Free love is a social movement that accepts all forms of love. The movement's initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, adultery, it claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, no one else. Much of the free love tradition reflects a liberal philosophy that seeks freedom from state regulation and church interference in personal relationships. According to this concept, the free unions of adults are legitimate relations which should be respected by all third parties whether they are emotional or sexual relations. In addition, some free love writing has argued that both men and women have the right to sexual pleasure without social or legal restraints. In the Victorian era, this was a radical notion. A new theme developed, linking free love with radical social change, depicting it as a harbinger of a new anti-authoritarian, anti-repressive sensibility. According to today's stereotype, earlier middle-class Americans wanted the home to be a place of stability in an uncertain world.
To this mentality are attributed strongly-defined gender roles, which led to a minority reaction in the form of the free-love movement. While the phrase free love is associated with promiscuity in the popular imagination in reference to the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s the free-love movement has not advocated multiple-sexual partners or short-term sexual relationships. Rather, it has argued that sexual relations that are entered into should not be regulated by law; the term "sex radical" is used interchangeably with the term "free lover", was the preferred term by advocates because of the negative connotations of "free love". By whatever name, advocates had two strong beliefs: opposition to the idea of forced sexual activity in a relationship and advocacy for a woman to use her body in any way that she pleases. Laws of particular concern to free love movements have included those that prevent an unmarried couple from living together, those that regulate adultery and divorce, as well as age of consent, birth control, homosexuality and sometimes prostitution.
The abrogation of individual rights in marriage is a concern—for example, some jurisdictions do not recognize spousal rape or treat it less than non-spousal rape. Free-love movements since the 19th century have defended the right to publicly discuss sexuality and have battled obscenity laws. At the turn of the 20th century, some free-love proponents extended the critique of marriage to argue that marriage as a social institution encourages emotional possessiveness and psychological enslavement; the history of free love is entwined with the history of feminism. From the late 18th century, leading feminists, such as Mary Wollstonecraft, have challenged the institution of marriage, many have advocated its abolition. According to feminist critique, a married woman was a wife and mother, denying her the opportunity to pursue other occupations. In 1855, free love advocate Mary Gove Nichols described marriage as the "annihilation of woman," explaining that women were considered to be men's property in law and public sentiment, making it possible for tyrannical men to deprive their wives of all freedom.
For example, the law allowed a husband to beat his wife. Free-love advocates argued that many children were born into unloving marriages out of compulsion, but should instead be the result of choice and affection—yet children born out of wedlock did not have the same rights as children with married parents. In 1857, in the Social Revolutionist, Minerva Putnam complained that "in the discussion of free love, no woman has attempted to give her views on the subject" and challenged every woman reader to "rise in the dignity of her nature and declare herself free."In the 19th century at least six books endorsed the concept of free love, all of which were written by men. However of the four major free-love periodicals following the U. S. civil war, half had female editors. Mary Gove Nichols was the leading-female advocate and the woman most looked up to in the free-love movement, her autobiography became the first argument against marriage written from a woman's point of view. To proponents of free love, the act of sex was not just about reproduction.
Access to birth control was considered a means to women's independence, leading birth-control activists embraced free love. Sexual radicals remained focused on their attempts to uphold a woman's right to control her body and to discuss issues such as contraception, marital-sex abuse, sexual education; these people believed. To help achieve this goal, such radical thinkers relied on the written word, books and periodicals, by these means the movement was sustained for over fifty years, spreading the message of free love all over the United States. A number of utopian social movements throughout history have shared a vision of free love; the all-male Essenes, who lived in the Middle East from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD shunned sex and slavery. They renounced wealth, lived communally, were pacifist vegetarians. An Early Christian sect known as the Adamites existed in North Africa in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th centuries and rejected marriage, they believed themselves to be without original sin.
Ursin Durand was a French Benedictine of the Maurist Congregation, historian. He took vows in the monastery of Marmoutier at the age of nineteen and devoted himself to the study of diplomatics. In April, 1709, he joined his confrère Edmond Martène, making a literary tour through France with the purpose of collecting material for a new edition of a Gallia Christiana. After searching the archives of more than eight hundred abbeys and one hundred cathedral churches, they returned in 1713 to the monastery of St-Germain-des-Prés, laden with all kinds of historical documents, many of which were included in Gallia Christiana, while the others were published in a separate work, entitled Thesaurus novus anecdotorum. In 1718 the two Maurists started on a new literary tour through Germany and the Netherlands to collect material for Martin Bouquet's Rerum Gallicarum et Francicarum Scriptores. Besides collecting valuable material for Bouquet's work they gathered an immense mass of other historical documents which they published in a large work entitled Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum historicorum, dogmaticorum et moralium amplissima collectio.
They jointly published in French a learned account of their journeys: Voyage littéraire de deux religieux bénédictins de la Congrégation de St. Maur. In addition to the works which Durand published jointly with Martène, he collaborated with Dantine and Clémencet in a French work on diplomatics, entitled L'Art de vérifier les dates, continued Constant's Collection of Papal Letters, assisted Sabatier with the edition of the "Itala" and contributed to many other Maurist publications. In 1734 he was banished from the monastery of St-Germain-des-Prés as a Jansenist "Appellant", at the instance of Cardinal de Bissy, he was sent to the monastery of St. Eloi in Noyon. After two years he was permitted to repair to the monastery of Blancs-manteaux in Paris. Thesaurus novus Anecdotorum, 5 vol. in-folio, Paris, 1717. Thesaurus novus anecdotorum. 1. Paris: Florentin Delaulne. 1717. Thesaurus novus anecdotorum. 3. 1717. Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum historicorum, dogmatiorum et moralium amplissima collectio, 9 vol. fol.
Paris, 1724-1733. Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum historicorum, moralium amplissima collectio. 4. 1729. Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum historicorum, moralium amplissima collectio. 5. 1729. Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum historicorum, moralium amplissima collectio. 9. 1733. Voyage littéraire de deux Religieux Bénédictins de la Congrégation de Saint-Maur, 2 vol. Paris, 1717 and 1724. L'Art de vérifier les dates, 1750 edition in 2 parts L'Art de vérifier les dates, 1770 edition L'Art de vérifier les dates, 1818-1819 edition, 5 volumes Georgios Fatouros. "Durand, Ursin". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon. 16. Herzberg: Bautz. Cols. 408–409. ISBN 3-88309-079-4. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Durand Ursin". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Austrovenus stutchburyi, common name the New Zealand cockle or New Zealand little neck clam, is an edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Veneridae, the Venus clams. Cockles live in estuaries in New Zealand, they live in the subtidal to intertidal zone, when they are in the intertidal zone they live between the low tide mark and the mid tide mark. Cockles are unable to survive above the mid tide mark because of the increased exposure time. Cockles prefer to live in soft mud and fine sand, however they can be suffocated by fine sand. For this reason, they live in areas with a large grain size; the cockles bury 2 to 3 cm under the sand. Cockles have a soft body, protected from predation and wave movement by a sturdy shell. Predators find it difficult to pierce the shell of adult cockles. Sea birds drop cockles from high up, smashing their shells, to eat the body, but fish can't break the shells. Younger cockles are more vulnerable to predation because their shells aren't as hard as adult cockles.
If a cockle lives in the intertidal zone it is protected against desiccation by the shell closing together. A small amount of water is stored inside the shell. Strong wave action can dislodge cockles; the shell prevents damage to the body. Venerupis philippinarum Powell A. W. B. New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1 Glen Pownall, New Zealand Shells and Shellfish, Seven Seas Publishing Pty Ltd, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-85467-054-8