Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia, across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45,339 km2 of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 6500 BC, in 1988, during the Singing Revolution, the Estonian Supreme Soviet issued the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration in defiance of Soviet rule, and independence was restored on 20 August 1991. Estonia is a parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn, with a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, OECD and Schengen Area. Estonia is a country with an advanced, high-income economy that is among the fastest growing in the EU.
Its Human Development Index ranks very highly, and it performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, the 2015 PISA test places Estonian high school students 3rd in the world, behind Singapore and Japan. Citizens of Estonia are provided with health care, free education. Since independence the country has developed its IT sector, becoming one of the worlds most digitally advanced societies. In 2005 Estonia became the first nation to hold elections over the Internet, in the Estonian language, the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning country people or people of the land. The land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning Country Parish or Land Parish, one hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia is that it originated from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania. The historic Aesti were allegedly Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric, the geographical areas between Aesti and Estonia do not match, with Aesti being further down south.
Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland, as the country is called in Icelandic. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia, esthonia was a common alternative English spelling prior to 1921. Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, the oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago, the earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to Kunda culture, which is named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, and people lived in communities near bodies of water
Uppsala County is a county or län on the eastern coast of Sweden. It borders the counties of Dalarna, Stockholm, Södermanland, Västmanland, Gävleborg, for History and Culture see, Uppland The province of Uppland encompasses Uppsala County. The County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor, the County Council of Uppsala or Landstinget i Uppsala län, which is appointed by the electorate of the county, is primarily responsible for health care and public transportation. Älvkarleby Tierp Östhammar Uppsala Enköping Håbo Knivsta Heby The County of Uppsala inherited its coat of arms from the province of Uppland, when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Uppsala County Administrative Board Uppsala County Council Regional Association of Uppsala Hotels in Uppsala
Frederiksberg Palace is a Baroque residence, located in Frederiksberg, adjacent to the Copenhagen Zoo. It commands a view over Frederiksberg Gardens, originally designed as a palace garden in the Baroque style. Constructed and extended from 1699 to 1735, the served as the royal family’s summer residence until the mid-19th century. Since 1869, it has housed the Royal Danish Military Academy, as crown prince, Frederick IV had broadened his education by travelling in Europe. The original building, probably designed by Ernst Brandenburger, was completed in 1703 for Frederick IV as a small, one-storey summer residence. The first major extension, when it was converted into a three-storey H-shaped building, was completed in 1709 by Johan Conrad Ernst, giving the palace an Italian Baroque appearance. It was Lauritz de Thurah who executed the third and final extension from 1733 to 1738 when the palace received extensions to the lateral wings encircling the courtyard, Frederick IV spent many happy years at the palace.
Christian VII who was married to the English princess Caroline Matilda spent some time in the palace and their son, who was to become Frederick VI, loved the palace and lived there both as crown prince and as king. After Frederick VIs dowager wife Queen Marie died at the palace in March 1852, in 1868, it was transferred to the War Ministry and the following year it became the Officers Academy. The building has undergone significant restoration work, first from 1927 to 1932. During the construction of the palace building, it was decided that there should be a chapel in the east wing. This probably explains why there is no indication of the chapel from the outside and it actually covers the space behind the six central windows on the ground floor. Wilhelm Friedrich von Platen and Ernst Brandenburger designed the chapel in the Baroque style and it was inaugurated on 31 March 1710. When the palace was taken over by the Officers Academy, the chapels furnishings, they were returned in the 1930s and can still be seen there today.
The palace and the chapel can be visited and they contain imposing stucco work, ceiling paintings, an elegant marble bathroom with a secret access staircase, and the Princesses pancake kitchen. In 1854, British MP S. M. Peto gave a window to the King of Demark for the chapel. Since 1932, the chapel has been used as the parish church. The palace overlooks Frederiksberg Gardens which dates back to the first palace in 1703, from 1795 to 1804, it was redesigned by Peter Pedersen as an English landscape garden with the winding paths, lakes and canals which can be seen today
Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time, the exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright is that copyright protects only the expression of ideas. Copyright is a form of property, applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require fixing copyrighted works in a tangible form and it is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rights holders. These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, public performance, copyrights are considered territorial rights, which means that they do not extend beyond the territory of a specific jurisdiction. While many aspects of copyright laws have been standardized through international copyright agreements.
Typically, the duration of a copyright spans the authors life plus 50 to 100 years, some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, but most recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Generally, copyright is enforced as a matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions. Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing fair exceptions to the exclusivity of copyright. Copyright came about with the invention of the press and with wider literacy. As a legal concept, its origins in Britain were from a reaction to printers monopolies at the beginning of the 18th century, Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights.
The most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of human activities that can be commodified. This parallels the ways in which led to the commodification of many aspects of social life that earlier had no monetary or economic value per se. Often seen as the first real copyright law, the 1709 British Statute of Anne gave the rights for a fixed period. The act alluded to individual rights of the artist and it began, Whereas Printers and other Persons, have of late frequently taken the Liberty of Printing. Books, and other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors. to their very great Detriment, and too often to the Ruin of them and their Families
Uppsala is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm and Malmö. It had 149,245 inhabitants in 2015, located 71 km north of the capital Stockholm, it is the seat of Uppsala Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala has been the centre of Sweden. Uppsala is home to Scandinavias largest cathedral – Uppsala Cathedral, founded in 1477, Uppsala University is the oldest centre of higher education in Scandinavia. Among many achievements, the Celsius scale for temperature was invented there, Uppsala was originally located a few kilometres north of its current location at a place now known as Gamla Uppsala. Todays Uppsala was called Östra Aros, Uppsala was, according to medieval writer Adam of Bremen, the main pagan centre of Sweden, and the Temple at Uppsala contained magnificent idols of the Norse gods. The Fyrisvellir plains along the south of Old Uppsala, in the area where the modern city is situated today, was the site of the Battle of Fyrisvellir in the 980s. The present-day Uppsala was at that time known as Östra Aros and was a town of Gamla Uppsala.
In 1160, King Eric Jedvardsson was attacked and killed outside the church of Östra Aros, the cathedral is built in the Gothic style and is one of the largest in northern Europe, with towers reaching 118.70 metres. Uppsala is the site of the 16th century Uppsala Castle, the city was severely damaged by a fire in 1702. The arms bearing the lion can be traced to 1737 and have been modernised several times, the meaning of the lion is uncertain but is likely connected to the royal lion, depicted on the Coat of Arms of Sweden. Situated on the fertile Uppsala flatlands of muddy soil, the city features the small Fyris River flowing through the landscape surrounded by lush vegetation. Parallel to the runs the glacial ridge of Uppsalaåsen at an elevation of circa 30 metres. The central park Stadsskogen stretches from the south far into town, only some 70 kilometres or 40 minutes by train from the capital, many Uppsala residents work in Stockholm. The train to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport takes only 17 minutes, rendering the city accessible by air.
The commercial centre of Uppsala is quite compact, during recent decades, a significant part of retail commercial activity has shifted to shopping malls and stores situated in the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, the areas have expanded greatly, and some suburbanization has taken place. Uppsala lies on the 59th parallel north and has a continental climate, with cold winters
Conservative People's Party (Denmark)
The Conservative Peoples Party, known as the Conservatives is a conservative political party in Denmark. The party is a member of the European Peoples Party and International Democrat Union, the party was founded 1916 based mostly on its predecessor, Højre, but on the Free Conservatives and a moderate faction of the liberal party Venstre. The party has participated in coalition governments, but only one Prime Minister of Denmark, Poul Schlüter, has come from this party. The student branch is Conservative Students, likewise an independent organisation, from the 2001 parliament elections until 2011, the Conservative Peoples Party was the junior partner in a coalition government led by Venstre. The Conservative Peoples Party is currently led by Søren Pape Poulsen, In the 2004 European parliament elections, the member is currently Bendt Bendtsen, who is a member of the EPP Group in the European Parliament. In the 2014 European elections, the party garnered 9. 1% of the national vote, the Conservatives remain committed to a centre-right alliance, working most closely with the liberal Venstre and somewhat less closely with the right-wing populist Danish Peoples Party.
The Conservatives did cooperate with the Social Liberal Party during its time in power in the 1980s, young Conservatives Conservative Students John Christmas Møller - Wartime resistance figure. In 1989, Hedegaard became first spokesperson for the Conservative Peoples Party, but left politics for journalism in 1990
Frederiksberg Station is a rapid transit station opened in 2003 on the Copenhagen Metro in Frederiksberg, Denmark. It serves the M1 and M2 lines and connects with bus services and it is located in fare zones 1 and 2. Once completed in 2017, the station serve M3—the City Circle Line—providing an interchange between it and the existing Metro lines. West of Frederiksberg the line ran southwest to Vigerslev from which it followed the current alignment towards Roskilde, in 1879 a branch line towards Frederikssund opened and connected to the main line at Frederiksberg. Its innermost part followed what is now the route of the Metro between Frederiksberg and Vanløse, in 1896 a double-tracked connection for freight opened between Frederiksberg and North Lines station at Nørrebro. Frederiksberg was now a railway junction with lines leaving in four directions. It grew to be a freight destination too, particularly with deliveries of fresh milk to several dairies located at Nyelandsvej north of the station.
In 1911, Copenhagen Central Station was relocated once more, to its present position, the new main line did not pass Frederiksberg, and for some years Frederiksberg had no passenger service at all. Following local protests, a modest passenger service was reestablished from 1914, in the form of a few trains a day to. Throughout this period, freight traffic through Frederiksberg remained high, as the new station was for passenger trains only. All freight towards destinations north of Copenhagen still passed through Frederiksberg on the old mainline from Vigerslev, the transiting freight disappeared in 1930 when the Ring Line opened. The lines to Vigerslev and Nørrebro closed, and Frederiksberg was now a station with only the line towards Vanløse left. It was still an important freight station, so the line to Vanløse was doubled and acquired a complex junction with the ring line. In 1934 the passenger service to Frederiksberg received a significant upgrade when the line to Vanløse was electrified, new platform tracks and a new station building with main entrance from Falkoner Allé were built for the S-trains.
After 1934 Frederiksberg had a quiet existence until the 1990s when it was decided that the line between Frederiksberg and Vanløse would form part of Copenhagens first Metro line, subsequently the current underground Metro station was constructed, it opened on 19 May 2003. The ticket sales store of the state railway station is still in operation at Frederiksberg. It is the place in Denmark where there is a train ticket shop
Zealand is the largest and most populated island in Denmark with a population of 2,267,659. It is the 96th-largest island in the world by area and the 35th most populous and it is connected to Funen by the Great Belt Fixed Link, to Lolland, Falster by the Storstrøm Bridge and the Farø Bridges. Zealand is linked to Amager by five bridges, Zealand is linked indirectly, through intervening islands by a series of bridges and tunnels, to southern Sweden. Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, is located partly on the shore of Zealand. Other cities on Zealand include Roskilde, Hillerød, Næstved and Helsingør, the island is not connected historically to the Pacific nation of New Zealand, which is named after the Dutch province of Zeeland. In Norse mythology as told in the story of Gylfaginning, the island was created by the goddess Gefjun after she tricked Gylfi and she removed a piece of land and transported it to Denmark, which became Zealand. The vacant area was filled with water and became Mälaren, since modern maps show a similarity between Zealand and the Swedish lake Vänern, it is sometimes identified as the hole left by Gefjun.
Zealand is the most populous Danish island and it is irregularly shaped, and is north of the islands of Lolland, and Møn. The small island of Amager lies immediately east, Copenhagen is mostly on Zealand but extends across northern Amager. A number of bridges and the Copenhagen Metro connect Zealand to Amager, Zealand is joined in the west to Funen, by the Great Belt Fixed Link, and Funen is connected by bridges to the countrys mainland, Jutland. Gyldenløveshøj, south of the city Roskilde, has a height of 126 metres, Zealand gives its name to the Selandian era of the Paleocene. Urban areas with 10, 000+ inhabitants, North Zealand Media related to Zealand at Wikimedia Commons Zealand travel guide from Wikivoyage
Frederiksberg Town Hall
Frederiksberg Town Hall is the administrative centre of Frederiksberg Municipality, an independent municipality located in inner Copenhagen, Denmark. 800 employees work in the building, there are tours of the town hall on the first Saturnday every month. They include a visit to the tower which rises 60 metres above street level and has views of Frederiksberg. Frederiksbergs first town hall was in Falkoner Allé, one block to the north of the current town hall square, as the population boomed in the first part of the 20th century, it became too small to house a modern administration. It was therefore decided to build a new hall and Henning Hansen was charged with its design. Construction of the new hall began in 1942 but was delayed by shortage of building materials during World War II. After Henning Hansens death in 1945, Carl H. Nimb, the building is 60 m wide and 120 metre long and the tower rises to 60 m above street level. The interior contains Town Hall auditorium, grand hall, Wedding Room.
The municipal archives are located in the basement, a new plaza in front of the town hall was established in connection with its inauguration. It has a feature by Anker Hoffmann
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen