Bodyflight, or body flight, is the term in the skydiving, which means staying or moving of a body or system of bodies in the air flow. It is one of the most dynamically developing sports in the world. In the windtunnel sport parachuting and skydiving, bodyflight is performed by applying air flow on certain parts of a body, to control the body any muscular forces can be used; as a tool for learning to control the body flight, there is a vertical wind tunnel, which makes it possible to fly in the air, simulating free fall due to the created air flow. Bodyflight includes various flight poses and flight transits, when combined, flight elements are formed; this include turns, lateral movement, fall rate control, other acrobatics in the air. The skill of bodyflight makes it possible for skydivers to fly closer to each other while they are falling, to allow them to link together in formation skydiving fly apart to a safe distance before opening parachutes; the flight pose. There are many different poses, including "mantis", "bumblebee", "dragon".
Flight movement is the rotation of a body in the air flow in a certain direction. Flight transit is a transition from one flight. Bodyflight is accomplished via increasing/decreasing the drag of your body, using arms and legs as rudders for bodyflight motion control, as well as other techniques similar to that of an airplane. Professional athletes who fly through the air for long distances, such as ski jumping, have used certain bodyflight techniques to increase jumping distance by manipulating their bodies to be more airfoil-like. Frequent visitors to a vertical wind tunnel are called'tunnel rats', much like frequent visitors to ski slopes are called'ski bums'; some body flying enthusiasts develop their tunnel-flying skills not for sky diving training, but in order to be able to give professional performances. Indoor Skydiving Is Real, And Definitely Sports — Vice La France dominante au Championnat du monde de chute libre — Le Courrier Laval
Ottawa is a city located at the confluence of the navigable Illinois River and Fox River in LaSalle County, United States. The Illinois River is a conduit for river barges and connects Lake Michigan at Chicago, to the Mississippi River, North America's 25,000 mile river system; the population estimate was 18,562 as of 2013. It is the county seat of LaSalle County and it is part of the Ottawa-Peru, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Ottawa was the site of the first of the Lincoln–Douglas debates of 1858. During the Ottawa debate Stephen A. Douglas, leader of the Democratic Party accused Abraham Lincoln of forming a secret bipartisan group of Congressmen to bring about the abolition of slavery; the John Hossack House was a "station" on the Underground Railroad, Ottawa was a major stop because of its rail and river transportation. Citizens in the city were active within the abolitionist movement. Ottawa was the site of a famous 1859 extrication of a runaway slave named Jim Gray from a courthouse by prominent civic leaders of the time.
Three of the civic leaders, John Hossack, Dr. Joseph Stout and James Stout stood trial in Chicago for violating the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. Ottawa was important in the development of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which terminates in LaSalle, Illinois, 12 miles to the west. On February 8, 1910, William Dickson Boyce a resident of Ottawa, incorporated the Boy Scouts of America. Five years also in Ottawa, Boyce incorporated the Lone Scouts of America. Boyce is buried in Ottawa Avenue Cemetery; the Ottawa Scouting Museum, on Canal Street, opened to the public on December 6, 1997. The museum features the history of Girl Scouting and Camp Fire. In 1922, the Radium Dial Company moved from Peru, Illinois to a former high school building in Ottawa; the company employed hundreds of young women who painted watch dials using a paint called "Luna" for watch maker Westclox. RDC went out of business in 1936, two years after the company's president, Joseph Kelly Sr. left to start a competing company, Luminous Processes Inc. a few blocks away.
According to the 2010 census, Ottawa has a total area of 12.799 square miles, of which 12 square miles is land and 0.799 square miles is water. Because of numerous silica sand deposits Ottawa has been a major sand and glass center for more than 100 years. Transportation of the sand is facilitated by the navigable Illinois river and the Illinois Railway Ottawa Line. One of its largest employers is Pilkington Glass works, a successor to LOF. Concentrated in automotive glass, the plant now manufactures specialty glass and underwent a $50 million renovation in 2006. Ottawa sand continues to be extracted from several quarries in the area, is recognized in glass-making and abrasives for its uniform granularity and characteristics. Sabic purchased GE Plastics, a successor to Borg Warner automotive glass manufacture, operates a large plastics facility in Ottawa, is a major employer. Ottawa sand is a standard testing medium in geotechnical engineering; as of the 2010 Census, there were 18,768 people residing in the city with a population density of 1,563.9 people per square mile.
The age distribution consisted of 23.3 % persons under 16.6 % aged 65 or over. Females made up 51.2% of the population. The racial makeup of the city was 93.4% White, 2.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 1.5% from two or more races, 3.4% Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,841 households occupying 8,569 housing units; the average household size was 2.39 persons. Per capita income was $25,414 and the median household income was $47,480; the median value of owner-occupied housing units was $132,900. Ottawa has registered historic landmarks. Recent additions to Ottawa have included renovations to its historic mansion, Reddick Mansion, artistic murals throughout the central business district. Ottawa is known as the scenic gateway to Starved Rock State Park, the most popular state park in Illinois, with some 2 million visitors per year; the Fox River, which flows through communities like Elgin and Aurora, empties into the Illinois in downtown Ottawa. Ottawa is home to one of the largest skydiving operations in the country, Skydive Chicago.
Ottawa Scouting Museum honors Ottawa resident William D. Boyce, the founder of the Boy Scouts of America. Once an old Norwegian Lutheran Church, Norsk Museum is located 9 miles northeast of Ottawa, on Highway 71; the museum is dedicated to the Scandinavian settlers who founded the area around neighboring Norway, Illinois, in the 1800s. Jacob C. Zeller founded the Zeller Court Place Tavern in 1871, at 615 Columbus Street; the original Zeller Inn was demolished in 1982. The Zeller Inn tavern known as the Court Place, still remains, now called Zeller Inn; the courtyard patio area on Columbus street is. The tavern contains the original mahogany bar built by the Sanders Bros in Ottawa, marble counters, tiled floors and walls, stained glass door and light fixtures, it was known for its Gilded Age brilliance — tiled mahogany bar, carved gargoyles, pressed-tin ceiling and solid oak backbar. The mirror on the bar is the same since its establishment in 1871, brought over from the 1800s era European Worlds Fair.
Zeller's initials, JCZ, are still visible in a tiled mosaic on the side of the bar and in the glass light domes that hang from the ceiling. This is one of the oldest taverns in Illinois, with original features which remain intact and displays the arc
In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting upon it. In the context of general relativity, where gravitation is reduced to a space-time curvature, a body in free fall has no force acting on it. An object in the technical sense of the term "free fall" may not be falling down in the usual sense of the term. An object moving upwards would not be considered to be falling, but if it is subject to the force of gravity only, it is said to be in free fall; the moon is thus in free fall. In a uniform gravitational field, in the absence of any other forces, gravitation acts on each part of the body and this is weightlessness, a condition that occurs when the gravitational field is zero; the term "free fall" is used more loosely than in the strict sense defined above. Thus, falling through an atmosphere without a deployed parachute, or lifting device, is often referred to as free fall; the aerodynamic drag forces in such situations prevent them from producing full weightlessness, thus a skydiver's "free fall" after reaching terminal velocity produces the sensation of the body's weight being supported on a cushion of air.
In the Western world prior to the 16th century, it was assumed that the speed of a falling body would be proportional to its weight—that is, a 10 kg object was expected to fall ten times faster than an otherwise identical 1 kg object through the same medium. The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle discussed falling objects in Physics, the first book on mechanics; the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei subjected the Aristotelian theories to experimentation and careful observation. He combined the results of these experiments with mathematical analysis in an unprecedented way. According to a tale that may be apocryphal, in 1589–92 Galileo dropped two objects of unequal mass from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Given the speed at which such a fall would occur, it is doubtful that Galileo could have extracted much information from this experiment. Most of his observations of falling bodies were of bodies rolling down ramps; this slowed things down enough to the point where he was able to measure the time intervals with water clocks and his own pulse.
This he repeated "a full hundred times" until he had achieved "an accuracy such that the deviation between two observations never exceeded one-tenth of a pulse beat." In 1589–92, Galileo wrote De Motu Antiquiora, an unpublished manuscript on the motion of falling bodies. Examples of objects in free fall include: A spacecraft with propulsion off. An object dropped at the top of a drop tube. An object thrown upward or a person jumping off the ground at low speed. Technically, an object is in free fall when moving upwards or instantaneously at rest at the top of its motion. If gravity is the only influence acting the acceleration is always downward and has the same magnitude for all bodies denoted g. Since all objects fall at the same rate in the absence of other forces and people will experience weightlessness in these situations. Examples of objects not in free fall: Flying in an aircraft: there is an additional force of lift. Standing on the ground: the gravitational force is counteracted by the normal force from the ground.
Descending to the Earth using a parachute, which balances the force of gravity with an aerodynamic drag force. The example of a falling skydiver who has not yet deployed a parachute is not considered free fall from a physics perspective, since he experiences a drag force that equals his weight once he has achieved terminal velocity. However, the term "free fall skydiving" is used to describe this case in everyday speech, in the skydiving community, it is not clear, whether the more recent sport of wingsuit flying fits under the definition of free fall skydiving. Near the surface of the Earth, an object in free fall in a vacuum will accelerate at 9.8 m/s2, independent of its mass. With air resistance acting on an object, dropped, the object will reach a terminal velocity, around 53 m/s for a human skydiver; the terminal velocity depends on many factors including mass, drag coefficient, relative surface area and will only be achieved if the fall is from sufficient altitude. A typical skydiver in a spread-eagle position will reach terminal velocity after about 12 seconds, during which time he will have fallen around 450 m.
Free fall was demonstrated on the moon by astronaut David Scott on August 2, 1971. He released a hammer and a feather from the same height above the moon's surface; the hammer and the feather both hit the ground at the same time. This demonstrated Galileo's discovery that, in the absence of air resistance, all objects experience the same acceleration due to gravity; this is the "textbook" case of the vertical motion of an object falling a small distance close to the surface of a planet. It is a good approximation in air as long as the force of gravity on the object is much greater than the force of air resistance, or equivalently the object's velocity is always much less than the terminal velocity. V
Sir Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, astronomer and author, recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, laid the foundations of classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, shares credit with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing the infinitesimal calculus. In Principia, Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint until it was superseded by the theory of relativity. Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to prove Kepler's laws of planetary motion, account for tides, the trajectories of comets, the precession of the equinoxes and other phenomena, eradicating doubt about the Solar System's heliocentricity, he demonstrated that the motion of objects on Earth and celestial bodies could be accounted for by the same principles. Newton's inference that the Earth is an oblate spheroid was confirmed by the geodetic measurements of Maupertuis, La Condamine, others, convincing most European scientists of the superiority of Newtonian mechanics over earlier systems.
Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a sophisticated theory of colour based on the observation that a prism separates white light into the colours of the visible spectrum. His work on light was collected in his influential book Opticks, published in 1704, he formulated an empirical law of cooling, made the first theoretical calculation of the speed of sound, introduced the notion of a Newtonian fluid. In addition to his work on calculus, as a mathematician Newton contributed to the study of power series, generalised the binomial theorem to non-integer exponents, developed a method for approximating the roots of a function, classified most of the cubic plane curves. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, he was a devout but unorthodox Christian who rejected the doctrine of the Trinity. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England.
Beyond his work on the mathematical sciences, Newton dedicated much of his time to the study of alchemy and biblical chronology, but most of his work in those areas remained unpublished until long after his death. Politically and tied to the Whig party, Newton served two brief terms as Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge, in 1689–90 and 1701–02, he was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and spent the last three decades of his life in London, serving as Warden and Master of the Royal Mint, as well as president of the Royal Society. Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day, 25 December 1642 "an hour or two after midnight", at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire, his father named Isaac Newton, had died three months before. Born prematurely, Newton was a small child; when Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabas Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough.
Newton disliked his stepfather and maintained some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them." Newton's mother had three children from her second marriage. From the age of about twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, which taught Latin and Greek and imparted a significant foundation of mathematics, he was removed from school, returned to Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth by October 1659. His mother, widowed for the second time, attempted to make him an occupation he hated. Henry Stokes, master at The King's School, persuaded his mother to send him back to school. Motivated by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student, distinguishing himself by building sundials and models of windmills. In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge, on the recommendation of his uncle Rev William Ayscough, who had studied there.
He started as a subsizar—paying his way by performing valet's duties—until he was awarded a scholarship in 1664, guaranteeing him four more years until he could get his MA. At that time, the college's teachings were based on those of Aristotle, whom Newton supplemented with modern philosophers such as Descartes, astronomers such as Galileo and Thomas Street, through whom he learned of Kepler's work, he set down in his notebook a series of "Quaestiones" about mechanical philosophy. In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that became calculus. Soon after Newton had obtained his BA degree in August 1665, the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student, Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus and the law of gravitation. In April 1667, he returned in October was elected as a fellow of Trinity.
Fellows were required to become ordained priests, although this was no
Vertical wind tunnel
A vertical wind tunnel is a wind tunnel which moves air up in a vertical column. Unlike standard wind tunnels which have test sections that are oriented horizontally, as experienced in level flight, a vertical orientation enables gravity to be countered by drag instead of lift, as experienced in an aircraft spin or by a skydiver at terminal velocity. Although vertical wind tunnels have been built for aerodynamic research, the most high-profile are those used as recreational wind tunnels advertised as indoor skydiving or bodyflight, which have become a popular training tool for skydivers. A recreational wind tunnel enables human beings to experience the sensation of flight without planes or parachutes, through the force of wind being generated vertically. Air moves upwards at 195 km/h, the terminal velocity of a falling human body belly-downwards. A vertical wind tunnel is called'indoor skydiving' due to the popularity of vertical wind tunnels among skydivers, who report that the sensation is similar to skydiving.
The human body'floats' in midair in a vertical wind tunnel, replicating the physics of'body flight' or'bodyflight' experienced during freefall. The first human to fly in a vertical wind tunnel was Jack Tiffany in 1964 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base located in Greene and Montgomery County, Ohio. In 1982 Jean St-Germain, an inventor from Drummondville, sold a vertical wind tunnel concept to both Les Thompson and Marvin Kratter, both of whom went on to build their own wind tunnels. Soon after, St Germain sold the franchising rights to Kratter for $1.5 million. Known as the "Aérodium", it was patented as the "Levitationarium" by Jean St. Germain in the USA in 1984 and 1994 under Patent Nos. 4,457,509 and 5,318,481, respectively. St. Germain helped build two wind tunnels in America; the first vertical wind tunnel, built for a commercial use, opened in the summer of 1982 in Las Vegas, Nevada. That same year, a second wind tunnel opened in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee. Both facilities operated under the name of Flyaway Indoor Skydiving.
In 2005 the 15-year Flyaway Manager Keith Fields purchased the Las Vegas facility and renamed it "Vegas Indoor Skydiving". The first reference, in print, to a Vertical Wind Tunnel for parachuting was published in CANPARA in 1979. A milestone in vertical wind tunnel history was'Wind Machine' at the closing ceremonies of the 2006 Torino Winter Olympics; this was a custom-built unit by Aerodium for the closing ceremony. Many people had never seen a vertical wind tunnel before, were fascinated by the flying humans with no wires. A vertical wind tunnel performance in Moscow's Red Square was shown in 2009 during the presentation of logotype of Sochi 2014 Winter Olympics. In 2010, a vertical wind tunnel was shown at the Latvian exhibition of Expo 2010 in China. Outdoor vertical wind tunnels can either be stationary. Portable vertical wind tunnels are used in movies and demonstrations, are rented for large events such as conventions and state fairs. Portable units offer a dramatic effect for the flying person and the spectators, because there are no walls around the flight area.
These vertical wind tunnels allow people to fly with a partial outdoor/sky view. Outdoor vertical wind tunnels may have walls or netting around the wind column, to keep beginner tunnel flyers from falling out of the tunnel. Stationary indoor vertical wind tunnels include non-recirculating types. Non-recirculating vertical wind tunnels suck air through inlets near the bottom of the building, through the bodyflight area, exhaust through the top of the building. Recirculating wind tunnels form an aerodynamic loop with turning vanes, similar to a scientific wind tunnel, but using a vertical loop with a bodyflight chamber within a vertical part of the loop. Recirculating wind tunnels are built in climates that are too cold for non-recirculating wind tunnels; the airflow of an indoor vertical wind tunnel is smoother and more controlled than that of an outdoor unit. Indoor tunnels are more temperature-controllable, so they are operated year-round in cold climates. Various propellers and fan types can be used as the mechanism to move air through a vertical wind tunnel.
Motors can either be diesel-powered or electric-powered, provide a vertical column of air between 6 and 16 feet wide. A control unit allows for air speed adjustment by a controller in constant view of the flyers. Wind speed can be adjusted at many vertical wind tunnels between 130 and 300 km/h, to accommodate the abilities of an individual and to compensate for variable body drag during advanced acrobatics. Indoor skydiving appeals to the mass market audience that are afraid of heights, since in a vertical wind tunnel, one only floats a few meters above trampoline-type netting. Indoor vertical wind tunnels contain the person within a chamber through the use of walls. While wind tunnel flying is considered a low impact activity, it does exert some strain on the flier's back and shoulders. Therefore, people with shoulder dislocations or back/neck problems should check with a doctor first. While actual skydiving out of an aircraft is subject to age limitations which vary from country to country, from state to state in the US, bodyflying has no set lower or upper limits.
Children can fly provided that they are happy and are not being pressed to participate, they have parental/guardian signed consent. A number of competitions based on indoor skydiving have emerged, such as the FAI World Cup of Indoor Skydiving and the Windoor Wind Gam
The First School of Modern SkyFlying
The First School of Modern SkyFlying was founded in 1994 by the'Father of FreeFly' Olav Zipser with the objective of researching, developing, teaching and pushing the envelope of human flight capability, with an emphasis on Freeflying. Main article Space Games Following the FAA guidelines of Drop Test Approved Areas, The First School of Modern SkyFlying developed and documented the Atmosphere Dolphin FreeFly License Program, set a standard for training and testing freeflyers worldwide; the Atmosphere Dolphin FreeFly License Program utilises a measuring stick in the form of an independent reference to give a consistent worldwide standard for speed and direction. High speed precision athletes are required to perform predetermined aerobatic maneuvers around at first one two Space Balls to be awarded Atmosphere Dolphin FreeFly Licenses A to D. To compete in the one-on-one rounds of the Space Games participants need to have a minimum of Atmosphere Dolphin License A, to compete in the PRO rounds of the Space Games, participants need to have a minimum of Atmosphere Dolphin License B.
As of September 2012 a total of 410 freeflyers from 32 nations have been awarded the Atmosphere Dolphin A Rating, 32 freeflyers the AD-B License, 18 freeflyers the AD-C License, four freeflyers the AD-D License - Olav Zipser AD"D"1, Mike Swanson AD"D"2, Steve Utter AD"D"3, Giancarlo Trimarchi AD"D"4. Olav Zipser Freeflying Space Games First School of Modern SkyFlying Olav Zipser, retrieved 11 Sep 2012 Atmosphere Dolphin Test Video, retrieved 11 Sep 2012
Olav Zipser is a accomplished, multiple-time world champion, trainer of multiple world champions, Sports Emmy Award-winning, pioneering skydiver. Zipser spearheaded the FreeFly revolution of the early 1990s when he began experimenting with non-traditional forms of body flight. Since he has been part of the worldwide sport of FreeFly, has helped it grow to the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale competition level that it is at today, he is respectfully known as "The Father of FreeFly". Zipser is the founder of the FreeFly Training and Instruction Program, of The First School of Modern SkyFlying, of the Atmosphere Dolphin FreeFly Licence Program, of the Space Games, of The FreeFly Astronaut Project, he was the first to make use of Space Balls to train and test freeflyers to an international standard. Zipser completed his 21,000th skydive at Skydive Dubai UAE in 2012, he has flown in 25 of the world's wind tunnels, has won more than 51 gold medals from various international skydiving competitions, has trained no less than 14 world champion skydivers from around the world, has flown his human body the equivalent of three times around the Earth at the equator.
Zipser is a synergist with the Human Synergy Project, a diverse community of artists, adventurers, free thinkers and writers. He is a test pilot and astronaut in training with Team Synergy Moon. Zipser started skydiving in the experimental phase of the Accelerated Freefall progression skydiving program in 1986, began experimenting with non-traditional forms of body flight, he trained human aerodynamics for four months in a wind tunnel. From that experience he developed a new concept of human body flight. First he trained friends he developed a professional FreeFly Training and Instruction Program so he could train others to become FreeFly teachers and instructors. Main article The First School of Modern SkyFlying With the objective of researching, developing, teaching and pushing the envelope of human flight capability, Zipser founded The First School of Modern SkyFlying in 1994, he came up with the idea of using Space Balls as independent measuring devices for constant speed and direction. These measurements train and test freeflyers so that they can meet an advanced international standard.
Consisting of advanced human flight performance tests / a series of predetermined high speed aerobatic freefly manoeuvres around and with at first one two Space Balls, in 1996 Zipser developed the Atmosphere Dolphin FreeFly Licence Program and awarded Atmosphere Dolphin FreeFly Licenses AD-A to AD-D. This provided the testing ground for the research and development of freeflying, opened up the possibility for a number of high-speed human flight air games and competitions. Through March 2007, a total of 410 FreeFlyers from 32 nations have achieved Atmosphere Dolphin FreeFly licences. Four of those have earned Atmosphere Dolphin AD-D licences. Main article Space Games In the early days of FreeFlying, Zipser wanted to bring together the world's then-best freeflyers to research and document the performance evolution of human freeflight, or freeflying. So he devised air games and competitions; each has a pro-class, based on his Atmosphere Dolphin FreeFly Tests. He founded the Space Games, which incorporates double-elimination, one-on-one races.
The first Space Games was held in 1997 at Skydive America Palm Beach in Florida. A total of 16 Space Games events were held between 1997 and 2004; the resulting recognition and following brought FreeFlying into the international public eye, took the competition to the next level. So far, Space Games cash prizes totaling as much as US$35 000 per event have been awarded to winners of different categories. In 2000 FreeFlying become recognised as an aviation discipline by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, opening up the possibility for official National Championships and World Championships in FreeFly. Zipser took gold at America's first official FreeFly National Skydiving Championships in 2000, he took gold again at the first official Fédération Aéronautique Internationale FreeFly World Skydiving Championships and World Air Games, held in Spain in 2001. In 2001, Zipser introduced FreeFly at the World Games in Japan; that introduction led to Olympic recognition of FreeFlying and to FreeFlying being included in the 2005 World Games in Germany.
In 1995 Zipser became the first civilian to skydive from the stratosphere when he jumped from an Ilyushin 76 at 41,667 feet over central Russia. He performed the skydive with Patrick de Gayardon for Sector No Limits Sports Watches, they set the record for exiting an aircraft from the highest altitude without oxygen and achieved FreeFly speeds of 750kmh. Zipser received a Sports Emmy Award from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences in 1995 for his performance and aerial cinematography of ESPN's inaugural X Games that summer. Founded by Olav Zipser In 2009, The FreeFly Astronaut Project is a scientific research mission toward the development of appropriate techniques and survival suits for high-altitude and low-earth-orbit emergency re-entry survival and rescue situations; the aim of the project is to develop a safe and economical emergency return and rescue method to improve the odds of survival