SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Freemasonry

Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons that from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, Master Mason; the candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, entrusted with grips and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The degrees are part allegorical morality part lecture. Three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry, members of any of these degrees are known as Freemasons or Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, are administered by their own bodies; the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. These private Lodges are supervised at the regional level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient.

There is no worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture be open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women be admitted, that the discussion of religion and politics be banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the jurisdictions which have removed some, or all, of these restrictions; the Masonic lodge is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets to conduct the usual formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, on some aspect of Masonic history or ritual. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song; the bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies. Candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.

Some time in a separate ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft, they will be raised to the degree of Master Mason. In all of these ceremonies, the candidate is first obligated entrusted with passwords and grips peculiar to his new rank. Another ceremony is officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, with its own secrets to distinguish its members. In other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of social calendar, allowing Masons and their partners to meet in a less ritualised environment. Coupled with these events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity; this occurs at both Grand Lodge level. Masonic charities contribute to many fields, such as disaster relief; these private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, a Freemason will have been initiated into one of these. There exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate events, such as sport or Masonic research.

The rank of Master Mason entitles a Freemason to explore Masonry further through other degrees, administered separately from the Craft, or "Blue Lodge" degrees described here, but having a similar format to their meetings. There is little consistency in Freemasonry; because each Masonic jurisdiction is independent, each sets its own procedures. The wording of the ritual, the number of officers present, the layout of the meeting room, etc. varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The officers of the Lodge are appointed annually; every Masonic Lodge has two Wardens, a secretary and a treasurer. There is a Tyler, or outer guard, always present outside the door of a working Lodge, to secure its privacy. Other offices vary between jurisdictions; each Masonic Lodge exists and operates according to a set of ancient principles known as the Landmarks of Freemasonry. These principles have thus far eluded any universally accepted definition. Candidates for Freemasonry will have met most active members of the Lodge they are joining before they are initiated.

The process varies between jurisdictions, but the candidate will have been introduced by a friend at a Lodge social function, or at some form of open evening in the Lodge. In modern times, interested people track down a local Lodge through the Internet; the onus is on candidates to ask to join. Once the initial inquiry is made, an interview follows to determine the candidate's suitability. If the candidate decides to proceed from here, the Lodge ballots on the application before he can be accepted; the absolute minimum requirement of any body of Freemasons is that the candidate must be free, considered to be of good character. There is an age requirement, varying between Grand Lodges, capable of being overridden by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge; the underlying ass

Next to Nothing (Rittz album)

Singles from Next to Nothing: [[Bounce ft Twista Next to Nothing is the second studio album by American rapper Rittz. The album was released on September 2014, by Strange Music; the album features guest appearances from Twista, Trae tha Truth, Mike Posner, B.o. B, Shawty Fatt, Scar. In a June 2014, interview with AllHipHop, Rittz spoke about the album, saying: I try to rap about real shit that happened in my life to get to this point; this next album that I got, I express a lot about my career and where I'm at. I just kept going with making the music that I make that pleases the fans. So I didn't change up anything. I just kind of stuck with my formula. I have a formula for picking out beats whether it was for the last album or this album, I start with picking out tracks and I just flow from the heart, whatever is on my mind. So I think I don't compromise my music that pleases my fans to make anything like that. Next to Nothing received positive reviews from music critics. Jay Balfour of HipHopDX said, "Rittz sounds at home over the more dynamic production on Next To Nothing, certain songs are proof that he can stick to making an forgiving type of vibe music to good effect as well.

At times when he slips into his impressive double-time for extended bursts and songs on end, the effect seems too isolated to sustain itself if the White Jesus emcee rightfully prides himself on rapping intelligibly at speed. It's more than a trick. At times Next To Nothing is hard to cut off but there’s too many déjà vu moments and first-time misses to listen through comfortably at once. To a certain extent, that won't alienate him from fans, and at the same time, there’s enough to take away to become a new one as well." Jeffrey Whaley of XXL said, "Whether you decide to play this album while riding around in your old school or on your music device, most would agree Rittz hits the mark with this album. With standout tracks like, “Crown Royal”, “Going Through Hell”, “Living A Dream” featuring Trae the Truth and “Bounce” featuring Twista, the album has replay value and works sonically from beginning to end. With this being one of the better albums of 2014, Rittz has solidified himself a spot within the rap game for years to come."

The album debuted at number 14 on the Billboard 200, with first-week sales of 21,627 copies in the United States. It debuted at number 3 on both Rap Albums and Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums charts; the album has sold 62,000 copies in the United States as of April 2016. Credits for Next to Nothing adapted from the album liner notes

Paulino Santos

Paulino Torres Santos was a military officer who became the Commanding General of the Philippine Army from May 6 to December 31, 1936. Upon his retirement, he served as a civilian administrator under President Manuel L. Quezon. Gen. Santos was born in Tarlac to Remigio Santos and Rosa Torres. After his Spanish education from 1897 to 1900, he enrolled in an English school in 1901. In 1907, when he had finished the sixth grade, he was appointed as municipal teacher, a post which he held until the following year. In 1908, at age 18, he was an enlisted man in the Philippine Constabulary and he had just completed his first enlistment when he was named civil service clerk at the PC headquarters in 1912; that same year, he enrolled in the Constabulary Officers' School wherein, two years he graduated valedictorian. Santos was appointed as Third Lieutenant of the PC in 1914, as such, he worked hard and continued studying to be more effective in his assignment as a field officer. General Santos was married to Elisa Angeles of Bulacan, with whom he had seven children, including Rosa Santos Munda.

As a soldier, Santos served in the Lanao campaign in 1916, where he sustained wounds from a Moro spear, in the Bayang Cota campaign in 1917, where he was wounded anew, but this time by bullets. As government cannons were bombarding the Muslim bulwark of Lumamba, Lieutenant Santos led his platoon in penetrating the secure redoubt, through an opening made in the barricade, erected a ladder to scale the first kota, he and his men engaged its defenders in a bloody hand-to-hand combat, killing 30 of them, thus preserving the lives of government soldiers. For this exceptional military feat, Governor General Frank Murphy bestowed on him the Medal of Valor, the highest Philippine military award for "gallantry in action", just before the inauguration of the Commonwealth government in 1935, he was named President Quezon's aide for the inaugural ceremony. "By direction of the President, the MEDAL FOR VALOR is hereby awarded to: MAJOR GENERAL PAULINO T SANTOS, SR. PHILIPPINE ARMY For exceptional conduct and conspicuous courage displayed at Bayang Cotta, Lanao del Sur on 26 July 1917.

A Philippine Constabulary Second Lieutenant, Paulino Santos was tasked to participate in the Bayang Cotta campaign in which three companies of Philippine Scouts were involved to neutralize bands of Moro outlaws. Among them was the group of Ampuan-Agos, the most famous of all Lanao outlaw chiefs; the armed bands, numbering about 500, were entrenched in a well-constructed and fortified cotta surrounded with barbed wire and bamboo spikes. Lieutenant Santos led government troops in assaulting the outlaws' position. With the use of scaling ladders, they killed 30 outlaws. In this gallant act, one PC soldier was killed. Lieutenant Santos sustained a near-fatal gunshot wound at the back of the head." He served as ex-officio Justice of the Peace at large for the Provinces of Lanao and Sulu, Deputy Provincial Treasurer of Lanao, before becoming Provincial Governor of Lanao. He was appointed Director of the Bureau of Prisons in 1930, serving thus until 1936, founding the Davao Penal Colony in 1932 and transferring the Bilibid Prisons from its old site to a new one in Muntinlupa, Rizal.

In 1936, he was recalled to military service through his appointment as brigadier general and assistant chief of staff of the Philippine Army by President Quezon. Before the year’s end, however, he was named Chief of Staff of the Philippine Army with the rank of major general. In 1937, President Quezon gave him the difficult and dangerous task of minimizing, if not eliminating the problem of Moro piracy in the south through the destruction of the pirates’ kotas Kota Dilausan, in Lanao, his term as Army chief of staff ended in December 1938. In January 1939, he was named general manager of the National Land Settlement Administration, he served in this capacity until 1941. In 1917, Paulino Santos became the first provincial commander of Sulu; as commandant and governor, improvements on agriculture and communication were achieved in the region. Serving as deputy governor up to 1924, he acted as the auxiliary justice of the peace in the municipal districts of both Lanao and Sulu at the same time. Santos was appointed as the assistant commander of Southern Luzon, was given the rank of a lieutenant colonel.

In October 1930, he was designated as assistant chief of the Philippine Constabulary where he served for more than 20 years. After his retirement, Pres. Manuel Quezon persuaded him to become the Director of Prisons in 1936. Santos established the Davao Penal Colony, sped up its transfer to the New Bilibid Prison in Muntinlupa. Although the jurisdiction Bureau of Prisons was transferred by law in 1937 to the Department of Justice, Santos remained its director, as requested by Quezon, while performing his army duties, he was the first head of "Estado Mayor ng Hukbong Pilipino" and became the administrator of the Land Settlement Administration. With orders from Pres. Quezon, he led the first group of 200 migrants from Luzon and the Visayas who transformed the primeval Lagao area in Koronadal Valley into a productive and progressive colony of six communities on Feb. 27, 1939. Being the man of action that he was, Santos stayed with the men in the field exhorting them to give their best to the arduous task with discipline and high purpose together with his personal aide Eliodoro M. Pantua.

During the Japanese Occupation, the Japanese occupied the upper Koronadal and Allah Valleys. GM Santos decided to cooperate with the Japanese to prevent further bloodshed. Santos and th