Michael Shamberg is an American film producer and former Time–Life correspondent. His credits include Erin Brockovich, A Fish Called Wanda, Garden State, Pulp Fiction and The Big Chill, his production companies include Jersey Films, with Stacey Sher and Danny DeVito, and, as of 2015, Double Feature Films, with Stacey Sher. In the 1960s and 1970s, counter-culture video collectives extended the role of the underground press to new communication technologies. In 1970, Shamberg co-founded a video collective called Raindance Corporation, which published a newspaper-magazine called Radical Software. Raindance Corporation became TVTV, or Top Value Television. Shamberg and his first wife Megan Williams were founding members of TVTV; the collective believed. An example was Shamberg's work on In Hiding: A Conversation with Abbie Hoffman, broadcast on Public-access television station WNET/13 in May 1975. Shamberg described his approach as "guerrilla television" because, despite its strategies and tactics similar to warfare, guerrilla television is non-violent and he saw it as a means to break through the barriers imposed by broadcast television, which he called beast television.
His TVTV group's documentary Lord of the Universe, 1974, won a DuPont-Columbia Award in 1975. The group urged for the use of Sony's Portapak video camera, introduced in 1967, to be merged with the documentary film style and television, pioneer use of 3/4" video in their works. Shamberg is a graduate of Washington University in St. Louis, MO. Michael Shamberg on IMDb
Imelda Mary Philomena Bernadette Staunton, is an English stage and screen actress. After training at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, Staunton began her career in repertory theatre in the 1970s before appearing in seasons at various theatres in the UK. Staunton has since performed in a variety of plays and musicals in London, winning four Olivier Awards, her appearances on stage in The Beggar's Opera, The Wizard of Oz, Uncle Vanya and Dolls, Entertaining Mr Sloane and Good People earned her Olivier nominations. Staunton has been nominated for a total of 13 Olivier Awards. Staunton drew critical acclaim for her performance in the title role in the 2004 film Vera Drake, for which she won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role and the Venice Film Festival Volpi Cup for Best Actress in addition to being nominated for the Academy Award, the Golden Globe and the Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Actress, her other film roles include Mrs. Blatherwick in Nanny McPhee, Dolores Umbridge in two of the Harry Potter films and Hefina Headon in Pride, for which she received a nomination for the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role.
On television, she starred in the sitcoms Up the Garden Path and Is it Legal?. Her performance in My Family and Other Animals earned her a nomination for the International Emmy Award for Best Actress, while her roles in Return to Cranford and The Girl earned her BAFTA TV Award nominations for Best Supporting Actress. For the latter, she was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie. Staunton was born in Archway, North London, the only child of Bridie, a hairdresser, Joseph Staunton, a road-worker and labourer; the family lived over Staunton's mother's salon. Her parents were first-generation Catholic immigrants from Ireland. Staunton's mother was a musician who could not read music, but could master any tune by ear on the accordion or fiddle and had played in Irish showbands; as a pupil at La Sainte Convent, she took drama classes with her elocution teacher and starred in school productions of plays, including the role of Polly Peachum in a school production of The Beggar's Opera.
Encouraged by an elocution teacher at her school, Staunton auditioned for drama schools and got into the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art at the age of 18. She auditioned for the Central School of Speech and Drama and Guildhall School of Music and Drama, but was rejected by both schools. Staunton graduated from RADA in 1976 spent six years in English repertory theatre, including a period at the Northcott Theatre, where she had the title role in Shaw's Saint Joan, she moved on to roles the National Theatre, including Lucy Lockit in The Beggar's Opera, which earned her Olivier Award nominations for Best Actress in a Musical and Most Promising Newcomer of the Year in Theatre. She appeared in two revivals of Guys and Dolls at the National Theatre. In 1985, Staunton won her first Laurence Olivier Award for Best Performance in a Supporting Role for her work in both The Corn Is Green and at The Old Vic and A Chorus of Disapproval at the National Theatre, she played Dorothy in the Royal Shakespeare Company's 1987 revival of The Wizard of Oz at the Barbican Centre, which earned her another Olivier nomination for Best Actress in a Musical.
Staunton won her first Laurence Olivier Award for Best Actress in a Musical for playing the Baker's Wife in the original London production of Into the Woods. In the ensuing twenty years, Staunton had roles in plays, including Sonya in Uncle Vanya, Kath in Entertaining Mr Sloane and Good People, for which she received Olivier nominations for Best Actress in a Play, she appeared in two productions at the Almeida Theatre, firstly in the premiere of Frank McGuinness's There Came a Gypsy Riding in 2007 and secondly in a revival of Edward Albee's A Delicate Balance in 2011. Most Staunton has appeared in two Chichester Festival Theatre productions, taking on the role of Mrs Lovett in a revival of Stephen Sondheim's Sweeney Todd between 2011 and 2012, starring opposite Michael Ball, before starring as Rose in a revival of Gypsy between 2014 and 2015. Both productions transferred to London for critically and commercially acclaimed runs. Staunton won her second and third Olivier Awards for Best Actress in a Musical for the two productions in 2013 and 2016 respectively.
Staunton returned to the Harold Pinter Theatre in London West End in 2017 as Martha in Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, starring alongside Conleth Hill, Luke Treadaway and Imogen Poots at the Harold Pinter Theatre. This play was broadcast in National Theatre Live on 18 May 2017. Staunton performed the role of Sally in the 2017 National Theatre revival of Stephen Sondheim's Follies, alongside Janie Dee as Phyllis, Philip Quast as Ben; the show was broadcast through the National Theatre Live initiative on 16 November 2017. Staunton's first big-screen role came in a 1986 film Comrades, she appeared in the 1992 film Peter's Friends. Other film roles include performances in Much Ado About Nothing, Deadly Advice
The Holocaust known as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews—around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe—between 1941 and 1945. Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era, in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including Slavs, the Roma, the "incurably sick", political and religious dissenters such as communists and Jehovah's Witnesses, gay men. Taking into account all the victims of Nazi persecution, the death toll rises to over 17 million. Germany implemented the persecution of the Jews in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as German Chancellor in January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society, which included a boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935.
On 9–10 November 1938, during Kristallnacht, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria, which Germany had annexed in March that year. After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews. Thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe; the deportation of Jews to the ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, across all territories controlled by the Axis powers. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with Wehrmacht police battalions and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings between 1941 and 1945.
By mid-1942, victims were being deported from the ghettos in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were killed in gas chambers. The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945; the term holocaust, first used in 1895 to describe the massacre of Armenians, comes from the Greek: ὁλόκαυστος, translit. Holókaustos; the Century Dictionary defined it in 1904 as "a sacrifice or offering consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some pagan nations". The biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews, first used in a pamphlet in 1940, Sho'at Yehudei Polin, published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews in Poland. On 3 October 1941 the cover of the magazine The American Hebrew used the phrase "before the Holocaust" to refer to the situation in France, in May 1943 The New York Times, discussing the Bermuda Conference, referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust".
In 1968 the Library of Congress created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish". The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust, about a fictional family of German Jews, in November 1978 the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established; as non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims too, many Jews chose to use the terms Shoah or Churban instead. The Nazis used the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question". Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the enactment, between 1941 and 1945, of the German state policy to exterminate the European Jews. In Teaching the Holocaust, Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education, offers three definitions: "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which views the events of Kristallnacht in Germany in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; the third definition fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jewish people were singled out for annihilation.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum defines the Holocaust as the "systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators", distinguishing between the Holocaust and the targeting of other groups during "the era of the Holocaust". According to Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial, most historians regard the start of the "Holocaust era" as January 1933, when Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. Other victims of the Holocaust era include. Hitler came to see the Jews as "uniquely dangerous to Germany", according to Peter Hayes, "and therefore uniquely destined t
1992 Los Angeles riots
The 1992 Los Angeles riots were a series of riots and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County in April and May of 1992. Unrest began in South Central Los Angeles on April 29, after a trial jury acquitted four officers of the Los Angeles Police Department for usage of excessive force in the arrest and beating of Rodney King, videotaped and viewed in TV broadcasts; the rioting spread throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area, as thousands of people rioted over a six-day period following the announcement of the verdict. Widespread looting, assault and murder occurred during the riots, estimates of property damage were over $1 billion. With local police overwhelmed in controlling the situation, Governor of California Pete Wilson sent in the California Army National Guard, President George H. W. Bush deployed the 7th Infantry Division and the 1st Marine Division. Order and peace were restored throughout L. A. County, but 63 people were killed, with more than 12,000 arrests. LAPD Chief of Police Daryl Gates, who had announced his resignation by the time of the riots, was attributed with much of the blame.
On the evening of March 3, 1991, Rodney King and two passengers were driving west on the Foothill Freeway through the Lake View Terrace neighborhood of Los Angeles. The California Highway Patrol attempted to initiate a traffic stop. A high-speed pursuit ensued with speeds estimated at up to 115 mph, along freeways and through residential neighborhoods; when King stopped, CHP Officer Timothy Singer and CHP Officer Melanie Singer, arrested him and two other occupants of the car. After the two passengers were placed in the patrol car, five white Los Angeles Police Department officers – Stacey Koon, Laurence Powell, Timothy Wind, Theodore Briseno, Rolando Solano – surrounded King, who came out of the car last, they tasered him, struck him dozens of times with side-handled batons, tackled him to the ground before handcuffing him. Sergeant Koon testified at trial that King resisted arrest, that he believed King was under the influence of PCP at the time of the arrest, which caused him to be aggressive and violent toward the officers.
Video footage of the arrest showed that King attempted to get up each time he was struck, that the police made no attempt to cuff him until he lay still. A subsequent test of King for the presence of PCP in his body at the time of the arrest was negative. Unknown to the police and King, the incident was captured on a camcorder by local civilian George Holliday from his nearby apartment; the tape was 12 minutes long. While the tape was presented during trial, some clips of the incident were not released to the public. In a interview, on parole for a robbery conviction and had past convictions for assault and robbery, said that he had not surrendered earlier because he was driving while intoxicated under the influence of alcohol, which he knew violated the terms of his parole; the footage of King being beaten by police became an instant focus of media attention and a rallying point for activists in Los Angeles and around the United States. Coverage was extensive during the first two weeks after the incident: the Los Angeles Times published forty-three articles about it, The New York Times published seventeen articles, the Chicago Tribune published eleven articles.
Eight stories appeared including a sixty-minute special on Primetime Live. Upon watching the tape of the beating, LAPD chief of police Daryl Gates said: "I stared at the screen in disbelief. I played the one-minute-50-second tape again. Again and again, until I had viewed it 25 times, and still I could not believe. To see my officers engage in what appeared to be excessive use of force criminally excessive, to see them beat a man with their batons 56 times, to see a sergeant on the scene who did nothing to seize control, was something I never dreamed I would witness." Before the release of the Rodney King tape, minority community leaders in Los Angeles had complained about harassment and excessive use of force by LAPD officers. An independent commission formed after the release of the tape concluded that a "significant number" of LAPD officers "repetitively use excessive force against the public and persistently ignore the written guidelines of the department regarding force," and that bias related to race and sexual orientation were contributing factors in use of excessive force.
The commission's report called for the replacement of both Chief Daryl Gates and the civilian Police Commission. The Los Angeles County District Attorney subsequently charged four police officers, including one sergeant, with assault and use of excessive force. Due to the extensive media coverage of the arrest, the trial received a change of venue from Los Angeles County to Simi Valley in neighboring Ventura County; the jury was composed of nine white people, one bi-racial male, one Latino, one Asian American. The prosecutor, Terry White, was black. On April 29, 1992, the seventh day of jury deliberations, the jury acquitted all four officers of assault and acquitted three of the four of using excessive force; the jury could not agree on a verdict for the fourth officer charged with using excessive force. The verdicts were based in part on the first three seconds of a blurry, 13-second segment of the videotape that, according to journalist Lou Cannon, had not been aired by television news stations in their broadcasts.
The first two seconds of videotape, contrary to the claims made by the accused officers, show King attempting to flee past Laurence Powell. During the next one minute and 19 seco
Richard LaGravenese is an American screenwriter and film director, best known as the writer of The Fisher King. LaGravenese was born in the son of a taxi driver, he is of Italian descent. He graduated from New York University's Tisch School of the Arts in 1980 with a bachelor of fine arts degree in acting. LaGravenese wrote The Fisher King on spec in the late 1980s, it was acquired by Stacey Sher, Lynda Obst, Debra Hill's production company and subsequently directed by Terry Gilliam. In New York City during the early 1980s, billed as "The Double R" comedy duo, in collaboration with playwright Richard O’Donnell, LaGravenese co-penned and consecutively performed in several Off-Off-Broadway productions including Spare Parts, Blood-brothers" at The 78th Street Theatre Lab, The Lion Theatre, West Bank Cafe, he wrote all but one episode. In 2009, Showtime was developing an hour-long TV drama series written by LaGravenese about an open marriage. Richard LaGravenese on IMDb HuffingtonPost DarkHorizons CharlieRose MovieMaker
Robert Fitzgerald Diggs, better known by his stage name RZA, is an American rapper, record producer and actor. He is the de facto leader of the Wu-Tang Clan, he has produced all of Wu-Tang Clan's albums, as well as many Wu-Tang solo and affiliate projects. He is a cousin of two other original Wu-Tang Clan members: Ol' Dirty Bastard, he has released solo albums under the alter-ego Bobby Digital, along with executive producing credits for side projects. Prior to forming the Wu-Tang Clan, RZA was a founding member of the horrorcore group Gravediggaz, where he went by the name The RZArector. RZA has been involved in filmmaking since the late 1990s, he has scored a number of films, most notably Kill Bill: Volume 1 and Kill Bill: Volume 2. He has written and directed in film and television, starting with his directorial debut, The Man with the Iron Fists, in 2012, he has acted in numerous films and TV series, including the films American Gangster and Brick Mansions, the TV series Gang Related and Californication.
He is known for his music production, with a style that includes the use of soul samples and sparse beats that has proved influential. The magazine The Source placed him on its list of the 20 greatest producers in the magazine's twenty-year history. Vibe listed him among the top 8 greatest hip-hop producers of all time. NME placed him on their list of the 50 Greatest Producers Ever. RZA was born in Brooklyn, he is named after Robert Kennedy and John Fitzgerald Kennedy, both of whom his mother admired. RZA has called his given name an "honorable" name, given the legacy of both John. RZA has Terrance Hamlin, better known as the rapper 9th Prince. RZA lived in North Carolina with his uncle from age three to seven, who encouraged him to read and study. RZA was introduced to hip hop music at the age of nine, by eleven, was competing in rap battles, he relocated to Ohio in 1990, to live with his mother. He spent weekends in Pittsburgh, where his father ran a convenience store in the city's Hill District.
RZA got involved with petty crime and drug-dealing, was charged with attempted murder while in Steubenville. He was acquitted of the charge, giving him what he has called a "second chance". Robert Diggs formed a rap group with his cousins Russell Jones and Gary Grice called All in Together Now, they never signed a record deal. Diggs debuted on Tommy Boy Records in 1991 as a solo artist under the name Prince Rakeem and released the Ooh I Love You Rakeem EP. After a shoot-out in Ohio in 1992, he faced eight years in jail. "When they said'not guilty', my face stuck in a smile for three days," he recalled. "I was just walking around town, thinking about my wife. Right I said goodbye to anything that would put me in that situation again. I was up on trial on an attempted murder charge. I was a motherfucking fool, with all that knowledge in my head and ending up there." In 1992, Diggs formed a new group with five other childhood friends. They named the group the Wu-Tang Clan, after the 1983 kung fu film Wu Tang.
As part of the group's formation, each member chose a new nickname for themselves. Diggs chose "RZA", based on a nickname he had been given by fans of his music, "Rza Rza Rakeem", which in turn was based on a song by All in Together Now, "Pza Pza Pumpin", as well as Diggs' graffiti tag, "Razor", he created a backronym for "RZA", stating that the name stood for "Ruler, Zig-Zag-Zig, Allah" which further translated into "Ruler, Knowledge-Wisdom-Understanding, Allah" when using the Supreme Alphabet. The Wu-Tang Clan released their first single, "Protect Ya Neck", in December 1992. Masta Killa joined the group in 1993, becoming their ninth member, they released their debut album, Enter the Wu-Tang in November 1993. RZA operated as Wu-Tang Clan's de facto leader, producing the group's songs and deciding who would get placed on which tracks; as each of the group's members embarked on solo careers, RZA continued to produce nearly everything Wu-Tang released during the period 1994–1996, which included both composing and arranging the instrumental tracks as well as overseeing and directing the creative process.
RZA's rule over the Clan at this time is described in 2004's Wu-Tang Manual book as "a dictatorship". He released a hit single of his own, in the form of "Wu-Wear: The Garment Renaissance"; the song was featured on the High School High soundtrack, was released to promote the Wu-Tang clothing brand called "Wu-Wear". It peaked at #60 on the Billboard Hot 100, #6 on the Hot Rap Singles chart; when it came time for the Gravediggaz, Prince Paul was thinking about putting a group together. He wanted to get some good MCs. Poetic was another dope MC, underrated out on Long Island, he had one single out on Tommy Boy that didn't take off, but he was a dope MC. As the Grym Reaper, you know. Frukwan, one of the top lyricists out of Stetsasonic, he and Paul were friends already. He told him about me, he said, "I know this one guy, super-dope." At the same time, I was trying to do Wu-Tang. I was trying to start my own company and stuff, so when Paul called me up and invited me to his crib on Long Island and told me his idea for forming this group, I thought it would be an honor to be in a group with him.
But I told him, "I'm producing a group, I'm part of a family that I'm building." He said, "Yo, that's crazy." We would talk a lot of times. Came to his house a lot of times with me. Too. We all would just try to find ways to get out of the streets. Me, I was trying to get out of the g
John Benjamin Hickey
John Benjamin Hickey is an American actor with a career in stage and television. He won the 2011 Tony Award for Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Play for his performance as Felix Turner in The Normal Heart. Hickey was born in Plano and graduated from Plano Sr. High School in 1981, he attended Texas State University - San Marcos from 1981–1983, where he was active in the theater department. He earned his bachelor's degree in English at Fordham University in 1985. On Broadway, he originated the role of Arthur in Terrence McNally's play Love! Valour! Compassion! in 1995, a role he recreated for the 1997 film version. He played supporting roles in a number of films including The Anniversary Party, he has appeared in Flightplan, Flags of Our Fathers, Freedom Writers, Then She Found Me, Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen, The Bet and Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows. He played Clifford Bradshaw in the 1998 Broadway revival of Cabaret, which won the Tony for Best Revival of a Musical.
In that same year, he played the lead in the independent film Finding North. On Broadway, he played Reverend John Hale in the 2002 revival of Arthur Miller's The Crucible. Hickey played American novelist and playwright Jack Dunphy in the 2006 Truman Capote biopic Infamous. Hickey played Philip Stoddard on the short-lived gay-themed sitcom. Since It's All Relative, Hickey has appeared on Alias, Law & Order, Brothers & Sisters, Heartland, In Plain Sight, Law & Order: Los Angeles, Modern Family, he appeared in the 2011 Broadway revival of The Normal Heart, for which he won the Tony Award, Featured Actor in a Play. He was as the Earl of Leicester. From 2010 to 2013, he appeared on The Big C and was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for the final season of the series, subtitled Hereafter. Hickey starred as scientist Frank Winter on the TV series Manhattan, which concluded on December 15, 2015 after two seasons and 23 episodes. In 2015, he appeared Off-Broadway at the Mitzi Newhouse Theatre in the play Dada Woof Papa Hot by Peter Parnell.
In 2018 he appeared in the World premier of Matthew Lopez's new play The Inheritance, inspired by the novel Howards End by E. M. Forster, creating the role Henry Wilcox at London's Young Vic and transferring to the West End. Hickey is gay. Source: TCM.