Free France and its Free French Forces were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France. Set up in London in June 1940, it supported the Resistance in occupied France. Charles de Gaulle, a French general and government minister, rejected the armistice being negotiated by Marshal Philippe Pétain and fled to Britain. There he exhorted the French to resist in his BBC broadcast "Appeal of 18 June", which had a stirring effect on morale throughout France and its colonies, although relatively few French forces responded to de Gaulle's call for resistance. On 27 October 1940, the Empire Defense Council was constituted to organise the rule of the territories in central Africa and Oceania that had heeded the 18 June call, it was replaced on 24 September 1941 by the French National Committee. On 13 July 1942, "Free France" was renamed France combattante, to mark that the struggle against the Axis was conducted both externally by the FFF and internally by the French Forces of the Interior.
After the reconquest of North Africa, this was in turn formally merged with de Gaulle's rival general Henri Giraud's command in Algiers to form the French Committee of National Liberation. Exile ended with the liberation of Paris by the 2nd Armoured Free French Division and Resistance forces on 25 August 1944, ushering in the Provisional Government of the French Republic, it ruled France until the end of the war and afterwards to 1946, when the Fourth Republic was established, thus ending the series of interim regimes that had succeeded the Third Republic after its fall in 1940. The Free French fought Axis and Vichy regime troops and served on battlefronts everywhere from the Middle East to Indochina and North Africa; the Free French Navy operated as an auxiliary force to the Royal Navy and, in the North Atlantic, to the Royal Canadian Navy. Free French units served in the Royal Air Force, Soviet Air Force, British SAS, before larger commands were established directly under the control of the government-in-exile.
From colonial outposts in Africa and the Pacific, Free France took over more and more Vichy possessions, until after the Allied landings in North Africa in November 1942 Vichy only ruled over the zone libre in southern France and a few possessions in the West Indies. The French Army of Africa switched allegiance to Free France, this caused the Axis to occupy Vichy in reaction. On 1 August 1943, L'Armée d'Afrique was formally united with the Free French Forces to form L'Armée française de la Liberation. By mid-1944, the forces of this army numbered more than 400,000, they participated in the Normandy landings and the invasion of southern France leading the drive on Paris. Soon they were fighting in the Alps and Brittany. By the end of the war, they were 1,300,000 strong—the fourth-largest Allied army in Europe—and took part in the Allied advance through France and invasion of Germany; the Free French government re-established a provisional republic after the liberation, preparing the ground for the Fourth Republic in 1946.
An individual became "Free French" by enlisting in the military units organised by the CFN or by employment by the civilian arm of the Committee. On 1 August 1943 after the merger of CFN and representatives of the former Vichy regime in North Africa to form the CFLN earlier in June, the FFF and the Armée d'Afrique were merged to form the French Liberation Army, Armée française de la Libération, all subsequent enlistments were in this combined force. In many sources, Free French describes any French individual or unit that fought against Axis forces after the June 1940 armistice. Postwar, to settle disputes over the Free French heritage, the French government issued an official definition of the term. Under this "ministerial instruction of July 1953", only those who served with the Allies after the Franco-German armistice in 1940 and before 1 August 1943 may be called "Free French". On 10 May 1940, Nazi Germany invaded France and the Low Countries defeating the Dutch and Belgians, while armoured units attacking through the Ardennes cut off the Franco-British strike force in Belgium.
By the end of May, the British and French northern armies were trapped in a series of pockets, including Dunkirk, Boulogne, Saint-Valery-en-Caux and Lille. The Dunkirk evacuation was only made possible by the resistance of these troops the French army divisions at Lille. From 27 May to 4 June, over 200,000 members of the British Expeditionary Force and 140,000 French troops were evacuated from Dunkirk. Neither side viewed this as the end of the battle. After being evacuated from Dunkirk, Alanbrooke landed in Cherbourg on 2 June to reform the BEF, along with the 1st Canadian Division, the only remaining armoured unit in Britain. Contrary to what is assumed, French morale was higher in June than May and they repulsed an attack in the south by Fascist Italy. A defensive line was re-established along the Somme but much of the armour was lost in Northern France.
CodeSonar is a static code analysis tool from GrammaTech. CodeSonar is used to fix bugs and security vulnerabilities in source and binary code, it performs whole-program, inter-procedural analysis with abstract interpretation on C, C++, C#, Java, as well as x86 and ARM binary executables and libraries. CodeSonar is used by teams developing or assessing software to track their quality or security weaknesses. CodeSonar supports Linux, BSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS and Windows hosts and embedded operating systems and compilers. CodeSonar provides information for every weakness found, including the trace through the source code that would trigger the bug as well as a call-tree visualization that represents how the weakness is related to the wider application. CodeSonar supports compliance with functional safety standards like IEC 61508, ISO 26262, DO-178B/C, or ISO/IEC TS 17961. CodeSonar's warning classes support several coding standard initiatives, including MITRE's CWE, JPL, Power of 10, MISRA C/C++ and SEI CERT C.
CodeSonar is used in the defense/aerospace, industrial control, electronic, tele/datacommunications and transportation industries. Some well known use cases are FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health uses it to detect defects in fielded medical devices; the NHTSA and NASA used CodeSonar to study on sudden unintended acceleration in the electronic throttle control systems of Toyota vehicles Supported Programming Languages: C C++ C# Java Python Binary code analysis supports Intel x86, x64 and ARM. Supported Platforms: Microsoft Windows Linux FreeBSD NetBSD MacOSSupported Compilers: Apple Xcode ARM RealView CodeWarrior GNU C/C++ Green Hills Compiler HI-TECH Compiler IAR Compiler Intel C++ Compiler Microsoft Visual Studio Renesas Compiler Sun C/C++ Texas Instruments CodeComposer Wind River Compiler List of tools for static code analysis CodeSonar product page
Marco Polo is an opera by the Chinese-born composer Tan Dun set to an English libretto by Paul Griffiths. It premiered in Munich on 7 May 1996. Described variously as an "opera within an opera" and a "fantasia on an epic journey", the multi-layered storyline is loosely based on the journey of Marco Polo from Venice to China. In the opera, Marco Polo becomes two characters: Marco, who represents the real person and is sung by a mezzo-soprano, Polo who represents his memory and is sung by a tenor; the work is scored for vocal soloists, a chorus of 20 and a large orchestra of both modern and medieval European instruments as well as instruments from the cultures that Marco Polo passed through on his journey, including sitar, sheng and Tibetan horns and bells. Marco Polo won the 1998 Grawemeyer Award for Music Composition. Marco Polo began as a commission by the Edinburgh International Festival in the late 1980s. However, it was not completed until 1995 and received its first performance at the Munich Biennale on 7 May 1996 directed by Martha Clarke.
Its US premiere followed on 8 November 1997 at the New York City Opera. Marco Polo was first seen in the UK in November 1998 in a concert performance at the Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival, its most recent revival was a November 2008 production at De Nederlandse Opera in Amsterdam Memory: Polo Being 1: Marco Being 2: Kublai Khan Nature: Water Shadow 1: Rustichello/Li Po Shadow 2: Sheherazada/Mahler/Queen Shadow 3: Dante/Shakespeare Marco Polo - World premiere recording with Thomas Young and Alexandra Montano in the title roles, the Cappella Amsterdam, the Netherlands Radio Chamber Orchestra conducted by the composer. Recorded live at Yakult Hall, Amsterdam on 20 June 1996. Marco Polo - The 2008 production of the opera by De Nederlandse Opera, with Charles Workman and Sarah Castle in the title roles and conducted by the composer. G. Schirmer, Tan Dun: Marco Polo, programme notes. Accessed 31 August 2009. Kerner, Leighton, "Mind voyager", The Village Voice, 11 November 1997. Accessed via subscription 31 August 2009.
Smith, Patrick J. "Tan Dun: Marco Polo", Opera News, December 1997. Accessed via subscription 31 August 2009. White, Michael, "Huddersfield, centre of the musical universe", The Independent, 29 November 1998. Accessed 31 August 2009
Joe Wardill is an English former professional rugby league footballer who played on the wing or as a centre for Hull Kingston Rovers in the Super League. Wardill is assistant coach of the Hull Kingston Rovers' Women's Team. Wardill was born in East Riding of Yorkshire, England. Joe is a former pupil of Beverley Grammar School. Wardill is a product of the Hull Kingston Rovers' Academy System, he plays on the wing, but he can play as a centre and fullback. He made his début for Hull Kingston Rovers in the 2016 Super League season, against the Wigan Warriors at the DW Stadium. On his home début at Craven Park in 2016, Wardill scored a try in the shock 22–36 defeat to the Oldham in the Challenge Cup, but despite the loss, he claimed the'Man-of-the-Match' Award. Wardill suffered relegation from the Super League with Hull Kingston Rovers in the 2016 season, due to losing the Million Pound Game at the hands of the Salford Red Devils. 12-months however, Wardill was part of the Hull Kingston Rovers' side that won promotion back to the Super League, at the first time of asking following relegation the season prior.
On 3 May 2018, it was revealed that Wardill had signed a new 3-year contract extension with Hull Kingston Rovers, to keep him at Craven Park until the end of the 2021 season. It was revealed on 23 April 2019, that Wardill had took the decision to retire from professional rugby league following three hip operations in as many years. Wardill was just 21-years-old. Wardill, following his retirement from professional rugby league on 23 April 2019, Joe was subsequently appointed as assistant coach to Hull Kingston Rovers' newly formed Women's Team. 2018:'Community Clubman Award' Hull KR profile SL profile
Ynés Enriquetta Julietta Mexía was a Mexican-American botanist known for her collection of novel plant specimens from areas of Mexico and Colombia. She was the most accomplished plant collector of her time. Botanist and explorer Ynés Mexía, braved earthquakes and poisonous berries all for the sake of botanical discoveries. Ynés Mexía was born in 1870 in Washington, D. C. to Enrique Mexía and Sarah Wilmer Mexía. She was the granddaughter of a Mexican general; when she was young, her parents divorced. Her father returned to Mexico, her mother moved the family to Texas. Mexía moved to Mexico. In 1909, in her late thirties, she suffered a mental and physical breakdown that spurred her to move to San Francisco and seek medical care, her second husband continued to live in Mexico, they separated. There she started going on excursions into the mountains of Northern California with the Sierra Club and fell in love with the redwoods, the birds, the plants, the quiet, she became involved in social work and was an active member of the Sierra Club, which motivated her to attend the University of California, Berkeley.
Her interest in botanical collecting began in 1922. L. Furlong, a Berkeley paleontologist, she enrolled in a course on flowering plants at the Hopkins Marine Station with LeRoy Abrams in Pacific Grove, California. A 1980 letter from John Thomas Howell reminisces about the autumn of 1923:"when I was enrolled in freshman botany at UCB and Mrs. Mexía was attending advanced classes….. We were on a field trip with the student botanical club. We had spent the day under the guidance of Herbert Mason exploring the floristic riches of Jasper Ridge……. Separated from the rest of the club, we made a wrong turn….reached the station long after our train had departed….. We arrived in Berkeley. Mrs. Mexía never let me forget it!" At that time, it was remarkable for that experience to have occurred unchaperoned. In 1924 she became a U. S. citizen. In July of 1925, at the age of 55, Ynés wrote to Alice Eastwood, letting Eastwood know that she was about to accompany Stanford's Assistant Herbarium Curator, Roxanna Ferris, on a collecting trip to Mexico.
This would be her first botanical exploration trip to Mexico. Once in Mexico, Mexía decided that she could accomplish more on her own and abandoned the group, traveling the country for two years and collecting more than 1,500 specimens; the trip resulted in 500 species being collected, including one named in Mexía's honor, Mimosa mexiae. In middle age, Mexía had found her purpose in life, writing: “… I have a job, I produce something real and lasting.” She made three additional expeditions to Mexico and collected throughout South America in remote areas of Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. She collected in Alaska and other areas of the United States. After her first major expedition, to Sinaloa, Mexico, in 1925, she spent 13 years traveling from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego shocking those she met because she was traveling solo, riding horseback with knickers, preferring to sleep outside when a bed was available. “A well-known collector and explorer stated positively that ‘it was impossible for a woman to travel alone in Latin America,’” she wrote, continuing, “I decided that if I wanted to become better acquainted with the South American Continent the best way would be to make my way right across it."In 1938, during an expedition to Oaxaca, Mexía got sick.
She tried to continue but had to turn back and return to the United States, where she was diagnosed with lung cancer. She died within one month at age 68. William E. Colby, the secretary of the Sierra Club, wrote, “All who knew Ynés Mexía could not fail to be impressed by her friendly unassuming spirit, by that rare courage which enabled her to travel, much of the time alone, in lands where few would dare to follow.” In the same 1980 letter where he described his student botanical club adventure with Ynés Mexía, John Thomas Howell refers to her as a "close friend of Alice Eastwood." He continues, "In 1933 she accompanied Miss Eastwood and me on the first Eastwood and Howell collecting expedition.….in an open Model T Ford, that traversed parts of Nevada, Utah and California….and netted over 1300 collection numbers………Mrs. Mexía was to me a dear good friend." Once, Mexía joined a collecting trip to Mexico where she fell off a cliff, injuring her hand and fracturing her ribs. No obstacle could stand in Mexía's way, whether that be broken poison, or dangerous terrain.
She was an adventurer in the name of science. In 1928 she was hired to collect plants in Alaska; the next year she went to South America and travelled by canoe down the Amazon River, covering 4,800 kilometres in two and a half years to its source in the Andes. Her specimens were distributed to herbaria throughout the U. S. and Western Europe. In addition to collecting, Mexía wrote articles and gave lectures describing her adventures and travels. During her collecting trips, Mexía would join other expeditions, including one headed by A. S. Hitchcock and Agnes Chase of the U. S. National Herbarium, T. Harper Goodspeed’s University of California Botanical Expedition. Mexía learned. Nina Floy "Bracie" Bracelin served as Mexía's collection manager, caring for the specimens and sending them out for identification. Credit is due to Nina Floy Bracelin, affectionately kn
The Berlin-Lichterfelde Süd–Teltow Stadt railway is a single-track railway in the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg. It is electrified by bottom contact third rail at 750 V DC and is used by the trains on line S25 of the Berlin S-Bahn; the line begins in Lichterfelde Süd station and branches on the outskirts of Berlin from the Anhalt Suburban Line. The line was opened to Teltow Stadt in 2005. There were plans for this line and an extension to Stahnsdorf in the period between the two world wars; the first plans for a connection from the Anhalt Suburban Line at Lichterfelde to the town of Teltow and the Cemetery Railway in Stahnsdorf existed in the 1920s. In the 1930s, the Nazis were planning an extensive reconstruction of the Berlin railway infrastructure in the south of the city; this S-Bahn line was planned. Between central Teltow and Stahnsdorf, a freight line would run parallel to it to provide a more direct connection from the Großbeeren marshalling yard via Stahnsdorf to Potsdam. Neither project was realised.
Provision was made for the planned line during the reconstruction of Lichterfelde Süd station up to 1943, including the building of two platforms. After the end of World War II and the subsequent division of Germany, these plans were not pursued, but the route was retained. After the re-opening of the S-Bahn to Lichterfelde Süd in 1998, there was growing interest in extending the line to Teltow; the ground-breaking ceremony for the extension of the line was carried out on 22 October 2003 and the line went into operation on 24 February 2005. In contrast to the original plans, the line was built as a single track and the construction of a station at Teltow-Seehof has not been implemented for the time being. In February 2014, the new Zugbeeinflussungssystem S-Bahn Berlin train control system was put into operation on the line; this replaced the existing mechanical train stop system. "Teltow–Stahnsdorf". Stillgelegte-s-bahn.de. Retrieved 24 March 2015. "Lichterfelde–Stahnsdorf". Bahnstrecken im Süden Berlins.
Retrieved 24 March 2015