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Free University of Berlin

The Free University of Berlin is a research university in Berlin, Germany. One of Germany's most distinguished universities, it is known for its research into the humanities, social sciences, as well as into the natural and life sciences; the Free University was founded in West Berlin in 1948 with American support during the early Cold War period as a de facto western continuation of the Frederick William University, in East Berlin and faced strong communist repression. The Free University of Berlin is one of eleven German elite universities in the German Universities Excellence Initiative. In 2008, in a joint effort, The Free University of Berlin, along with the Hertie School of Governance, WZB Social Science Research Center Berlin, created the Berlin Graduate School for Transnational Studies. Free University of Berlin was established by students and scholars on 4 December 1948; the foundation is connected to the beginning of the Cold War period. The University of Berlin was located in the former Soviet sector of Berlin and was granted permission to continue teaching by the Soviet Military Administration in Germany in January 1946.

The universities were influenced by communism as they were ground for the political disputes of the postwar period. This led to protests by students critical of the prevailing system. Between 1945 and 1948, more than 18 students were arrested or persecuted, some executed by the soviet secret police. At the end of 1947, first students demanded a university free from political influence; the climax of the protests was reached on 23 April 1948: after three students were expelled from the university without a trial, about 2,000 students protested at the Hotel Esplanade. By the end of April, the governor of the United States Army Lucius D. Clay gave the order to check for the formation of a new university in the western sectors. On 19 June 1948 the "preparatory committee for establishing a free university" consisting of politicians, administrative staff members and students, met. With a manifesto titled "Request for establishing a free university in Berlin" the committee appealed to the public for support.

The municipal authorities of Berlin granted the foundation of a free university and requested the opening for the coming winter semester 1948/49. Meanwhile, the students committee in the German Democratic Republic protested against the formation, the GDR described the new university as the "so-called free university" in official documents until the fall of the Berlin Wall; the council-manager government accepted the by-law on 4 November 1948. The by-law achieved prominence under its alias "the Berlin model": The university was founded as a statutory corporation and was not directly subjected to the state, as it was controlled by a supervisory board consisting of six representatives of the state of Berlin, three representatives of the university and students; this form was unique in Germany at that time, as the students had much more influence on the system than before. But until the 1970s, the involvement of the students in the committees was cut back while adapting to the model of the western German universities in order to be recognized as an equivalent university.

On 15 November 1948, the first lectures were held in the buildings of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science. The actual foundation took place on 4 December 1948 in the Titania palace, the film theater with the biggest hall available in the western sectors of Berlin. Attendants of the event were not only scientists and students, but representatives of American universities, among them Stanford University and Yale University; the first elected president of the FU Berlin was the historian Friedrich Meinecke. By 1949, Free University had registered 4,946 students; until the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, many students came from the soviet sector supported through the "Währungsstipendium" of the senate. On 26 June 1963, the same day he held his famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech at Rathaus Schöneberg, John F. Kennedy was awarded honorary citizen by the Free University and held a ceremonial speech in front of the Henry Ford building in which he addressed the future of Berlin and Germany under the consideration of the motto of the FU.

Amongst the attendant crowd are the Governing Mayor of Berlin Willy Brandt and the Chancellor of Germany Konrad Adenauer. His brother, Robert F. Kennedy visited the university in 1962 for the first time and in June 1964 for receiving his honorary degree from the Department of Philosophy; the speech he held at the event was dedicated to John F. Kennedy, assassinated just the year before. In the late 1960s, Free University of Berlin was one of the main scenes of the German student movement of 68 as a reaction to the global student protests during that time. After the assassination of student Benno Ohnesorg and the attempt on Rudi Dutschke's life, protests escalated to violence in all of Germany; the events of the 68-movement provided the impulse for more openness and democracy in German society. During the 1970s and the 1980s, the university became a "Massenuniversität" with 50,298 registered students in 1983. After reunification, Free University of Berlin was the second largest university in Germany with 62,072 students in the winter term of 1991/92.

Shortly thereafter, the senate of Berlin decided to drastically reduce enr

Parkes ministry (1877)

The second Parkes ministry was the sixteenth ministry of the Colony of New South Wales, was led by the Honourable Henry Parkes. It was the second of five occasions. Having served in the New South Wales Legislative Council between 1854 and 1856, Parkes was elected in the first free elections for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly held in 1856, however resigned from Parliament that year, he served in the Assembly on several occasions, between 1858 and 1870, being forced to resign on at least on occasion due to his personal insolvency. He came to power as Premier on the first occasion in 1872, serving as Premier for a period of three years. However, Parkes lost the confidence of the Assembly following Governor Robinson's decision to release of the bushranger Frank Gardiner led to the defeat of the ministry in 1875. John Robertson served as Leader of the Government between 1875 and 1877, before Robertson was defeated at the 1877 election. Parkes formed his second ministry in a challenging environment where both Parkes and Robertson shared equal representation in the Legislative Assembly and business was sometimes at a standstill.

The title of Premier was used to refer to the Leader of Government, but not enshrined in formal use until 1920. There was no party system in New South Wales politics until 1887. Under the constitution, ministers were required to resign to recontest their seats in a by-election when appointed; these by-elections are only noted. This ministry covers the period from 22 March 1877 until 16 August 1877. Henry Parkes - seventh Premier of New South Wales Self-government in New South Wales Members of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, 1874–1877 First Parkes ministry Third Parkes ministry Fourth Parkes ministry Fifth Parkes ministry

Jihad Dib

Jihad Dib is an Australian politician, elected at the 2015 New South Wales state election to the Legislative Assembly as the member for Lakemba representing the Labor Party. He is the first Muslim MP to represent the Lakemba seat—which has the highest proportion of Muslims in NSW—and the first Muslim MP in the NSW lower house. Dib was migrated to Australia with his family when he was two years old, he began his career as a teacher at Ulladulla High School. He was principal of Punchbowl Boys High School from 2007 to 2014. Dib is acknowledged for changing a tough school into a respected community facility, he had served on the Australia Day Council of New South Wales, the New South Wales Police Commissioner's Advisory Panel and the SBS Community Advisory Committee, was awarded a Pride of Australia award in 2013. Dib is married to Erin, who graduated as a Japanese teacher in the same year as him, with whom he has three children, his brother is boxing champion Billy Dib