Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn County and, with 123,000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the city on the Neckar is the seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes most of northeast Baden-Württemberg. Furthermore, Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt, after Heinrich von Kleist's Das Käthchen von Heilbronn. Heilbronn is located in the northern corner of the Neckar basin at the bottom of the Wartberg, it occupies both banks of the Neckar, the highest spot inside city limits is the Schweinsberg with a height of 372 meters. Heilbronn is surrounded by vineyards. Heilbronn and its surroundings are located in the northern part of the larger Stuttgart metropolitan area; the city is the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region and is one of fourteen such cities in the Baden-Württemberg master plan of 2002. It serves Abstatt, Bad Rappenau, Bad Wimpfen, Brackenheim, Eberstatt, Eppingen, Gemmingen, Güglingen, Ittlingen, Lauffen am Neckar, Leingarten, Löwenstein, Neckarwestheim, Obersulm, Schwaigern, Talheim, Weinsberg, Wüstenrot, Zaberfeld as a regional economic centre.
Heilbronn shares a border with the following cities and towns, all part of Heilbronn County and listed here clockwise from the North: Bad Wimpfen, Erlenbach, Lehrensteinsfeld, Flein, Lauffen am Neckar, Leingarten, Schwaigern and Bad Rappenau. The city is divided into nine boroughs: The oldest traces of humans in and around Heilbronn date back to the Old Stone Age; the fertile Neckar floodplains in the Heilbronn basin aided early settlement by farmers and ranchers. The city limits of present-day Heilbronn contain. On, but still before AD, the Celts mined here for salt from brine. Under Roman Emperor Domitian the Romans pushed east away from the Rhine and the outer boundary of the Roman Empire was set at the Neckar-Odenwald Limes. A castle in today's borough of Böckingen was part of that limes, nearby numerous Roman villas and plantations were built. Around AD 150, the Neckar-Odenwald Limes became obsolete when the boundary of the Roman Empire was moved 30 km to the east, where it was subsequently fortified with the construction of the Upper Germanic Limes complete with parapet and trenches.
Around 260, the Romans surrendered the limes, the Alamanni became rulers of the Neckar basin. Between the 4th and 7th centuries, the area became part of the Frankish Empire, the first settlement was built in the general vicinity of the present center of town. In 741 Heilbronn is first mentioned in an official document of the Diocese of Würzburg as villa Helibrunna, in 841, King Louis the German set up court here for a period of time; the name Heilbrunna hints to a well, located not far from the basilica. In 1050 a significant settlement of Jews is noted in official documents, the Codex of the monastery in Hirsau documented Heilbronn's right to hold market days and mint coins, mentioning its harbor and vineyards as well; the name of the city became a widespread Jewish surname in many varieties, see Heilprin and Halperin. In 1225 Heilbronn was incorporated into the Hohenstaufen Empire as oppidum Heilecbrunnen. Oppidum signified a city fortified by parapet and trenches. During the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights obtained ownership of a large area south of Heilbronn which would remain owned by that order until German Mediatisation in 1805.
Starting in 1268, the order built the Deutschhof there as one of its residences. The church building of the order, located on the premises was modified and expanded several times: First in 1350 it was expanded it was remodeled in 1719, in 1977, it was consecrated as a cathedral. After the demise of the Staufen dynasty, King Rudolf I returned city status to Heilbronn in 1281 and installed a regal advocate to rule the city. In addition to the advocate he put a council in place, headed up by a mayor. Around 1300, the first city hall was erected in the market place and the Kilianskirche was expanded; the Neckar privilege gave the city the right to modify the flow of the river in 1333, which meant it now had the right to construct dams and mills. Because of the infrastructure thus created, during the 14th century Heilbronn grew attractive to merchants and craftspeople, who now demanded the right to determine their own fate. In 1371 Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, issued a new charter to the city. Now Heilbronn needed as such was an Imperial Free City.
Craftspeople and merchants were now represented in its council and the villages of Böckingen, Flein and Neckargartach became part of Heilbronn's territory. As an Imperial Free City Heilbronn was threatened by the ambitious House of Württemberg. A relationship with the Holy Roman Emperor and a treaty with the Electorate of the Palatinate in effect from 1417 to 1622 strengthened Heilbronn's position and kept the House of Württemberg at bay; the political stability enjoyed by the city during the 15th century enabled it to expand, many of its historic structures, such as the Kilianskirche, trace their origins to that era. Götz von Berlichingen spent three years in "kn
Aalen is a former Free Imperial City located in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg, about 70 kilometres east of Stuttgart and 48 kilometres north of Ulm. It is its largest town, it is the largest town in the Ostwürttemberg region. Since 1956, Aalen has had the status of Große Kreisstadt, it is noted for its many half-timbered houses constructed from the 16th century through the 18th century. With an area of 146.63 km2, Aalen is ranked 7th in Baden-Württemberg and 2nd within the Government Region of Stuttgart, after Stuttgart. With a population of about 66,000, Aalen is the 15th most-populated settlement in Baden-Württemberg. Aalen is situated on the upper reaches of the river Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Jura which lies to the south and south-east, close to the hilly landscapes of the Ellwangen Hills to the north and the Welland to the north-west; the west of Aalen's territory is on the foreland of the eastern Swabian Jura, the north and north-west is on the Swabian-Franconian Forest, both being part of the Swabian Keuper-Lias Plains.
The south-west is part of the Albuch, the east is part of the Härtsfeld, these two both being parts of the Swabian Jura. The Kocher enters the town's territory from Oberkochen to the south, crosses the district of Unterkochen enters the town centre, where the Aal flows into it; the Aal is a small river located only within the town's territory. Next, the Kocher crosses the district of Wasseralfingen leaves the town for Hüttlingen. Rivers originating near Aalen are the Rems and the Jagst, both being tributaries of the Neckar, just like the Kocher; the elevation in the centre of the market square is 430 metres relative to Normalhöhennull. The territory's lowest point is at the Lein river near Rodamsdörfle, the highest point is the Grünberg's peak near Unterkochen at 733 metres. Aalen's territory ranges over all lithostratigraphic groups of the South German Jurassic: Aalen's south and the Flexner massif are on top of the White Jurassic, the town centre is on the Brown Jurassic, a part of Wasseralfingen is on the Black Jurassic.
As a result, the town advertises itself as a "Geologist's Mecca". Most parts of the territory are on the Opalinuston-Formation of the Aalenian subdivision of the Jurassic Period, named after Aalen. On the Sandberg, the Schnaitberg and the Schradenberg hills, all in the west of Aalen, the Eisensandstein formation emerges to the surface. On the other hills of the city, sands and residual rubble prevail; the historic centre of Aalen and the other areas in the Kocher valley are founded on holocenic floodplain loam and riverbed gravel that have filled in the valley. Most parts of Dewangen and Fachsenfeld are founded on formations of Jurensismergel, Posidonienschiefer, Amaltheenton and Obtususton moving from south to north, all belonging to the Jurassic and being rich in fossils, they are at last followed by the Trossingen Formation belonging to the Late Triassic. Until 1939 iron ore was mined on the Braunenberg hill.. The maximum extent of the town's territory amounts to 18 kilometres in a north-south dimension and 25 kilometres in an east-west dimension.
The area is 14,662.8 hectares, which includes 42.2% 6,186.2 hectares agriculturally used area and 37.7% 5,534.9 hectares of forest. 11.5% 1,692.3 hectares are built up or vacant, 6.4% 932.8 hectares is used by traffic infrastructure. Sporting and recreation grounds and parks comprise 1% 152.7 hectares, other areas 1.1% 163.9 hectares. The following municipalities border on Aalen, they are listed clockwise, beginning south, with their respective linear distances to Aalen town centre given in brackets: Oberkochen, Heuchlingen, Abtsgmünd, Neuler, Hüttlingen, Westhausen, Lauchheim and Neresheim, all in the Ostalbkreis district, furthermore Heidenheim an der Brenz and Königsbronn, both in Heidenheim district. Aalen's territory consists of the town centre and the municipalities merged from between 1938 and 1975; the municipalities merged in the course of the latest municipal reform of the 1970s are called Stadtbezirke, are Ortschaften in terms of Baden-Württemberg's Gemeindeordnung, which means, each of them has its own council elected by its respective residents and is presided by a spokesperson.
The town centre itself and the merged former municipalities consist of numerous villages separated by open ground from each other and having their own independent and long-standing history. Some however have been created as planned communities, which were given proper names, but no well-defined borders. List of villages: Aalen forms a Mittelzentrum within the Ostwürttemberg region, its designated catchment area includes the following municipalities of the central and eastern Ostalbkreis district: Abtsgmünd, Essingen, Hüttlingen, Kirchheim am Ries, Neresheim, Oberkochen, R
Memmingen is a town in Swabia, Germany. It is the economic and administrative centre of the Danube-Iller region. To the west the town is flanked by the river that marks the Baden-Württemberg border. To the north and south the town is surrounded by the district of Unterallgäu. With about 42,000 inhabitants, Memmingen is the 5th biggest town in the administrative region of Swabia; the origins of the town go back to the Roman Empire. The old town, with its many courtyards and patricians' houses and fortifications is one of the best preserved in southern Germany. With good transport links by road and air, it is the transport hub for Upper and Central Swabia, the Allgäu. Due to its proximity to the Allgäu region, Memmingen is called the Gateway to the Allgäu; the town motto is Memmingen – Stadt mit Perspektiven. In recent times it has been referred to as Memmingen – Stadt der Menschenrechte; this alludes to the Twelve Articles, considered to be the first written set of human rights in Europe, which were penned in Memmingen in 1525.
Every four years there is the Wallensteinfestspiel, with about 4,500 participants, the biggest historical reenactment in Europe. It commemorates the invasion of Wallenstein and his troops in 1630, it is believed that on the site of present-day Memmingen in Roman times there was a small military town called Cassiliacum. In the 5th century an Alemanic settlement was established and in the 7th century there was here a palace belonging to the king of the Franks. Memmingen was linked to Bohemia and Munich by the salt road to Lindau. Another important route through Memmingen was the Italian road from Northern Germany to Switzerland and Italy. Both roads helped Memmingen gain importance as a trading centre. In the Middle Ages, the place was known as Mammingin. In 1286 it became an Imperial City, responsible only to the Kaiser. Christoph Schappeler, the preacher at St. Martin's in Memmingen during the early 16th century, was an important figure during the Protestant Reformation and the German Peasants' War.
His support for peasant rights helped to draw peasants to Memmingen. The city first followed the Tetrapolitan Confession, the Augsburg Confession; the Twelve Articles: The Just and Fundamental Articles of All the Peasantry and Tenants of Spiritual and Temporal Powers by Whom They Think Themselves Oppressed was written in early 1525. This was a religious petition borrowing from Luther's ideas to appeal for peasant rights. Within two months of its publication in Memmingen, 25,000 copies of the tract were in circulation around Europe; these are the first known set of human rights documents in the world. In the 1630s Memmingen was at centre stage during the Thirty Years' War, the Imperial generalissimo Wallenstein was quartered in the town when he was dismissed from service. From 1632 Memmingen was garrisoned by the Swedish army, became a base of operations for Swedish troops in Swabia. In September 1647 the Imperialists besieged the Swedish garrison, under Colonel Sigismund Przyemski. Two months the town surrendered.
Following the reorganization of Germany in 1802, Memmingen became part of Bavaria. The 19th century saw the slow economic deterioration of the town, halted only with the building of a railway following the course of the River Iller. Since World War II Memmingen has been a developing town, with a rate of economic growth above the average for Bavaria; every year Memmingen celebrates the Fischertag. Men who were born in Memmingen or live there for at least ten years, jump into the river that flows through the town and try to catch trout; every four years Memmingen re-enacts the events around the visit of Wallenstein in 1630. The next Wallenstein Festival will occur during the summer of 2016; the theatre has a long tradition in Memmingen. By the Middle Ages some chroniclers were recording different theatre performances. In 1937 the Landestheater Schwaben or LTS was founded in the city. In 1945, after World War II, the LTS was one of the first theatres in West Germany to begin putting on performances again.
The performances take place in the Rooms of the City Theatre, the theatre at the Schweizerberg, in the Kaminwerk cultural centre or in rooms at the boroughs of Memmingen. The Schweizerberg Theatre will be closed at the end of 2010, it will move to new premises in the Elsbethen area, behind the City Theatre, where a new cabaret stage, rehearsing rooms, depots, management rooms, the foyer and some guest rooms will be built. Another theatre was founded by Helmut Wolfseher and members of the Alternative Kleinkunst e. V. Parterretheater im Künerhaus; this theatre is for amateur actors and young talented musicians. The Kaminwerk puts on major plays by amateur actors; the municipal hall is for other artists. The following works featuring Memmingen have been produced: Stage play Memmingen from Bettina Fless Book Mohr of Memmingen from Utz Benkel Song Memmingen by Blackmore’s Night, see Shadow of the MoonStage plays and operas that have had world premières in Memmingen are: 1995: The Jewbank Metal-Operas by David DeFeis: 1999: Klytaimnestra 2001: Hel 2005: Lilith 2005: Mohr of Memmingen 2007: Green Organes 2008: Katharina and Till The biggest museum in Memmingen is the Town Museum at the Hermannsbau.
The town's history is described in its
The Augsburg Confession known as the Augustan Confession or the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Protestant Reformation. The Augsburg Confession was written in both German and Latin and was presented by a number of German rulers and free-cities at the Diet of Augsburg on 25 June 1530; the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V had called on the Princes and Free Territories in Germany to explain their religious convictions in an attempt to restore religious and political unity in the Holy Roman Empire and rally support against the Turkish invasion. It is the fourth document contained in the Lutheran Book of Concord. Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Luther and Justus Jonas had drafted a statement of their theological views in the Articles of Schwabach in 1529, when on 21 January 1530, Emperor Charles V issued letters from Bologna, inviting the Imperial Diet to meet in Augsburg on 8 April for the purpose of discussing and deciding various important questions.
Although the writ of invitation was couched in peaceful language, it was received with suspicion by some of the Protestants. Landgrave Philip of Hesse hesitated to attend the diet, but the Elector John of Saxony, who received the writ 11 March, on 14 March directed Martin Luther, Justus Jonas, Johannes Bugenhagen and Philipp Melanchthon to meet in Torgau, where he was, present a summary of the Lutheran faith to be laid before the Holy Roman Emperor at the diet; this summary has received the name of the "Torgau Articles". On 3 April, the elector and reformers started from Torgau, reached Coburg on 23 April. There, Luther was left behind; the rest reached Augsburg on 2 May. On the journey, Melanchthon worked on an "apology", using the Torgau articles, sent his draft to Luther at Coburg on 11 May, who approved it. Several alterations were suggested to Melanchthon in his conferences with Jonas, the Saxon chancellor Christian Beyer, the conciliatory Christopher von Stadion, bishop of Augsburg, the imperial secretary Alfonso de Valdes.
On 23 June, the final form of the text was adopted in the presence of the Elector John of Saxony, the Landgrave Philip of Hesse, the Margrave George of Brandenburg, the Dukes Ernest and Francis of Lüneburg, the representatives of Nuremberg and Reutlingen, other counselors, besides twelve theologians. After the reading, the confession was signed by the Elector John of Saxony, Margrave George of Brandenburg, Duke Ernest of Lüneburg, the Landgrave Philip of Hesse, the Prince Wolfgang of Anhalt, the representatives of Nuremberg and Reutlingen, also the electoral prince John Frederick and Duke Francis of Lüneburg. During the diet, the cities of Weißenburg in Bayern, Heilbronn and Windesheim expressed their concurrence with the confession; the emperor had ordered the confession to be presented to him at 24 June. When the Protestant princes asked that it be read in public, their petition was refused, efforts were made to prevent the public reading of the document altogether; the Protestant princes declared that they would not part with the confession until its reading should be allowed.
The 25th was fixed for the day of its presentation. In order to exclude the people, the little chapel of the episcopal palace was appointed in place of the spacious city hall, where the meetings of the diet were held; the two Saxon chancellors Christian Beyer and Gregor Bruck, the former with the plain German copy, the other in traditional Latin language, against the wish of the emperor stepped into the middle of the assembly. The reading of the German version of the text by Christian Beyer lasted two hours and was so distinct that every word could be heard outside; the reading being over, the copies were handed to the emperor. The German copy he gave to the Elector of Mainz; the Latin copy. Neither of the copies is now extant; the first official publication was edited by Philipp Melanchthon, a professor at the University of Wittenberg and a close colleague and friend of Martin Luther. The Augsburg Confession consists of 28 articles presented by Lutheran princes and representatives of "free cities" at the Diet of Augsburg that set forward what the Lutherans believed and confessed in positive and negative statements.
The theses are 21 Chief Articles of Faith describing the normative principles of Christian faith held by the Lutherans. "That in doctrine and ceremonies nothing has been received on our part against Scripture or the Church Catholic." Signatures of several secular leaders in Saxony. The Augsburg Confession became the primary confessional document for the Lutheran movement without the contribution of Martin Luther. Following the public reading of the Augsburg Confession in June 1530, the expected response by Charles V and the Vatican representatives at the Diet of Augsburg was not forthcoming. Following debate between the court of Charles V and the Vatican representatives, the official response known as the Pontifical Confutation of the Augsburg Confession was produced to the Diet, though the document was so poorly prepared that the document was never published for widespread distribution, nor presented to the Lutherans at the Diet. In September, Charles V declared the response to be sufficient and gave the Lutheran princes until 15 April 1531 to respond to the demands of the Confutation.
In response, Phillipp Melancthon wrote a lengthy and sustained argument both supporting the Augsburg Confession and refuting the arguments made in t
Electorate of Bavaria
The Electorate of Bavaria was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria. The Wittelsbach dynasty which ruled the Duchy of Bavaria was the younger branch of the family which ruled the Electorate of the Palatinate; the head of the elder branch was one of the seven prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire according to the Golden Bull of 1356, but Bavaria was excluded from the electoral dignity. In 1621, the Elector Palatine Frederick V was put under the imperial ban for his role in the Bohemian Revolt against Emperor Ferdinand II, the electoral dignity and territory of the Upper Palatinate was conferred upon his loyal cousin, Duke Maximilian I of Bavaria. Although the Peace of Westphalia would create a new electoral title for Frederick V's son, with the exception of a brief period during the War of the Spanish Succession, Maximilian's descendants would continue to hold the original electoral dignity until the extinction of his line in 1777.
At that point the two lines were joined in personal union until the end of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1805, after the Peace of Pressburg, the then-elector, Maximilian Joseph, raised himself to the dignity of King of Bavaria, the Holy Roman Empire was abolished the year after; the Electorate of Bavaria consisted of most of the modern regions of Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, the Upper Palatinate. Before 1779, it included the Innviertel, now part of modern Austria; this was ceded to the Habsburgs by the Treaty of Teschen, which ended the War of the Bavarian Succession. There were a considerable number of independent enclaves and jurisdictions within those broad areas, including the principalities of Palatinate-Neuburg and Palatinate-Sulzbach in the Upper Palatinate, which were held by cadet branches of the Palatinate line of the Wittelsbachs. For administration purposes Bavaria was from 1507 divided into four stewardships: Munich, Burghausen and Straubing. With the acquisition of the Upper Palatinate during the Thirty Years' War the stewardship Amberg was added.
In 1802 they were abolished by the minister Maximilian von Montgelas. In 1805 shortly before the elevation Tirol and Vorarlberg were united with Bavaria, same as several of these enclaves. By virtue of his electoral title, the Elector of Bavaria was a member of the Council of Electors in the Imperial Diet as well as Archsteward of the Holy Roman Empire. In the Council of Princes of the Diet prior to the personal union of 1777 he held individual voices as Duke of Bavaria and Princely Landgrave of Leuchtenberg. In the Imperial Circles he was, along with the Archbishop of Salzburg, co-Director of the Bavarian Circle, a circle territorially dominated by the elector's lands, he held lands in the Swabian Circle. After 1777 these lands were joined by all of the Palatine lands, including the Electorate of the Palatinate, the Duchies of Jülich and Berg, Palatinate-Neuburg, Palatinate-Sulzbach, Palatinate-Veldenz, other territories; when he had succeeded to the throne of the duchy of Bavaria in 1597, Maximilian I had found it encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his vigorous rule effected a remarkable change.
The finances and the judicial system were reorganised, a class of civil servants and a national militia founded, several small districts were brought under the duke's authority. The result was a unity and order in the duchy which enabled Maximilian to play an important part in the Thirty Years' War. In spite of subsequent reverses, Maximilian retained these gains at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the years of this war Bavaria the northern part, suffered severely. In 1632 the Swedes invaded, when Maximilian violated the treaty of Ulm in 1647, the French and the Swedes ravaged the land. After repairing this damage to some extent, the elector died at Ingolstadt in September 1651, leaving his duchy much stronger than he had found it; the recovery of the Upper Palatinate made Bavaria compact. Whatever lustre the international position won by Maximilian I might add to the ducal house, on Bavaria itself its effect during the next two centuries was more dubious. Maximilian's son, Ferdinand Maria, a minor when he succeeded, did much indeed to repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging agriculture and industries, building or restoring numerous churches and monasteries.
In 1669, moreover, he again called a meeting of the diet, suspended since 1612. His constructive work, was undone by his son Maximilian II Emanuel, whose far-reaching ambition set him warring against the Ottoman Empire and, on the side of France, in the great struggle of the Spanish succession, he shared in the defeat at the Battle of Blenheim, near Höchstädt, on 13 August 1704.
Free imperial city
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities worded free imperial city, was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet. An imperial city held the status of Imperial immediacy, as such, was subordinate only to the Holy Roman Emperor, as opposed to a territorial city or town, subordinate to a territorial prince – be it an ecclesiastical lord or a secular prince; the evolution of some German cities into self-ruling constitutional entities of the Empire was slower than that of the secular and ecclesiastical princes. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, some cities were promoted by the emperor to the status of Imperial Cities for fiscal reasons; those cities, founded by the German kings and emperors in the 10th through 13th centuries and had been administered by royal/imperial stewards gained independence as their city magistrates assumed the duties of administration and justice.
The Free Cities were those, such as Basel, Cologne or Strasbourg, that were subjected to a prince-bishop and progressively gained independence from that lord. In a few cases, such as in Cologne, the former ecclesiastical lord continued to claim the right to exercise some residual feudal privileges over the Free City, a claim that gave rise to constant litigation until the end of the Empire. Over time, the difference between Imperial Cities and Free Cities became blurred, so that they became collectively known as "Free Imperial Cities", or "Free and Imperial Cities", by the late 15th century many cities included both "Free" and "Imperial" in their name. Like the other Imperial Estates, they could wage war, make peace, control their own trade, they permitted little interference from outside. In the Middle Ages, a number of Free Cities formed City Leagues, such as the Hanseatic League or the Alsatian Décapole, to promote and defend their interests. In the course of the Middle Ages, cities gained, sometimes — if — lost, their freedom through the vicissitudes of power politics.
Some favored cities gained a charter by gift. Others purchased one from a prince in need of funds; some won it by force of arms during the troubled 13th and 14th centuries and others lost their privileges during the same period by the same way. Some cities became free through the void created by the extinction of dominant families, like the Swabian Hohenstaufen; some voluntarily placed themselves under the protection of a territorial ruler and therefore lost their independence. A few, like Protestant Donauwörth, which in 1607 was annexed to the Catholic Duchy of Bavaria, were stripped by the Emperor of their status as a Free City — for genuine or trumped-up reasons. However, this happened after the Reformation, of the sixty Free Imperial Cities that remained at the Peace of Westphalia, all but the ten Alsatian cities continued to exist until the mediatization of 1803. There were four thousand towns and cities in the Empire, although around the year 1600 over nine-tenths of them had fewer than one thousand inhabitants.
During the late Middle Ages, fewer than two hundred of these places enjoyed the status of Free Imperial Cities, some of those did so only for a few decades. The military tax register of 1521 listed eighty-five such cities, this figure had fallen to sixty-five by the time of the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. From the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 to 1803, their number oscillated at around fifty. Unlike the Free Imperial Cities, the second category of towns and cities, now called "territorial cities" were subject to an ecclesiastical or lay lord, while many of them enjoyed self-government to varying degrees, this was a precarious privilege which might be curtailed or abolished according to the will of the lord. Reflecting the extraordinarily complex constitutional set-up of the Holy Roman Empire, a third category, composed of semi-autonomous cities that belonged to neither of those two types, is distinguished by some historians; these were cities whose size and economic strength was sufficient to sustain a substantial independence from surrounding territorial lords for a considerable time though no formal right to independence existed.
These cities were located in small territories where the ruler was weak. They were the exception among the multitude of territorial towns and cities. Cities of both latter categories had representation in territorial diets, but not in the Imperial Diet. Free imperial cities were not admitted as own Imperial Estates to the Imperial Diet until 1489, then their votes were considered only advisory compared to the Benches of the electors and princes; the cities divided themselves into two groups, or benches, in the Imperial Diet, the Rhenish and the Swabian Bench. The following list contains the 50 Free imperial cities that took part in the Imperial Diet of 1792, they are listed according to their voting order on the Swabian benches. These same cities were among the 85 free imperial cities listed on the Reichsmatrikel of 1521: the federal civil and military tax-schedule used for more than a century to assess the contributions of all the Imperial Estates in case
Mulhouse is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders. With a population of 112,063 in 2013 and 284,739 inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2012, it is the largest city in the Haut-Rhin département, the second largest in the Alsace region after Strasbourg. Mulhouse is the principal commune of the 33 making up the communauté d'agglomération Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération. Mulhouse is famous for its museums the Cité de l’Automobile and the Musée Français du Chemin de Fer the largest automobile and railway museums in the world. An industrial town nicknamed "the French Manchester", Mulhouse is the main seat of the Upper Alsace University, where is found the secretariat of the European Physical Society. Mulhouse is the chief city of an arrondissement of the Haut-Rhin département, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Legends mention the origin of Mulhouse in 58 BC, but the first written records of the town date from the twelfth century, it was part of the southern Alsatian county of Sundgau in the Holy Roman Empire.
From 1354 to 1515, Mulhouse was part of the Décapole, an association of ten Free Imperial Cities in Alsace. The city joined the Swiss Confederation as an associate in 1515 and was therefore not annexed by France in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 like the rest of the Sundgau. An enclave in Alsace, it was a free and independent Calvinist republic, known as Stadtrepublik Mülhausen, associated with the Swiss Confederation until, after a vote by its citizens on 4 January 1798, it became a part of France in the Treaty of Mulhouse signed on 28 January 1798, during the Directory period of the French Revolution. Starting in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Koechlin family pioneered cotton cloth manufacturing. André Koechlin built machinery and started making railroad equipment in 1842; the firm in 1839 employed 1,800 people. It was one of the six large French locomotive constructors until the merger with Elsässische Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Grafenstaden in 1872, when the company became Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques.
After the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War, Mulhouse was annexed to the German Empire as part of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The city was occupied by French troops on 8 August 1914 at the start of World War I, but they were forced to withdraw two days in the Battle of Mulhouse; the citizens of Alsace who unwisely celebrated the appearance of the French army were left to face German reprisals, with several citizens sentenced to death. After World War I ended in 1918, French troops entered Alsace. Germany ceded the region to France under the Treaty of Versailles. After the Battle of France in 1940, it was occupied by German forces until its return to French control at the end of World War II in May 1945; the town's development was stimulated first by the expansion of the textile industry and tanning, subsequently by chemical and Engineering industries from the mid 18th century. Mulhouse was for a long time called the French Manchester; the town has enduring links with Louisiana, from which it imported cotton, with the Levant.
The town's history explains why its centre is small. Two rivers run through both tributaries of the Rhine. Mulhouse is 100 kilometres away from Strasbourg and Zürich, it lies close enough to Basel and Freiburg, Germany to share the EuroAirPort international airport with these two cities. Mulhouse's climate is temperate oceanic, but its location further away from the ocean gives the city colder winters with some snow, hot and humid summers, in comparison with the rest of France. Medieval Mulhouse consists of a lower and an upper town; the lower town was the inner city district of merchants and craftsmen. It developed around the Place de la Réunion. Nowadays this area is pedestrianised; the upper town developed from the eighteenth century on. Several monastic orders were established there, notably the Franciscans, Poor Clares and Knights of Malta; the Nouveau Quartier is the best example of urban planning in Mulhouse, was developed from 1826 on, after the town walls had been torn down. It is focused around the Place de la République.
Its network of streets and its triangular shape are a good demonstration of the town's desire for a planned layout. The planning was undertaken by the architects G. Félix Fries; this inner city district was occupied by rich families and the owners of local industries, who tended to be liberal and republican in their opinions. The Rebberg district consists of grand houses inspired by the colonnaded residences of Louisiana cotton planters; this was the town's vineyard. The houses here were built as terraces in the English style, a result of the town's close relationship with Manchester, where the sons of industrialists were sent to study. Hôtel de Ville; the town hall was built in 1553 in the Rhenish Renaissance style. Montaigne described it as a "palais magnifique et tout doré" in 1580, it is known for its trompe l'œil paintings, its pictures of allegories representing the vices and virtues. Workers' qu