Free jazz is an approach to jazz that developed in the 1960s when musicians attempted to change or break down jazz conventions, such as regular tempos and chord changes. Musicians during this period believed that the bebop, hard bop, modal jazz, played before them was too limiting, they became preoccupied with creating something new. Free jazz has been combined with or substituted for the term "avant-garde jazz". Europeans tend to favor the term "free improvisation". Others have used "modern jazz", "creative music", "art music"; the ambiguity of free jazz presents problems of definition. Although it is played by small groups or individuals, free jazz big bands have existed. Although musicians and critics claim it is innovative and forward looking, it draws on early styles of jazz and has been described as an attempt to return to primitive religious, roots. Although jazz is an American invention, free jazz musicians drew from world music and ethnic music traditions from around the world. Sometimes they invented their own.
They emphasized emotional sound for its own sake. Some jazz musicians resist any attempt at classification. One difficulty is. Many musicians draw on free jazz concepts and idioms, free jazz was never distinct from other genres, but free jazz does have its own characteristics. Pharoah Sanders and John Coltrane used harsh overblowing or other extended techniques to elicit unconventional sounds from their instruments. Like other forms of jazz it places an aesthetic premium on expressing the "voice" or "sound" of the musician, as opposed to the classical tradition in which the performer is seen more as expressing the thoughts of the composer. Earlier jazz styles were built on a framework of song forms, such as twelve-bar blues or the 32-bar AABA popular song form with chord changes. In free jazz, the dependence on a fixed and pre-established form is eliminated, the role of improvisation is correspondingly increased. Other forms of jazz use regular meters and pulsed rhythms in 4/4 or 3/4. Free jazz retains pulsation and sometimes swings but without regular meter.
Frequent Accelerando and ritardando give an impression of rhythm. Previous jazz forms used harmonic structures cycles of diatonic chords; when improvisation occurred, it was founded on the notes in the chords. Free jazz by definition is free of such structures, but by definition it retains much of the language of earlier jazz playing, it is therefore common to hear diatonic, altered dominant and blues phrases in this music. Guitarist Marc Ribot commented that Ornette Coleman and Albert Ayler "although they were freeing up certain strictures of bebop, were in fact each developing new structures of composition." Some forms use composed melodies as the basis for group improvisation. Free jazz practitioners sometimes use such material. Other compositional structures are employed, some detailed and complex; the breakdown of form and rhythmic structure has been seen by some critics to coincide with jazz musicians' exposure to and use of elements from non-Western music African and Indian. The atonality of free jazz is credited by historians and jazz performers to a return to non-tonal music of the nineteenth century, including field hollers, street cries, jubilees.
This suggests that the movement away from tonality was not a conscious effort to devise a formal atonal system, but rather a reflection of the concepts surrounding free jazz. Jazz became "free" by removing dependence on chord progressions and instead using polytempic and polyrhythmic structures. Rejection of the bop aesthetic was combined with a fascination with earlier styles of jazz, such as dixieland with its collective improvisation, as well as African music. Interest in ethnic music resulted in the use of instruments from around the world, such as Ed Blackwell's West African talking drum, Leon Thomas's interpretation of pygmy yodeling. Ideas and inspiration were found in the music of John Cage, Musica Elettronica Viva, the Fluxus movement. Many critics at the music's inception, suspected that abandonment of familiar elements of jazz pointed to a lack of technique on the part of the musicians. Today such views are more marginal, the music has built a body of critical writing. Many critics have drawn connections between the term "free jazz" and the American social setting during the late 1950s and 1960s the emerging social tensions of racial integration and the civil rights movement.
Many argue those recent phenomena such as the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954, the emergence of the "Freedom Riders" in 1961, the 1963 Freedom Summer of activist-supported black voter registration, the free alternative black Freedom Schools demonstrate the political implications of the word "free" in context of free jazz, thus many consider free jazz to be not only a rejection of certain musical credos and ideas, but a musical reaction to the oppression and experience of black Americans. Although free jazz is considered to begin in the late 1950s, there are compositions that precede this era that have notable connections to the free jazz aesthetic; some of the works of Lennie Tristano in the late 1940s "Intuition", "Digression", "Descent into the Maelstrom" exhibit the use of techniques associated with free jazz, such as atonal collective improvisation and lack of discrete chord changes. Other notable examples of proto-free jazz include City of Glass written in 1948 by Bob
The World War II Victory Medal is a service medal of the United States military, established by an Act of Congress on 6 July 1945 and promulgated by Section V, War Department Bulletin 12, 1945. The World War I Victory Medal is the corresponding medal from World War I; the World War II Victory Medal was first issued as a service ribbon referred to as the “Victory Ribbon.” The World War II Victory Medal was established by an Act of Congress on 6 July 1945 and promulgated by Section V, War Department Bulletin 12, 1945. The medal was designed by Mr. Thomas H. Jones and approved by the Secretary of War on 5 February 1946, it did not transition from a ribbon to a full medal until after World War II had ended. The Congressional authorization for the medal specified that it was to be awarded to any member of the United States military, including members of the armed forces of the Government of the Philippine Islands, who served on active duty, or as a reservist, between 7 December 1941 and 31 December 1946.
On 8 August 1946, the separate Merchant Marine World War II Victory Medal was established for members of the United States Merchant Marine who served during World War II. The World War II Victory Medal was awarded for service between 7 December 1941 and 31 December 1946, both dates inclusive, with no minimum time in service requirement; the National Personnel Records Center has reported some cases of service members receiving the award for only a few days of service. As the Second World War ended on 2 September 1945, there may be cases of service members who had enlisted, entered officer candidate school, or had been a cadet or midshipman at the U. S. Military Academy, the U. S. Naval Academy or the U. S. Coast Guard Academy between 3 September 1945 and any date in 1946, receiving the medal without having been a veteran of World War II; the reason for this late date is that President Harry S. Truman did not declare an official end of hostilities until the last day of 1946; as every member of the United States Armed Forces who served from December 7, 1941 to December 31, 1946 was eligible for the medal, there were over 12 million eligible recipients, making the World War II Victory Medal the second most awarded military award of the United States, after the National Defense Service Medal.
The bronze medal is 1 4⁄8 inches in width. The obverse is a figure of Liberation standing full length with head turned to dexter looking to the dawn of a new day, right foot resting on a war god’s helmet with the hilt of a broken sword in the right hand and the broken blade in the left hand, the inscription WORLD WAR II placed below the center. On the reverse are inscriptions for the Four Freedoms: FREEDOM FROM FEAR AND WANT and FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND RELIGION separated by a palm branch, all within a circle composed of the words UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 1941 1945; the suspension and service ribbon of the medal is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 3⁄8 inch double rainbow in juxtaposition. The rainbow on each side of the ribbon is a miniature of the pattern used in the World War I Victory Medal. Although the World War I Victory Medal included clasps, the World War II Victory Medal did not; this was. Awards and decorations of the United States military Merchant Marine World War II Victory Medal United States Statutes at Large.
Vol. 59. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register. 1946. P. 461. Code of Federal Regulations. Washington, DC: Office of the Federal Register. 2008. 32CFR578.47. Retrieved 4 June 2009. NavPers 15,790: Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy. 1960. P. 161. OCLC 45726498. Retrieved 4 June 2009. MIL-DTL-3943/237A: Detail Specification Sheet — Medal, World War II Victory. 15 August 2008. Retrieved 4 June 2009. MIL-DTL-11589/149E: Detail Specification Sheet — Ribbon, World War II Victory Medal. 15 September 1995. Retrieved 4 June 2009. "World War II Victory Medal". Fort Belvoir, Virginia: The Institute of Heraldry, U. S. Army. Archived from the original on 9 September 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2009
Johnson Hagood Stadium, is an 11,500-seat football stadium, the home field of The Citadel Bulldogs, in Charleston, South Carolina, USA. The stadium is named in honor of Brigadier General Johnson Hagood, CSA, class of 1847, who commanded Confederate forces in Charleston during the Civil War and served as Comptroller and Governor of South Carolina; when the condition of the existing College Park Stadium became so poor as to be unserviceable, the city of Charleston chose to construct a new sports stadium just south of the new campus of The Citadel, on Hagood Avenue. The new stadium was opened October 15, 1927, with a football game between The Citadel and Oglethorpe; the original stadium seated 10,000 fans and was oriented east-west, perpendicular to the current layout. The current Johnson Hagood Stadium was designed by the architectural firm of Cummings, it opened with seating for 22,343 on October 1948, with a game between The Citadel and Davidson. The formal dedication of the new $600,000 stadium took place at The Citadel-Clemson football game held on December 4, 1948, before a then-record crowd of 16,000.
The Citadel suggested buying the stadium from the city in 1962. It was purchased by The Citadel from the city of Charleston in 1963; the historic facility gained national attention during summer 1999 when remains of crewmen from the H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink an enemy battleship, were unearthed from underneath the stadium; the location of the stadium had once been a mariners' graveyard. In 1948, when the stadium was being built, a miscommunication led to the gravestones being moved, but not the bodies. In 1993, the bodies of 13 sailors were discovered under the parking lot. After the discovery of the sunken Hunley in 1995, there was renewed interest in the remains of its first crew, who had died in an unsuccessful 1863 run. Archaeologists were given permission to conduct more thorough searches as part of the renovations of the stadium, four of the five sailors' bodies were located under the home stands; the remains were reinterred at Magnolia Cemetery. In 2001, The Citadel opened the Altman Athletic Center located in the South end zone.
The facility features home and visitor locker rooms, officials’ room and a spacious entertainment area for members of The Citadel Brigadier Foundation. In 2005, stadium underwent a major renovation to update the facility by adding an improved media center, luxury skyboxes, other features. In September 2004, the Board of Visitors approved plans to build a new stadium on nearby Stoney Field, but there were concerns about funding the $47 million project and about engineering issues associated with building on marshy land. In February 2005, The Citadel opted to make changes to the existing facility instead. In 2008, the West Side Tower opened; the completed project features club seats, a press box. The field was named Sansom Field in 2008, commemorating alumnus William B. Sansom, a 1964 graduate. In 2016, The Citadel determined; the work resulted in the entire east side being closed for the first game of the 2016 season and some sections being opened for subsequent games. The resulting capacity was 10,500 for the first game, about 15,000 for games.
The Board of Visitors decided to renovate the east side of the stadium, announcing that decision on December 2, 2016. In May 2017, demolition began on the east side stands, which will be replaced by temporary seating for 1,000 people during the next two seasons. In addition to Citadel football games, the stadium hosts high school football games for Burke High School, as well as the Sertoma Football Classic, a series of football scrimmages which raises money for charity and marks the beginning of the Charleston area high school football season; the venue hosted the 1983 NCAA Division I-AA Football Championship Game and the 1984 NCAA Division I-AA Football Championship Game. The stadium has hosted three home Citadel playoff games; this table shows the top 10 attendance figures for The Citadel at Johnson Hagood Stadium: List of NCAA Division I FCS football stadiums Sansom Field at Johnson Hagood Stadium
Tormore School was a private boarding and day school for girls in North Adelaide, South Australia. Tormore House had its origins in a small school for girls set up by Elizabeth McMinn and her two sisters <--Mabel and Ann--> Sally or Sallie and Martha, on Molesworth Street, North Adelaide in 1876. This may have been their family home. In February 1884 the McMinn sisters moved their school to another property on nearby Buxton Street, which they dubbed "Tormore" for their birthplace in Ireland. Residents of Tormore, Ireland included one Mary Rutherdale - from Parish Headstones Donaghmore, Ireland"Here lie the remains of Robert McMinn, of Tormore, who departed this life the 12th October, 1808, aged 70 years; the remains of his brother Gilbert McMinn of Tormore, who departed this life on the 12th of April, 1823, aged 77 years. The remains of their niece Mary Rutherdale, of Tormore, who departed this life on the 3rd of January, 1849, Aged 84 years. Robert McMinn, of Castle Ennigan, died 15th December, 1879, Aged 80 years."It had been John Whinham's North Adelaide Grammar School, which he relinquished to move to larger premises at the corner of Ward and Jeffcott Streets.
The school was taken over by Ann and Caroline Jacob towards the end of 1897, the McMinn sisters left Adelaide on 15 December, retiring to Ealing Common, England. The school moved to new premises at 211 Childers Street in January 1899, with a house for boarders alongside. In 1907 Caroline Jacob took over the Unley Park Grammar School and ran the two institutions concurrently. Around this time substantial improvements were made: separate facilities for the younger students and additional premises for boarders, art studies and a kindergarten. Caroline Jacob's father financed the construction of a gymnasium, which served as a large meeting-hall. School enrolments declined alarmingly during World War I. "Andover" became the site of the Kindergarten Teachers College the Kingston College of Advanced Education in 1974. A Tormore Old Scholars' Association was active from at least 1906 to 1954, a reunion held in 1936 of the McMinn sisters' students, attracted over 60 old scholars. Esther Gwendolyn "Stella" Bowen one of three women appointed official war artists WWII Phyllis Dorothy Cilento née McGlew Francisca Adriana "Paquita" Delprat, daughter of G. D. Delprat and wife of Douglas Mawson, her sister Lica Delprat Heather Gell leading exponent of Dalcroze Eurhythmics Gladys Reynell Muriel Parsons, of Aldgate, sister of Sir Angas Parsons Meredith Moulden, sister of Dr. Owen Moulden.
Married Richard Egerton-Warburton, of Broken Hill, in May 1908 Muriel Farr, a granddaughter of Archdeacon Farr Dorothy Davidson married Alan Sheidow, of O'Halloran Hill) Zoe Reid, well known in Adelaide Repertory Theatre, married H. F. B. Castle, of Sydney. Florence M Barnes Ellen Ida Benham, BSc. taught science until 1912 bought Walford School in Malvern M. Burgess BSc. taught at Unley Park Violet de Mole was French teacher 1900–. She educated at Advanced School for Girls. John Millard Dunn organist and choirmaster for St. Peter's Cathedral, taught singing and music theory Dorothea Landon Poole MA on staff from 1907. Miss Hamilton drawing teacher Hilda Farsky BA married Frederick William Eardley in 1909 Rosa C Fiveash drawing teacher E Milvain Good Mabel Phyllis Hardy student at Tormore taught at Unley Park campus proprietor and headmistress of Stawell School, Mount Lofty S E Holder BA mayoress of Victor Harbor Ann "Annie" Jacob, Caroline's sister Arabella Aldersey Manning married Charles Mather Leumane on 21 December 1907.
She was drawing teacher, 1900 to 1907. He was an operatic singing teacher. Mary A. Overbury prominent artist. Had her own school at Hawthorn. Hilda Tucker vice principal from c. 1915
Lapworth is a village and civil parish in Warwickshire, which had a population of 2,100 according to the 2001 census. It lies ten miles northwest of Warwick. Lapworth boasts an historic church, the Church of St Mary the Virgin, a chapel and two National Trust sites: Baddesley Clinton, a medieval moated manor house and garden; the church is a building of the 13th and 14th centuries. It includes several unusual features: the steeple is connected by a passage to the north aisle and is built sheer with a projecting stair. In the church the Portland memorial to Florence Bradshaw was the work of Eric Gill and was installed in 1928, it is a Child carved in low relief. The village is a popular area for cuisine, with three pubs "The Boot", "The Navigation" and "The Punch Bowl". At Kingswood Junction, the Grand Union Canal joins the Stratford-upon-Avon Canal, which has a major flight of locks. Catesby Lane in Lapworth is named after William Catesby, whose family had been settled at Bushwood Hall, in the neighbouring parish of Bushwood, since the 14th century.
The manor house was at Lapworth Hall, today Ireland's Farm, in the 17th and 18th centuries the house of the Mander family of Wolverhampton. The furniture designer and maker Hugh Birkett worked from the late 1940s until 1966 in the garage at his parents' home in Lapworth. Examples of his work can be seen at Cheltenham Museum. Lapworth railway station is on the Chiltern line from London to Birmingham. Called Kingswood, the station name was changed to Lapworth to avoid confusion with Kingswood station in Surrey. Junction 16 of the M40 motorway has only northbound entry and southbound exit to prevent traffic diverting through Hockley Heath as a shortcut to and from nearby junction 4 of the M42; the village is a commuter village for professionals employed in Birmingham and Coventry, most of whom today drive to their places of work. Robert Catesby, Gunpowder Plot conspirator Jonathan Darlington and Music Director of the Duisburg Philharmonic and Vancouver Opera Bob Davis a.k.a. Jasper Carrott Tony Iommi and founding member of Black Sabbath resides near the village Baron Edmiston of Lapworth Aaron Harvey Kirsch Andy Townsend ex-footballer and TV pundit Lapworth website Solihull and Leamington
Whisper to the Wild Water is a music album by Irish musician Máire Brennan, now known as Moya Brennan. This was the fourth solo outing for her, released in 1999. At the 43rd Annual Grammy Awards in 2001, it was nominated for the Best New Age Album. Recordings were made in various studios in Ireland during 1999: Pulse Recording Studios, Ireland – Windmill Lane Studios, Ireland – Mo Studios, Ireland – Tony Perrey was the engineer for "Mary of the Gaels" and "Sign from the Hills". Moya Brennan – Vocals, Keyboards Anthony Drennan – Guitars Máire Breatnach – Fiddle, Viola Mairtín O'Connor – Accordion Joe Csibi – Double Bass Keith Duffy – Bass Denis Woods – Keyboards Paul Jarvis – Vocals Máire's Band Dee Brennan – Vocals, Percussion Sinéad Madden – Vocals, Fiddle Ewan Cowley – Vocals, Guitar David MacMullan – Keyboards, Piano Tiarnan O'Duinnchinn – Uilleann pipes, Low Whistle Tony Steele – Bass Paul Byrne – Percussion Cór Mhuire na Doirí beaga – St. Mary's Church Choir of the Derrybegs Baba Brennan – Choir Leader Dee Brennan – Choir Conductor "Follow the Word" "Follow the Word" 1999, UK, Word/Universal Records 7012632267, Release Date 19 October 1999, CD 1999, USA, Word/Sony Records?, Release Date 19 October 1999, CD 1999, USA, Word/Sony Records 7012632259, Release Date 19 October 1999, Cassette 1999, Epic Records ESCA 8102, Release Date 19 October 1999, CD 2000, UK, Word/Universal Records 157 560-2, Release Date?
February 2000, CD