Caroline Matilda spent some time in the palace and their son, who was to become Frederick VI, loved the palace and lived there both as crown prince and as king. After Frederick VIs dowager wife Queen Marie died at the palace in March 1852, in 1868, it was transferred to the War Ministry and the following year it became the Officers Academy. The building has undergone significant restoration work, first from 1927 to 1932. During the construction of the palace building, it was decided that there should be a chapel in the east wing. This probably explains why there is no indication of the chapel from the outside and it actually covers the space behind the six central windows on the ground floor. Wilhelm Friedrich von Platen and Ernst Brandenburger designed the chapel in the Baroque style and it was inaugurated on 31 March 1710. When the palace was taken over by the Officers Academy, the chapels furnishings, they were returned in the 1930s and can still be seen there today.
The palace and the chapel can be visited and they contain imposing stucco work, ceiling paintings, an elegant marble bathroom with a secret access staircase, and the Princesses pancake kitchen. In 1854, British MP S. M. Peto gave a window to the King of Demark for the chapel. Since 1932, the chapel has been used as the parish church. The palace overlooks Frederiksberg Gardens which dates back to the first palace in 1703, from 1795 to 1804, it was redesigned by Peter Pedersen as an English landscape garden with the winding paths, lakes and canals which can be seen today
Frederick IV of Denmark
Frederick IV was the king of Denmark and Norway from 1699 until his death. Frederick was the son of King Christian V of Denmark-Norway and his consort Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel, as crown prince, Frederick broadened his education by travelling in Europe, led by his chamberlain Ditlev Wibe. The one-story building, probably designed by Ernst Brandenburger, was completed in 1703, Frederick was allowed to choose his future wife from a number of Protestant royal daughters in northern Germany. In 1695, he visited the court of Gustav-Adolph in Güstrow, but his visit there was cut short by a message telling of his brother Christians serious illness. Frederick returned to Güstrow, where he was forced to choose the eldest of the unmarried princesses, on 5 December 1695 at Copenhagen Castle, he married Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, herself a great-great-granddaughter of Frederick II of Denmark. The couple were crowned King and Queen of Denmark-Norway on 25 August 1699 in the Frederiksborg Chapel, Fredericks most important domestic reform was the abolition in 1702 of the so-called vornedskab, a kind of serfdom which had fallen on the peasants of Zealand in the Late Middle Ages.
His efforts were largely in vain because of the introduction of adscription in 1733, after the war and culture flowered. The first Danish theatre, Lille Grönnegade, was created and the great dramatist Ludvig Holberg began his career, also, a colonisation of Greenland was started by the missionary Hans Egede. Politically this period was marked by the connection to the Reventlows, the Holsteiner relatives of his last queen. During Fredericks rule Copenhagen was struck by two disasters, the plague of 1711, and the fire of October 1728, which destroyed most of the medieval capital. And Fredensborg Palace, both considered monuments to the conclusion of the Great Northern War and he maintained weekly audiences where anyone could attend and deliver letters with complaints or projects. While the nine weeks stay lasted, the king was a frequent guest on operas and comedies, during the visit to the state armory, he received the republics upscale gift, two large ore guns and an ore mortar. A regatta on the Grand Canal was held in his honour and is imortalized in a painting by Luca Carlevarijs.
The winter that season was particularly cold, so cold that the lagoon of Venice froze over, and it was joked that the king of Denmark had brought the cold weather with him. On his return he led negotiations with the Elector Augustus of Saxony. For much of Frederick IVs reign Denmark was engaged in the Great Northern War against Sweden, in spite of the conclusion of the Peace of Travendal in 1700, there was soon a Swedish invasion and threats from Europes western naval powers. In 1709 Denmark again entered the war encouraged by the Swedish defeat at Poltava, Frederick IV commanded the Danish troops at the battle of Gadebusch in 1712. Although Denmark emerged on the side, she failed to reconquer lost possessions in southern Sweden
Rosenborg Castle is a renaissance castle located in Copenhagen, Denmark. The castle was built as a country summerhouse in 1606 and is an example of Christian IVs many architectural projects. It was built in the Dutch Renaissance style, typical of Danish buildings during this period, architects Bertel Lange and Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger are associated with the structural planning of the castle. The castle was used by Danish regents as a residence until around 1710. After the reign of Frederik IV, Rosenborg was used as a residence only twice. The first time was after Christiansborg Palace burned down in 1794, located on the third floor, the Long Hall was completed in 1624. It was originally intended as a ballroom, around 1700 it was used as Royal Reception Room and for banquets. It was not until the half of the 19th century that it became known as the Knights Hall. Christian V had the hall partly modernised with twelve tapestries depicting the Kings victories in the Scanian War, the stucco ceiling seen today is from the beginning of the 18th century.
It shows the Danish Coat of Arms surrounded by the Orders of the Elephant, side reliefs depict historical events from the first years of the reign of Frederik IV, including the liberation of the serfs, the founding of the dragoons and of the land militia among them. The frescos in the ceiling by Hendrick Krock, represent the Regalia, among the main attractions of Rosenborg are the coronation chair of the absolutist kings and the throne of the queens with the three silver lions standing in front. The Long Hall contains a collection of silver furniture. Some of these once belonged to the nobility and the aristocracy. The castle, now property, was opened to the public in 1838. Of special interest to tourists is a Schatzkammer displaying the Crown Jewels, a Coronation Carpet is stored there. The Throne Chair of Denmark is located in the castle, in the summer time, flowers bloom in front of the castle in the castle garden. The castle is situated in Kongens Have, known as Rosenborg Castle Garden, the Rosenborg Castle Garden is the countrys oldest royal garden and was embellished in the Renaissance style by Christian IV shortly before the construction of the main castle.
Today, the gardens are a popular retreat for the people of Copenhagen, next to the castle are barracks where the Royal Life Guards is garrisoned
Sankt Thomas Plads
Sankt Thomas Plads is a round plaza located on Frederiksberg Allé, near its eastern end in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. For long the small plaza had no name but it became Colloquially known as the Small Circle as opposed to Frederiksberg Runddel. Later, after a house at the site had been renamed Sankt Thomas by a new owner. The country house was demolished in 1903 but its name was transferred to the building which was built in its place in 1905. The name was adopted on 2 June 2003. Sankt Thomas has had its round shape ever since its establishment in the beginning of the 18th century and its current design dates mostly from a refurbishment which took place in 1932 in connection with the 75-year anniversary of Frederiksberg Municipality. The refurbishment saw the installation of two designed by the architect A. S. K. They bear various inscriptions which commemorate the history of Frederiksbeerg and are topped by a bronze figure designed by the Hungarian-born sculptor Jenö Meister.
One depicts a Dutch woman, representing the Dutch farmers who were relocated to the area from Amager by King Frederick II in the middle of the 17th century. The other depicts a falconer to commemorate Falkonergården, the royal farm which was in use until 1810 and is heralded in the three falcons seen in Frederiksbergs coat of arms
Betty Nansen Teatret
Betty Nansen Teatret is a theatre situated on Frederiksberg Allé in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It takes its name from the actress Betty Nansen, who managed it from 1917 until her death in 1943 and it contained a wooden structure which was used for musical entertainment and had room for 1,200 guests who were seated at small tables. It played 170 times before going on tour to the provinces and was repreated the following year. By 1888 the wooden pavilion was so worn down that it was demolished and a new building in brick, with a large stage, the new theatre was open all year round and featured a repertoire of farces, Comédies en vaudeville and revues. The theatre changed its name to Frederiksberg Teater in 1904 and again in 1914 to Alexandrateatret after Christian IXs eldest daughter and its profile gradually changed in a more serious and artistically ambitious direction with plays by George Bernard Shaw, Henrik Ibsen and Frank Wedekind. The actress Betty Nansen, who had just returned to Denmark after an attempt to make it as a film star in America, took over the theatre in 1917.
Alongside Henrik Bentzon, Nansen directed many of the plays, in the 1930s, the theatre staged many of Kai Munks plays, which had been neglected by the Royal Theatre, including Ordet in 1932, his controversial version of Hamlet and I brændingen in 1937. Betty Nansens era at the theatre ended with her death in 1943 and it changed its name to Alléscenen and began a period with changing directors and economic challenges which culminated in its banktrupcy in 1952. In 1964, Bent Mejding revived the theatre under the name Ungdommens Teater, featuring mainly young British and American drama but staging the musical Cabaret and theatre for children. In 1976, the name was changed back to Allé-scenen and the theatre became recognized as one of eight theatres in Copenhagen which received funding under the landsdelsscene-programme. Morten Grunwald succeeded Meiding as theatre director in 1979, giving the theatre its current name, in 1992, Grunwald was succeeded by Peter Langdal and Henrik Hartmann, who have jointly led the theatre since then.
The main auditorium has 775 numbered seats, lille Beyy, originally Balkonscenen, is the small stage. The Edison abbex stage was introduced in 1992 and is located in a power station on nearby Edisonsvej 10. Official website Productions by the theatre
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. Commonly called lime trees in the British Isles, they are not related to the lime fruit, other names include linden, and basswood for the North American species. The genus occurs in Europe and eastern North America, but the greatest species diversity is found in Asia, Tilia species are mostly large, deciduous trees, reaching typically 20 to 40 metres tall, with oblique-cordate leaves 6 to 20 centimetres across. As with elms, the number of species is uncertain, as many if not most of the species will hybridise readily. Limes are hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers with male and female parts, pollinated by insects. The genus is called lime or linden in Britain and linden, lime. Within Germanic languages, English lithe, German lind lenient, yielding are from the same root, neither the name nor the tree is related to the citrus fruit called lime. Another common name used in North America is basswood, derived from bast, teil is an old name for the lime tree.
Latin tilia is cognate to Greek πτελέᾱ, elm tree, τιλίαι, black poplar, ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European word *ptel-ei̯ā with a meaning of broad, perhaps broad-leaved or similar. The Tilias sturdy trunk stands like a pillar and the divide and subdivide into numerous ramifications on which the twigs are fine. In summer, these are profusely clothed with large leaves and the result is a head of abundant foliage. The flowers of the European and American Tilia species are similar, except the American bears a petal-like scale among its stamens, all of the Tilia species may be propagated by cuttings and grafting, as well as by seed. They grow rapidly in rich soil, but are subject to the attack of many insects, Tilia is notoriously difficult to propagate from seed unless collected fresh in the fall. If allowed to dry, the seeds will go into a deep dormancy, cars left under the trees can quickly become coated with a film of the syrup thus dropped from higher up. The ant/aphid farming process does not appear to any serious damage to the trees.
In Europe, some linden trees reached considerable ages, a coppice of T. cordata in Westonbirt Arboretum in Gloucestershire is estimated to be 2,000 years old. In the courtyard of the Imperial Castle at Nuremberg is a Tilia which, by tradition recounted in 1900, was planted by the Empress Cunigunde, the Tilia of Neuenstadt am Kocher in Baden-Württemberg, was estimated at 1000 years old when it fell. The Alte Linde tree of Naters, Switzerland, is mentioned in a document in 1357, a plaque at its foot mentions that in 1155 a linden tree was already on this spot
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Frederiksberg Runddel is a space in front of the main entrance to Frederiksberg Gardens, at the end of Frederiksberg Allé, in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Nicolai Eigtved converted the south wing to an orangerie in 1744, after the main wing burnt down in 1753, it was not rebuilt, but instead the main entrance to Frederiksberg Have was established in 1755 between the two surviving wings. The entrance gate to Frederiksberg Gardens was built in 1755 after the two years earlier. It was designed by Lauritz de Thurah who had become general master builder after Eigtveds death, the vases at the top of the two sandstone pillars were executed by the sculptor Johann Friedrich Hännel. The Storm P. Museum, located on the corner of Pile Allé, is dedicated to the Danish humorist, cartoonist and actor, Robert Storm Petersen, who is popularly known as Storm P. Originally the local station, this building from 1886 served as the office of the local burials administration before it was converted into a museum.
The Horticultural Societys Garden was originally located further down Frederiksberg Allé, before that, the site was part of the palace gardens nursery and vegetable gardens. Due to its peaceful and picturesque setting, the space is used for various events or fairs. In winter, it features an open-air ice-skating rink, sankt Thomas Plads Historic pictures of Frederiksberg Runddel
A pleasure garden is usually a garden that is open to the public for recreation and entertainment. Pleasure gardens differ from other public gardens by serving as venues for entertainment, variously featuring such attractions as concert halls, amusement rides, public pleasure gardens have existed for many centuries. In Ancient Rome, the landscaped Gardens of Sallust were developed as a garden by the historian Sallust. The gardens were acquired by the Roman Emperor Tiberius for public use, containing many pavilions, a temple to Venus, and monumental sculptures, the gardens were open to the public for centuries. Many contained large concert halls, or hosted promenade concerts, some lesser discussed pleasure gardens were home to haberdasheries, a smaller version of a pleasure garden is a tea garden, where visitors may drink tea and stroll. The pleasure garden forms one of the six parts of the 18th century perfect garden, the others being the garden, an orchard, a park, an orangery or greenhouse.
Melanie Doderer-Winkler, Magnificent Entertainments, Temporary Architecture for Georgian Festivals, the London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century. Media related to pleasure gardens at Wikimedia Commons