Stephen Valentine Patrick William "Steve" Allen was an American television personality, radio personality, composer, comedian and advocate of scientific skepticism. In 1954, he achieved national fame as the co-creator and first host of The Tonight Show, the first late night television talk show. Though he got his start in radio, Allen is best known for his extensive network television career, he gained national attention as a guest host on Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts. After he hosted The Tonight Show, he went on to host numerous game and variety shows, including his own The Steve Allen Show, I've Got a Secret, The New Steve Allen Show, he was a regular panel member on CBS's What's My Line?, from 1977 until 1981 wrote and hosted the award-winning public broadcasting show Meeting of Minds, a series of historical dramas presented in a talk format. Allen was a prolific composer. By his own estimate, he wrote more than 8,500 songs, some of which were recorded by numerous leading singers. Working as a lyricist, Allen won the 1964 Grammy Award for Best Original Jazz Composition.
He wrote more than 50 books, including novels, children's books, books of opinions, including his final book, Vulgarians at the Gate: Trash TV and Raunch Radio. In 1996 Allen was presented with the Martin Gardner Lifetime Achievement Award from the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, he has two stars on a Hollywood theater named in his honor. Allen was born in New York City, son of Billy and Isabelle Allen, a husband and wife vaudeville comedy team, he was raised on the South Side of Chicago by his mother's Irish Catholic family. Milton Berle called Allen's mother "the funniest woman in vaudeville". Allen's first radio job was on station KOY in Phoenix, after he left Arizona State Teachers College in Tempe while still a sophomore, he enlisted in the U. S. Army during World War II and was trained as an infantryman, he did not serve instead spending his service time at Camp Roberts, California. He returned to Phoenix before deciding to move back to California. Allen became an announcer for KFAC in Los Angeles moved to the Mutual Broadcasting System in 1946, talking the station into airing his five-nights-a-week comedy show Smile Time, co-starring Wendell Noble.
After Allen moved to CBS Radio's KNX in Los Angeles, his music-and-talk half-hour format changed to include more talk in an hourlong late-night format, boosting his popularity and creating standing-room-only studio audiences. During a show's segment, Allen went into the audience with a microphone to ad lib on-air for the first time, it became a commonplace part of his studio performances for many years. His program attracted a huge local following, as the host of a 1950 summer replacement show for the popular comedy Our Miss Brooks, he was exposed to a national audience for the first time. Allen's first television experience came in 1949 when he answered an ad for a TV announcer for professional wrestling. Although he knew nothing about wrestling, he watched some shows to gain insight, discovered that the announcers did not have well-defined names for the wrestling holds. So, when he got the job he created names for many of the holds. After the first match got under way, Allen began ad-libbing in a comedic style which had audiences outside the arena laughing.
An example: Leone gives Smith a full nelson now, slipping it up from either a half-nelson or an Ozzie Nelson. Now the boys go into a double pretzel bend with variations on a theme by Yolanda. After CBS radio gave Allen a weekly prime time show, CBS television believed it could groom him for national TV stardom and gave him his first network show; the Steve Allen Show premiered at 11 a.m. on Christmas Day, 1950, was moved into a thirty-minute, early evening slot. This new show required him to uproot his family and move from Los Angeles to New York due to technological limitations; the show ran until its cancellation in 1952, after which CBS tried several shows to showcase Allen's talent. He achieved national attention when he was pressed into last-minute service to guest host the hugely popular Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts when Godfrey was unable to appear, he turned one of Godfrey's live Lipton tea and soup commercials upside down, preparing tea and instant soup on camera pouring both into Godfrey's iconic ukulele.
With the audience laughing uproariously and entertained, Allen gained major plaudits both as a comedian and a host. Variety magazine editors who had seen the show wrote, "One of the most hilarious one-man comedy sequences projected over the TV cameras in many a day.... The guy's a natural for the big time."Allen was a regular on the popular panel game show What's My Line? from 1953 to 1954, returned as a panelist until the series ended in 1967. Steve was sometimes jokingly referred to as the son of fellow panelist Fred Allen, but the two men were unrelated. Leaving CBS, Allen created a late-night New York talk/variety TV program that debuted in June 1953 on local station WNBT-TV; the following year, on September 27, 1954, the show went on the full NBC network as The Tonight Show, with fellow radio personality Gene Rayburn as the original announcer. The show ran from 11:15 p.m. to 1 a.m. on the East Coast. While Today developer Sylvester "Pat" Weaver is credited as the Tonight creator, Allen pointed out that he had created it earlier as a local New York show.
Allen told his nationwide audience that f
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner. Medical education and training varies across the world. Various teaching methodologies have been utilised in medical education, an active area of educational research. Entry-level medical education programs are tertiary-level courses undertaken at a medical school. Depending on jurisdiction and university, these may be either undergraduate-entry, or graduate-entry programs; some jurisdictions and universities provide both undergraduate entry programs and graduate entry programs. In general, initial training is taken at medical school. Traditionally initial medical education is divided between clinical studies; the former consists of the basic sciences such as anatomy, biochemistry, pathology. The latter consists of teaching in the various areas of clinical medicine such as internal medicine, pediatrics and gynecology, general practice and surgery. However, medical programs are using systems-based curricula in which learning is integrated, several institutions do this.
In the United States, until quite the requirements for the M. D. degree did not include one course in human nutrition. Today, this omission has been rectified, at least to the extent. There has been a proliferation of programmes that combine medical training with research or management programmes, although this has been criticised because extended interruption to clinical study has been shown to have a detrimental effect on ultimate clinical knowledge. Following completion of entry-level training, newly graduated doctors are required to undertake a period of supervised practice before full registration is granted. Further training in a particular field of medicine may be undertaken. In the U. S. further specialized training, completed after residency is referred to as "fellowship". In some jurisdictions, this is commenced following completion of entry-level training, while other jurisdictions require junior doctors to undertake generalist training for a number of years before commencing specialisation.
Education theory itself is becoming an integral part of postgraduate medical training. Formal qualifications in education are becoming the norm for medical educators, such that there has been a rapid increase in the number of available graduate programs in medical education. In most countries, continuing medical education courses are required for continued licensing. CME requirements vary by country. In the USA, accreditation is overseen by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. Physicians attend dedicated lectures, grand rounds and performance improvement activities in order to fulfill their requirements. Additionally, physicians are opting to pursue further graduate-level training in the formal study of medical education as a pathway for continuing professional development. Medical education is utilizing online teaching within learning management systems or virtual learning environments. Additionally, several medical schools have incorporated the use of blended learning combining the use of video and in-person exercises.
A landmark scoping review published in 2018 demonstrated that online teaching modalities are becoming prevalent in medical education, with associated high student satisfaction and improvement on knowledge tests. However, the use of evidence-based multimedia design principles in the development of online lectures was reported, despite their known effectiveness in medical student contexts. Research areas into online medical education include practical applications, including simulated patients and virtual medical records; when compared to no intervention, simulation in medical education training is associated with positive effects on knowledge and behaviors and moderate effects for patient outcomes. At present, in the United Kingdom, a typical medicine course at university is 5 years or 4 years if the student holds a degree. Among some institutions and for some students, it may be 6 years. All programs culminate in the Bachelor of Surgery degree; this is followed by 2 clinical foundation years afterward, namely F1 and F2, similar to internship training.
Students register with the UK General Medical Council at the end of F1. At the end of F2, they may pursue further years of study; the system in Australia is similar, with registration by the Australian Medical Council. In the US and Canada, a potential medical student must first complete an undergraduate degree in any subject before applying to a graduate medical school to pursue an program. U. S. medical schools are all four-year programs. Some students opt for the research-focused M. D./Ph. D. Dual degree program, completed in 7–10 years. There are certain courses that are pre-requisite for being accepted to medical school, such as general chemistry, organic chemistry, mathematics, English, etc; the specific requirements vary by school. In Australia, there are two path
Chair of the Federal Reserve
The Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the Federal Reserve, the central banking system of the United States. The position is known colloquially as "Chair of the Fed" or "Fed Chair"; the chair is the "active executive officer" of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The chair is nominated by the President of the United States from among the members of the Board of Governors, serves a term of four years after being confirmed by the United States Senate. A chair may serve multiple consecutive terms, pending a new nomination and confirmation at the end of each. William Martin was the longest serving chair, holding the position from 1951 to 1970; the current Chairman is Jerome Powell, sworn in on February 5, 2018. He was nominated to the position by President Donald Trump on November 2, 2017, was confirmed by the Senate. Section 203 of the Banking Act of 1935 changed the name of the "Federal Reserve Board" to the "Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System."
The directors' salaries were lower and their terms of office were much shorter prior to 1935. In effect, the Federal Reserve Board members in Washington, D. C. were less powerful than the presidents of the regional Federal Reserve Banks prior to 1935. In the 1935 Act, the district heads had their titles changed to "President"; as stipulated by the Banking Act of 1935, the President of the United States appoints the seven members of the Board of Governors. The nominees for chair and vice-chair may be chosen by the President from among the sitting Governors for four-year terms; the Senate Committee responsible for vetting a Fed Reserve Chair nominee is the Senate Committee on Banking. By law, the chair reports twice a year to Congress on the Federal Reserve's monetary policy objectives, he or she testifies before Congress on numerous other issues and meets periodically with the Treasury Secretary. The law applicable to the Chair and all other members of the Board provides: No member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall be an officer or director of any bank, banking institution, trust company, or Federal Reserve bank or hold stock in any bank, banking institution, or trust company.
The following is a list of past and present Chairs of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. A chair serves for a four-year term after appointment, but may be reappointed for several consecutive four-year terms; as of 2018, there have been a total of sixteen Fed Chairs. History of central banking in the United States Beckhart, Benjamin Haggott. 1972. Federal Reserve System.: American Institute of Banking. Shull, Bernard. 2005. The fourth branch: the Federal Reserve's unlikely rise to power and influence. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. Andrews, Edmund L.. "All for a more open Fed". New Straits Times. P. 21. "Executive Order 11110 - Amendment of Executive Order No. 10289 as Amended, Relating to the Performance of Certain Functions Affecting the Department of the Treasury". The American Presidency Project. Via UCSB.edu Official website Public Statements of the Chairs of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, via the St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank Nomination hearings, conducted in the Senate, for Chairs and Members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System Timeline of Federal Reserve Chairs with related resources
Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois, he graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman.
Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, was re-elected in 1970, he twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years in 1980, he won the nomination and defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have assumed office until Donald Trump in 2017. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U. S. president, 525, or 97.6 percent of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U. S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5 percent or 523 of the 531 electoral votes.
Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.
He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed; when Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68 percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era, he was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent, he died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, he is an icon among conservatives.
Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, he was the younger son of Jack Reagan. Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary, while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent. Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan, became an advertising executive. Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut. Reagan's family lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until settling in Dixon. After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House private quarters, he would quip that he was "living above the store again". Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and did".
She attended the Disciples of Christ church and was active, influential, within it.
Milton Friedman was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and the complexity of stabilization policy. With George Stigler and others, Friedman was among the intellectual leaders of the second generation of Chicago price theory, a methodological movement at the University of Chicago's Department of Economics, Law School and Graduate School of Business from the 1940s onward. Several students and young professors who were recruited or mentored by Friedman at Chicago went on to become leading economists, including Gary Becker, Robert Fogel, Thomas Sowell and Robert Lucas Jr. Friedman's challenges to what he called "naive Keynesian" theory began with his 1950s reinterpretation of the consumption function. In the 1960s, he became the main advocate opposing Keynesian government policies and described his approach as using "Keynesian language and apparatus" yet rejecting its "initial" conclusions.
He theorized that there existed a "natural" rate of unemployment and argued that unemployment below this rate would cause inflation to accelerate. He argued that the Phillips curve was in the long run vertical at the "natural rate" and predicted what would come to be known as stagflation. Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as "monetarism" and argued that a steady, small expansion of the money supply was the preferred policy, his ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation and deregulation influenced government policies during the 1980s. His monetary theory influenced the Federal Reserve's response to the global financial crisis of 2007–2008. Friedman was an advisor to Republican President Ronald Reagan and Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, his political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. He once stated that his role in eliminating conscription in the United States was his proudest accomplishment.
In his 1962 book Capitalism and Freedom, Friedman advocated policies such as a volunteer military floating exchange rates, abolition of medical licenses, a negative income tax and school vouchers and opposed the war on drugs. His support for school choice led him to found the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice renamed EdChoice. Friedman's works include monographs, scholarly articles, magazine columns, television programs and lectures and cover a broad range of economic topics and public policy issues, his books and essays have had global influence, including in former communist states. A survey of economists ranked Friedman as the second-most popular economist of the 20th century following only John Maynard Keynes and The Economist described him as "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century... of all of it". Friedman was born in Brooklyn, New York on July 31, 1912, his parents, Sára Ethel and Jenő Saul Friedman, were Jewish immigrants from Beregszász in Carpathian Ruthenia, Kingdom of Hungary.
They both worked as dry goods merchants. Shortly after his birth, the family relocated to New Jersey. In his early teens, Friedman was injured in a car accident. A talented student, Friedman graduated from Rahway High School in 1928, just before his 16th birthday, he was awarded a competitive scholarship to Rutgers University. In 1932, Friedman graduated from Rutgers University, where he specialized in mathematics and economics and intended to become an actuary. During his time at Rutgers, Friedman became influenced by two economics professors, Arthur F. Burns and Homer Jones, who convinced him that modern economics could help end the Great Depression. After graduating from Rutgers, Friedman was offered two scholarships to do graduate work—one in mathematics at Brown University and the other in economics at the University of Chicago. Friedman chose the latter, thus earning a Master of Arts degree in 1933, he was influenced by Jacob Viner, Frank Knight, Henry Simons. It was at Chicago that Friedman met economist Rose Director.
During the 1933–1934 academic year he had a fellowship at Columbia University, where he studied statistics with renowned statistician and economist Harold Hotelling. He was back in Chicago for the 1934–1935 academic year, working as a research assistant for Henry Schultz, working on Theory and Measurement of Demand; that year, Friedman formed what would prove to be lifelong friendships with George Stigler and W. Allen Wallis. Friedman was unable to find academic employment, so in 1935 he followed his friend W. Allen Wallis to Washington, D. C. where Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal was "a lifesaver" for many young economists. At this stage, Friedman said that he and his wife "regarded the job-creation programs such as the WPA, CCC, PWA appropriate responses to the critical situation," but not "the price- and wage-fixing measures of the National Recovery Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration." Foreshadowing his ideas, he believed price controls interfered with an essential signaling mechanism to help resources be used where they were most valued.
Indeed, Friedman concluded that all government intervention associated with the New Deal was "the wrong cure for the wrong disease," arguing that the money supply should have been expanded, instead of contracted. Friedman and his colleague Anna Schwartz wrote A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960, which argued that the Great Depression was caused by a
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is an agency of the Executive Branch of the U. S. government, part of the Department of Transportation. It describes its mission as "Save lives, prevent injuries, reduce vehicle-related crashes."As part of its activities, NHTSA is charged with writing and enforcing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards as well as regulations for motor vehicle theft resistance and fuel economy, as part of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy system. NHTSA licenses vehicle manufacturers and importers, allows or blocks the import of vehicles and safety-regulated vehicle parts, administers the vehicle identification number system, develops the anthropomorphic dummies used in safety testing, as well as the test protocols themselves, provides vehicle insurance cost information; the agency has asserted preemptive regulatory authority over greenhouse gas emissions, but this has been disputed by such state regulatory agencies as the California Air Resources Board. Another of NHTSA's major activities is the creation and maintenance of the data files maintained by the National Center for Statistics and Analysis.
In particular, the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, has become a resource for traffic safety research not only in the United States, but throughout the world. Research contributions using FARS by researchers from many countries appear in many non-U. S. Technical publications, provide a significant database and knowledge bank on the subject. With this database, conclusive analysis of crash causes remains difficult and controversial, with experts debating the veracity and statistical validity of results. In 1964 and 1966, public pressure grew in the United States to increase the safety of cars, culminating with the publishing of Unsafe at Any Speed, by Ralph Nader, an activist lawyer, "Accidental Death and Disability: The Neglected Disease of Modern Society" by the National Academy of Sciences. In 1966, Congress held a series of publicized hearings regarding highway safety, passed legislation to make installation of seat belts mandatory, enacted Pub. L. 89–563, Pub. L. 89–564, Pub. L. 89–670 which created the U.
S. Department of Transportation on October 15, 1966; this legislation created several predecessor agencies which would become NHTSA, including the National Traffic Safety Agency, the National Highway Safety Agency, the National Highway Safety Bureau. Once the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards came into effect, vehicles not certified by the maker or importer as compliant with US safety standards were no longer legal to import into the United States. Congress established the NHTSA in 1970 with the Highway Safety Act of 1970. In 1972, the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act expanded NHTSA's scope to include consumer information programs. Since automobiles have become far better in protecting their occupants in vehicle impacts; the number of deaths on American highways hovers around 33,000 annually, a lower death rate per vehicle-mile traveled than in the 1960s. NHTSA has conducted numerous high-profile investigations of automotive safety issues, including the Audi 5000/60 Minutes affair, the Ford Explorer rollover problem and the Toyota: Sticky accelerator pedal problem.
The agency has introduced a proposal to mandate Electronic Stability Control on all passenger vehicles by the 2012 model year. This technology was first brought to public attention with the Swedish moose test. In 1958, under the auspices of the United Nations, a consortium called the Economic Commission for Europe had been established to commonize vehicle regulations across Europe so as to standardize best practices in vehicle design and equipment and minimize technical barriers to pan-European vehicle trade and traffic; this became the World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations, which began to promulgate what would become the UN's ECE Regulations on vehicle design and safety performance. Many of the world's countries accept or require similar standards to the U. S. or ECE compliant vehicles. The U. S blocks the importation of vehicles that do not meet the higher U. S. standards, including those built to ECE Regulations. Because of the unavailability in America of certain vehicle models, a gray market arose in the late 1970s.
This provided an legal method to acquire vehicles only sold overseas. The success of the gray market, ate into the business of Mercedes-Benz of North America Inc. which launched a successful congressional lobbying effort to eliminate this alternative for consumers in 1988, despite the lack of any evidence suggesting grey-market vehicles were less safe than those built to comply with U. S. regulations. As a result, it is no longer possible to import foreign vehicles into the United States as a personal import, with few exceptions—primarily Canadian cars with safety regulations similar to the United States, vehicles imported temporarily for display or research purposes. In practice the gray market involved a few thousand luxury cars annually, before its virtual elimination in 1988. In 1998, NHTSA exempted vehicles older than 25 years from the rules it administers, since these are presumed to be collector vehicles. In 1999, certain low production volume specialist vehicles were exempt for "Show and Display" purposes.
However, the ban on newer vehicles considered safe in countries with lower vehicle-related death rates has led some to claim that the main effect of NHTSA's regulatory activity is to protect the U. S. market for a modified oligopoly consisting of the three U. S.-based automakers and the Amer
Donald Henry Rumsfeld is an American former politician. Rumsfeld served as Secretary of Defense from 1975 to 1977 under Gerald Ford, again from January 2001 to December 2006 under George W. Bush, he is both the second-oldest person to have served as Secretary of Defense. Additionally, Rumsfeld was a three-term U. S. Congressman from Illinois, Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity, Counsellor to the President, the United States Permanent Representative to NATO, White House Chief of Staff. Between his terms as Secretary of Defense, he served as the chairman of several companies. Born in Illinois, Rumsfeld attended Princeton University, graduating in 1954 with a degree in political science. After serving in the Navy for three years, he mounted a campaign for Congress in Illinois's 13th Congressional District, winning in 1962 at the age of 30. While in Congress, he was a leading co-sponsor of the Freedom of Information Act. Rumsfeld reluctantly accepted an appointment by President Richard Nixon to head the Office of Economic Opportunity in 1969.
Called back to Washington in August 1974, Rumsfeld was appointed Chief of Staff by President Ford. Rumsfeld recruited a young one-time staffer of his, Dick Cheney, to succeed him when Ford nominated him to be Secretary of Defense in 1975; when Ford lost the 1976 election, Rumsfeld returned to private business and financial life, was named president and CEO of the pharmaceutical corporation G. D. Searle & Company, he was named CEO of General Instrument from 1990 to 1993 and chairman of Gilead Sciences from 1997 to 2001. Rumsfeld was appointed Secretary of Defense for a second time in January 2001 by President George W. Bush. During his tenure he aimed to modernize and restructure the U. S. military for the 21st century. Rumsfeld played a central role in the planning of the United States' response to the September 11 attacks, which included two wars, one in Afghanistan and one in Iraq. In addition to war strategy, Rumsfeld's tenure became controversial for the use of torture as well as the Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse scandal.
Rumsfeld lost political support and he resigned in late 2006. Rumsfeld was known in media circles for his outspokenness and candor. In his retirement years, he published an autobiography Known and Unknown: A Memoir as well as Rumsfeld's Rules: Leadership Lessons in Business, Politics and Life, he is involved with the Rumsfeld Foundation's Fellowship program, which has advisors at dozens of universities across the United States, supports several military-related causes. Donald Henry Rumsfeld was born on July 9, 1932, in Chicago, the son of Jeannette Kearsley and George Donald Rumsfeld, his father came from a German-American family that had emigrated in the 1870s from Weyhe in Lower Saxony, but young Donald was sometimes ribbed about looking like a "tough Swiss". Growing up in Winnetka, Rumsfeld became an Eagle Scout in 1949 and is the recipient of both the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America and its Silver Buffalo Award in 2006. Living in Winnetka, his family attended a Congregational Church.
From 1943–1945, Rumsfeld lived in Coronado, California while his father was stationed on an aircraft carrier in the Pacific in World War II. He was a ranger at Philmont Scout Ranch in 1949. Rumsfeld attended Baker Demonstration School, graduated from New Trier High School, he attended Princeton University on academic and NROTC partial scholarships. He graduated in 1954 with an A. B. in political science. During his time at Princeton, he was an accomplished amateur wrestler, becoming captain of the varsity wrestling team, captain of the Lightweight Football team playing defensive back, his Princeton University senior thesis was titled "The Steel Seizure Case of 1952 and Its Effects on Presidential Powers". While at Princeton he was friends with another future Secretary of Defense, Frank Carlucci. Rumsfeld married Joyce P. Pierson on December 27, 1954, they have three children, six grandchildren, one great grandchild. He attended Case Western Reserve University School of Law and Georgetown University Law Center, but did not take a degree from either institution.
Rumsfeld served in the United States Navy from 1954 to 1957, as a naval aviator and flight instructor. His initial training was in the North American SNJ Texan basic trainer after which he transitioned to the T-28 advanced trainer. In 1957, he transferred to the Naval Reserve and continued his naval service in flying and administrative assignments as a drilling reservist. On July 1, 1958, he was assigned to Anti-submarine Squadron 662 at Naval Air Station Anacostia, District of Columbia, as a selective reservist. Rumsfeld was designated aircraft commander of Anti-submarine Squadron 731 on October 1, 1960, at Naval Air Station Grosse Ile, where he flew the S2F Tracker, he transferred to the Individual Ready Reserve when he became Secretary of Defense in 1975 and retired with the rank of captain in 1989. In 1957, during the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration, Rumsfeld served as Administrative Assistant to David S. Dennison Jr. a Congressman representing the 11th district of Ohio. In 1959, he moved on to become a staff assistant to Congressman Robert P. Griffin of Michigan.
Engaging in a two-year stint with an investment banking firm, A. G. Becker & Co. from 1960 to 1962, Rumsfeld would instead set his sights on becoming a member of Congress. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives for Illinois's 13th congressional district in 1962, at the age of 30