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Freehold Township, New Jersey

Freehold Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 36,184, reflecting an increase of 4,647 from the 31,537 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 6,827 from the 24,710 counted in the 1990 Census. Freehold Township was first formed on October 31, 1693, was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of Freehold Township were taken to form Upper Freehold Township, so some wills and official records following the split referred to "Lower Freehold Township" although the official name has always been Freehold Township. Additional portions formed Millstone Township, Jackson Township, Atlantic Township, Marlboro Township and Manalapan Township. Freehold town was formed within the township on March 25, 1869, formally separated when it was reconstituted as a borough on April 15, 1919, including additional portions of the township; the Battle of Monmouth was fought in June 1778 in what has been preserved as Monmouth Battlefield State Park, in Freehold Township and Manalapan Township.

The Lenni Lenape were the earliest known people to live in the area. The Lenape were a hunter-gatherer society, they were sedentary, changing campsites seasonally. They were prolific hunters of small game and birds, they were skilled fisherman, were known to harvest vast amounts of clams from the bays and inlets on the Jersey Shore. They practiced some agriculture to augment their food supply. During this time, an important crossroad of two major Lenape trails was located in the area of Freehold. In 1498, John Cabot became the first European to sight this land; the Dutch were the first to develop the area. By the 17th century, the English had taken over the area. In 1664, the Duke of York granted a patent to Sir George Carteret to develop the area. In 1685, Scottish immigrants, fleeing religious persecution at home, became the first to settle the area. In 1693, Along with Middletown and Shrewsbury, Freehold was established by act of legislature as one of the three original towns in Monmouth County.

The name of the township comes from the word Freehold, an English legal term describing fee simple property ownership. In 1714, when the colonial government was deciding where to locate the county seat and courthouse, Freeholder John Reid, the first Surveyor General of East Jersey, wanted the county seat located in Freehold. Reid sold the property to the Board of Chosen Freeholders at a bargain price, this may have been the deciding factor why Freehold was selected over Middletown and Shrewsbury. In return for the discounted price, Reid placed a restrictive covenant in the deed that, should the property cease being used as a courthouse, ownership would revert to the Reid family. Direct descendants of John Reid still reside in Freehold Township. Freehold was designated as the seat of the Monmouth County government, a court house was commissioned to be built on the land purchased from John Reid; the Monmouth Courthouse opened in 1715. A small village began to develop around the courthouse. At first, the village was called Monmouth Courthouse.

Overtime, other government buildings opened near the courthouse, including a sheriff's office, a prison, a post office. A number of homes and commercial businesses sprang up in the village, including a blacksmith, a general store, a bank, a hotel, saloon. In the area surrounding Monmouth Courthouse, many successful farms began to appear; the farms in Freehold were well known for the production of potatoes and rye, which were sold in the markets of nearby cities. Freehold became known for its excellent horse farms; the differences within Freehold between the growing village around the courthouse and the surrounding farmland were the seeds for the division of Freehold into two separate municipalities in the early 20th century. As of 1745, the majority of families in Freehold were still Scottish immigrants. In modern Freehold today, many important streets bear the name of early colonial families, including Barkalow, Rhea and Schanck. Freehold was impacted by the American Revolution. By the early 1770s, the Sons of Liberty were recruiting local members in Freehold, were agitating the relationship between the British government and the colonists.

In 1775 after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, Capt. Elias Longstreet recruited the first company of Freeholders to join the Continental Army. Freehold was a known center of patriot activity; the Declaration of Independence was publicly proclaimed, read aloud, from the steps of the Monmouth Courthouse just a few days after being signed in Philadelphia. However, after British success at the Battle of Long Island and all of Monmouth County fell under the control of Loyalists; the British government continued to operate the Monmouth Courthouse, several people involved in revolutionary activities were arrested and tried for treason at the courthouse. The success of the Continental Army at the Battle of Trenton helped to weaken loyalist control of Freehold. In June 1778, the British Army began a major strategic evacuation of the city of Philadelphia, they attempted to protect a long, slow moving column of loyalist families and other supplies seized in Philadelphia, as they moved towards ships in New York Harbor.

On June 28, 1778, the Continental Army intercepted the column in Freehold. The Battle of Monmouth was one of the largest battles of the Revolutionar

Air: Above and Beyond

Air: Above and Beyond is a live album performed by multi-instrumentalist Joe McPhee's Trio X recorded in Canada in 2006 and first released on the CIMP label. All About Jazz said "it's memorable set" and "For those who are used to the tenor-bass-drums setup as something given to full-bore blowing, Trio X eloquently captures the tension before the release". All compositions by Joe McPhee, Dominic Duval and Jay Rosen except as indicated "Fried Grapefruit" - 16:30 "Jump Spring" - 10:57 "2128½ Indiana" - 8:15 "Close Up" - 7:31 "Give Us This Day" - 10:22 "Here's That Rainy Day" - 5:41 "A Valentine in the Fog of War" - 8:27 Joe McPhee - tenor saxophone Dominic Duval - bass Jay Rosen - drums

Peter Power (crisis management specialist)

Peter Power is a British crisis management specialist and has advised many organisations in his area of speciality. Peter Power was born in the UK in 1951, he served in the 10 Battalion Parachute Regiment Territorial Army 1969–1971 before joining the Metropolitan Police in 1971. His service in that force included the Special Patrol Group and attachments to the Metropolitan Police Anti-Terrorist Branch and other front line units. In 1990 he transferred on promotion to Dorset, he retired from Dorset in 1993. In 1995 Power set up his own company in Visor Consultants, he received several commendations for leadership etc.. and in 1985 became a key architect/ promulgator of the Gold Silver Bronze command structure and designed several mnemonics for dealing with terrorist bombs during the Provisional Irish Republican Army campaign. He is quoted in the UK government guide, "A Guide to GIS Applications in Integrated Emergency Management" and he is the author of many other advice guidebooks including the original UK government booklet "Business Continuity Management - Preventing Chaos in a Crisis".

On 23 November 1984 Power was trapped with others on the London Underground during a serious Oxford Circus fire that started at that station and spread along the Victoria line. He subsequently led many people to safety. Power spoke on ITV and BBC TV news regarding a crisis management simulation exercise his company ran on this day, working in the premises of a private company in the City of London, using a scenario similar to the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Power told the BBC that the exercise scenario included bombs going off at the same stations as they did in the actual attacks. Power said that this coinciding of his exercise and the real attacks was a coincidence and was based on the previous terrorist incidents in London, including 18 bombs detonated on the London Underground since 1885. An investigation by the BBC series The Conspiracy Files identified the client Power's company worked for that day delivering a simulation exercise, it examined allegations about his company and others, involved in an alleged UK government "cover-up" similar to 9/11 conspiracy theories.

Power has always denied this and the programme found no evidence to support such allegations. Visor Consultants: The Visor Team BBC - Organising forward command. Kings Cross 18 November 1987 BBC - Preparing for a crisis Risk and Continuity: Convergence is in the Air... BBC - Discussing the impact of terrorism on London BBC - Brixton Riots

Great Mell Fell

Great Mell Fell is an isolated hill or fell in the English Lake District, north of Ullswater and adjacent to the Eastern Fells. It rises from a level plain to a height of 537 m, its top is an excellent viewpoint for many of the surrounding higher fells. The fell offers a place of quiet refuge; the fell was once well wooded, retains a good covering of trees on the lower slopes, as well as scattered larches and pines higher up. Its rock is unusual for the Lake District, a reddish conglomerate of Devonian age, eroded to form a rounded hill with smooth outlines and no rocky crags. Great Mell Fell is an isolated hill which rises abruptly from a wide expanse of marshy lowland to a height of 537 m; the fell has rounded outlines with no crags. Rock is represented only by a number of large erratic boulders on the north slopes, but by the Cloven Stone near a barn to the south of the fell; the hill is triangular in plan with the apex pointing west, down the steep "nose" of the fell, with the gentler, broader eastern slopes divided by two shallow valleys which drain into the Wham Sike and Routing Gill Beck.

Great Mell Fell lies on the watershed between the Derwent river system to the west and the Eden system to the east. This watershed is formed by a low ridge perceptible in places, which connects the Northern and Eastern Fells. From Bowscale Fell it runs across Eycott Hill to Great Mell Fell over Cockley Moor to High Brow and up the north-east ridge of Great Dodd, to join the main ridge on the Helvellyn range, thus the eastern sides of the fell drain into the River Eden via Dacre Beck and the River Eamont, while the western parts drain through Keswick via Trout Beck, the River Glenderamackin and the River Greta to the Derwent. Great Mell Fell is a quiet place of refuge within the surrounding agricultural land, for wildlife as well as for walkers; the sheltered lower eastern slopes are well covered by mixed woods of oak, birch and Scots pine. Within the trees badgers and roe deer live, green woodpeckers nest, it is said. Higher up the fell an old planting of Scots pine straddles the eastern ridge, contorted wind-blown larches grow higher still, some blown horizontal.

The trees give a glimpse of. A nineteenth-century guidebook claims; however the fell's name suggests. Clumps of tough grass and occasional clumps of heather cover the highest parts, where occasional red grouse may nest; the summit is crowned by a low mound, marked as a tumulus on the Ordnance Survey 1:25,000 Explorer map. This is a small Bronze Age burial mound. A small cairn has been built on top of it, but was not there in the 1950s, when a dead tree trunk marked the spot; the isolated position of the fell makes it a splendid viewpoint. Blencathra and the Dodds dominate the view towards the west, while to the south is an impressive vista of both the Far Eastern and the Eastern Fells, as far as Red Screes and the Kirkstone Pass. To the east, beyond Little Mell Fell there is a clear view across the Eden Valley to the north Pennines. Great Mell Fell is now managed by the National Trust; the whole fell. Access to the fell may be gained from near Brownrigg Farm on the minor road between Matterdale End and the A66 road, or from just south of Troutbeck on the A5091 road, along the disused rifle range.

Paths just inside the boundary fence allow a circuit of the fell. The western end of the fell offers a steep but grassy climb to the top. A gentler ascent follows a used path along the east ridge. There is a disused rifle range to the north-west of the fell; the target control building may still be seen. This was in use from the late 1890s by the War Department during the war years and into the 1950s; as a result, access to the whole fell. Alfred Wainwright includes a drawing of one of the signs in his 1955 guide book, but he himself ignored the warnings and explored the fell anyway. Careful examination of the exposed soil in the butts will still reveal dead 303 rounds from the era Both Great and Little Mell Fells are unique among the fells of the Lake District by being composed of the Mell Fell Conglomerate, a sedimentary rock formed from deposits of sand and gravel in alluvial fans and braided river channels in a desert environment; the rock contains no fossils. The stones in the conglomerate came from the erosion of both the Borrowdale Volcanic Group and the Windermere Supergroup.

The reddish-coloured rock appears to date from the late Devonian Period, sometime around 375 million years ago. The erosion of this conglomerate has formed the smooth and rounded outlines that are distinctive of the two Mell Fells. While there are no crags on Great Mell Fell, boulders of the conglomerate may be seen in places on the north slope, it may be seen in the two stream beds; this Devonian conglomerate rests on the Birker Fell Andesite Formation, a thick sequence of andesite lava flows from the Ordovician Period, about 450 million years ago, part of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group. This rock may be seen at the foot of the fell in the south-east corner, where a small quarry has extracted a little of this andesite. Rocks of the Devonian Period are referred to as the Old Red Sandstone; these should

National Register of Historic Places listings in Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Wrangell–St. Elias National Park and Preserve; this is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, United States; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map. There are 9 districts listed on the National Register in the park. One property is a National Historic Landmark District; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted February 28, 2020. National Register of Historic Places listings in Valdez–Cordova Census Area, Alaska List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska National Register of Historic Places listings in Alaska

List of names of European cities in different languages

Many cities in Europe have different names in different languages. Some cities have undergone name changes for political or other reasons; this article attempts to give all known different names for all major cities that are geographically or and culturally in Europe. It includes some smaller towns that are important because of their location or history; this article does not offer any opinion about what the "original", "official", "real" or "correct" name of any city is or was. Cities are listed alphabetically by their current best-known name in English; the English version is followed by variants in other languages, in alphabetical order by name, by any historical variants and former names. Several cities have diacritics in their listed name in English, it is common that the press strip the diacritics and that means a parallel diacritic-free version is often used in English. Foreign names that are the same as their English equivalents may be listed. Note: The blue asterisks indicate the availability of a Wikipedia article in that language for that city.

Red asterisks or a lack of an asterisk indicate that no such article exists, that these equivalents without further footnotes should be viewed with caution