United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Grimes County, Texas
Grimes County is a county located in southeastern Texas in the United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 26,604; the seat of the county is Anderson. The county was formed from Montgomery County in 1846, it is named for Jesse Grimes, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence and early European-American settler of the county. The Navasota and Brazos rivers form the western boundary of the county. Eastern areas of the county are part of the watershed of the San Jacinto River. In the historic period and Spanish explorers encountered the Bidai Indians, who were mentioned in Spanish records from 1691. Like other tribes, they suffered high fatalities from new infectious diseases and joined with the remnants of other Native American people in the historic period; this area was not settled by Europeans and creole Spanish for nearly a century, during Spanish colonial rule. After Mexico achieved independence, it accepted settlers from the United States into eastern Texas, it allowed them to practice their own religion.
A few structures in Anderson date from this period, as well as from the Texas Republic and early statehood eras. Because of the wealth of structures reflecting this extended historic period, the town and nearby area are designated as the "Anderson Historic District", listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Anglo-American migration to. Early settlers were from the South Alabama, most brought enslaved African Americans with them, whom they relied on for labor; the first cotton gin in Texas was built by Jared E. Groce, who had settled with 90 slaves near what is now Hempstead, developing a cotton plantation. Texas achieved independence in 1836 and settlers continued to arrive from the United States. Much of the fertile lowlands were developed for cotton plantations in the late antebellum period. Grimes County was organized in 1846, a year after the Republic of Texas agreed to annexation by the United States and became a state. From 1850 to the Civil War the white population increased markedly but, as settlers from the South continued to bring in numerous slaves, the black population increased faster.
Planters continued to grow corn as commodity crops. By 1860 there were 4,852 whites in the county and 5,468 slaves, who made up 53 percent of the population; the white population had doubled in the preceding decade, the slave population had tripled. Grimes had a total of 505 slaveholders in 1860, with 77 holding 20 slaves or more, the qualification for being considered major planters, it more than 10 slaves each. In such conditions, whites were anxious after the emancipation of slaves, struggled with adapting to a free labor market. White violence rose after the war, the Ku Klux Klan established a local chapter in 1868 to assert dominance. Federal troops were stationed in the area and the Freedman's Bureau had an office in the county, they were not successful in protecting freedmen, but the Bureau established schools in Determined to crush populist efforts and alliances with Republicans that resulted in victories in 1896 and 1898, white Democrats formed what became the White Man's Union, a secret, oath-bound organization that violently took over elections in 1900, after killing several black Populist leaders.
It selected all county officials until 1958. White violence continued after Reconstruction and into the early 20th century, when whites committed 9 lynchings of blacks in the county, part of racial terrorism to suppress the freedmen. Grimes and Freestone counties had the same number of lynchings in this period, ranking as the fifth-highest totals in a state where lynchings were widespread and conducted in many counties; the economy declined in the late 19th century. In 1859 the Houston and Texas Central extended its line into the county. Anderson, the county seat, rejected it and was bypassed for Navasota, which soon surpassed it in size. Anderson got a railroad in the early 1900s, but never caught up with Navasota. In the late 19th and 20th centuries, the Burlington Northern Santa Fe and the Union Pacific became the major railroads in the county. In response to the violence and takeover by the White Man's Union, African Americans began to leave the county in large numbers; the population of the county declined markedly from 1900 to 1920, after 1930 to 1980.
These were periods of the Great Migration, as African Americans left Texas and other parts of the South to leave behind the oppression of Jim Crow and disenfranchisement, seek better work. From 1940 on, many migrated to the West Coast for jobs in the expanding defense industry. Rural whites left the South for industrial cities; the county remained rural and agricultural until the late 20th century, which contributed to its continuing population losses. Timber harvesting and processing were part of early industry in the 20th century, but stock raising and dairy farms contributed more to the overall agricultural economy in the 20th century, making up 93% of its revenues. In addition, crops have become more diversified. Railroad restructuring in the late 20th century resulted in mergers among some lines. In the 21st century, State Highway 90 is the major north-south thoroughfare, state highways 30 and 105 run east and west. With some new manufacturing, population began to increase since the late 1970s.
In 2014 the census estimated 27,172 people living in Grimes County. About 59.5 percent were Anglo, 22.6 percent were Hispanic, 16.5 percent were African American. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 8
Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto was a Spanish explorer and conquistador, involved in expeditions in Nicaragua and the Yucatan Peninsula, played an important role in Pizarro's conquest of the Inca Empire in Peru, but is best known for leading the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States. He is the first European documented as having crossed the Mississippi River. De Soto's North American expedition was a vast undertaking, it ranged throughout the southeastern United States, both searching for gold, reported by various Indian tribes and earlier coastal explorers, for a passage to China or the Pacific coast. De Soto died in 1542 on the banks of the Mississippi River. Hernando de Soto was born in Extremadura, Spain, to parents who were both hidalgos, nobility of modest means; the region was poor and many people struggled to survive. He was born in the current province of Badajoz. Three towns—Badajoz and Jerez de los Caballeros—claim to be his birthplace, he spent time as a child at each place.
He stipulated in his will that his body be interred at Jerez de los Caballeros, where other members of his family were buried. As he grew to adulthood, the Spanish took back control of the Iberian peninsula from Islamic forces. Spain and Portugal were filled with young men seeking a chance for military fame after the defeat of the Moors. With discovery of new lands across the ocean to the west, young men were attracted to rumors of adventure and wealth. De Soto sailed to the New World with Pedrarias Dávila, appointed as the first Governor of Panama. In 1520 he participated in Gaspar de Espinosa's expedition to Veragua, in 1524, he participated in the conquest of Nicaragua under Francisco Hernández de Córdoba. There he acquired a public office in León, Nicaragua. Brave leadership, unwavering loyalty, ruthless schemes for the extortion of native villages for their captured chiefs became de Soto's hallmarks during the conquest of Central America, he gained fame as an excellent horseman and tactician.
During that time, de Soto was influenced by the achievements of Spanish explorers: Juan Ponce de León, the first European to reach Florida. In 1530, de Soto became a regidor of Nicaragua, he led an expedition up the coast of the Yucatán Peninsula searching for a passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean to enable trade with the Orient, the richest market in the world. Failing that, without means to explore further, de Soto, upon Pedro Arias Dávila's death, left his estates in Nicaragua. Bringing his own men on ships which he hired, de Soto joined Francisco Pizarro at his first base of Tumbes shortly before departure for the interior of present-day Peru. Pizarro made de Soto one of his captains; when Pizarro and his men first encountered the army of Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca, Pizarro sent de Soto with fifteen men to invite Atahualpa to a meeting. When Pizarro's men attacked Atahualpa and his guard the next day, de Soto led one of the three groups of mounted soldiers; the Spanish captured Atahualpa.
De Soto was sent to the camp of the Inca army, where his men plundered Atahualpa's tents. During 1533, the Spanish held Atahualpa captive in Cajamarca for months while his subjects paid for his ransom by filling a room with gold and silver objects. During this captivity, de Soto taught him to play chess. By the time the ransom had been completed, the Spanish became alarmed by rumors of an Inca army advancing on Cajamarca. Pizarro sent de Soto with 200 soldiers to scout for the rumored army. While de Soto was gone, the Spanish in Cajamarca decided to kill Atahualpa to prevent his rescue. De Soto returned to report. After executing Atahualpa and his men headed to Cuzco, the capital of the Incan Empire; as the Spanish force approached Cuzco, Pizarro sent his brother Hernando and de Soto ahead with 40 men. The advance guard fought a pitched battle with Inca troops in front of the city, but the battle had ended before Pizarro arrived with the rest of the Spanish party; the Inca army withdrew during the night.
The Spanish plundered Cuzco, where they found much silver. As a mounted soldier, de Soto received a share of the plunder, which made him wealthy, it represented riches from Atahualpa's camp, his ransom, the plunder from Cuzco. On the road to Cuzco, Manco Inca Yupanqui, a brother of Atahualpa, had joined Pizarro. Manco had been hiding from Atahualpa in fear of his life, was happy to gain Pizarro's protection. Pizarro arranged for Manco to be installed as the Inca leader. De Soto joined Manco in a campaign to eliminate the Inca armies under Quizquiz, loyal to Atahualpa. By 1534, de Soto was serving as lieutenant governor of Cuzco while Pizarro was building his new capital on the coast. In 1535 King Charles awarded Diego de Almagro, Francisco Pizarro's partner, the governorship of the southern portion of the Inca Empire; when de Almagro made plans to explore and conquer the southern part of the Inca empire, de Soto applied to be his second-in-command, but de Almagro tur
Henderson County, Texas
Henderson County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 78,532; the county seat is Athens. The county is named in honor of James Pinckney Henderson, the first Attorney General of the Republic of Texas, Secretary of State for the republic, he served as the first Governor of Texas. Henderson County was established in the year after Texas statehood, its first town was Buffalo, laid out in 1847. The county boundaries were set with some reduction from the previous size; the restructuring resulted in the need for a new county seat. In an election, Athens was chosen as the site for the "courthouse under the oaks."Henderson County comprises the Athens, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Dallas-Fort Worth, TX-OK Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 948 square miles, of which 874 square miles is land and 75 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 175 State Highway 19 State Highway 31 State Highway 155 State Highway 198 State Highway 274 State Highway 334 Kaufman County Van Zandt County Smith County Cherokee County Anderson County Freestone County Navarro County Ellis County As of the census of 2000, there were 73,277 people, 28,804 households, 20,969 families residing in the county.
The population density was 84 people per square mile. There were 35,935 housing units at an average density of 41 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.50% White, 6.61% Black or African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.72% from other races, 1.30% from two or more races. 6.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 28,804 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.20% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 25.00% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 18.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years.
For every 100 females, there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,533, the median income for a family was $38,255. Males had a median income of $31,847 versus $21,650 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,772. About 11.70% of families and 15.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.60% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over. County Judge: Richard Sanders Commissioner 1: Ken Hays Commissioner 2: Wade McKinney Commissioner 3: Charles McHam Commissioner 4: Ken Geeslin County Clerk: Mary Margret Wright District Clerk: Betty Herriage County Attorney: Clint Davis District Attorney: Mark Hall County Auditor: Ann Marie Lee County Treasurer: Michael Bynum County Court at Law Judge: Scott Williams County Court at Law 2 Judge: Nancy Perryman 3rd District Judge: Mark Calhoon 173rd District Judge: Dan Moore 392nd District Judge: Scott McKee JP 1: Randy Daniel Constable 1: Kay Langford JP 2: Kevin Pollock Constable 2: Mitch Baker JP 3: James Duncan Constable 3: David Grubbs JP 4: Milton Adams Constable 4: John Floyd JP 5: Belinda Brownlow Constable 5: Brad Miers Sheriff: Botie Hillhouse Tax Assessor/Collector: Peggy Goodall Elections Administrator: Denise Hernandez Emergency Management Coordinator: Joy Kimbrough Fire Marshal: Shane RenburgJames C.
Spencer, a former member of the Texas House of Representatives from Henderson County, 1939-1941, 1947-1949 served as Henderson county judge from 1949 into the 1950s. He was a survivor of the Bataan Death March in the Philippine Islands. Henderson County is part of the Dallas/Fort Worth DMA. Local media outlets are: KDFW-TV, KXAS-TV, WFAA-TV, KTVT-TV, KERA-TV, KTXA-TV, KDFI-TV, KDAF-TV, KFWD-TV. Other nearby stations that provide coverage for Henderson County come from the Tyler/Longview/Jacksonville market and they include: KLTV, KTRE-TV, KYTX-TV, KFXK-TV, KCEB-TV, KETK-TV. Newspaper coverage of the area can be found based in Athens. Paul Knight of the Houston Press said in a 2009 article that some people blamed the development of the artificial Cedar Creek Lake, which opened in 1965, development of the area surrounding the lake for the initial influx of crime and recreational drugs into the county and the East Texas region. Carroll Dyson, a retired pilot and Henderson County resident interviewed by the Houston Press, said in 2009 that the lake attracted "white flight" from metropolitan areas.
Dyson added, "When all your rich people from Dallas and Houston move out here, the thieves are just drawn to them. Thieves are just wired that way. You used to not have to lock your door in Henderson County." Ray Nutt, the sheriff of Henderson County, said in the same article that when the lake first opened, there was no zoning and "a lot of elderly people bought a mobile home and moved in. They passed away and family members sold them off or just let them go down." Nutt added that the area around the lake has "a lot of good people," yet it where "a lot of criminals tend to flow." Centreville Corinth National Register of Historic Places listings in Henderson County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Henderson Cou
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas was a sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846. It was bordered by Mexico to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two U. S. states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, United States territories encompassing parts of the current U. S. states of Oklahoma, Colorado and New Mexico to the north and west. The citizens of the republic were known as Texians; the region of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas referred to as Mexican Texas declared its independence from Mexico during the Texas Revolution in 1836. The Texas war of independence ended on April 21, 1836, but Mexico refused to recognize the independence of the Republic of Texas, intermittent conflicts between the two states continued into the 1840s; the United States recognized the Republic of Texas in March 1837 but declined to annex the territory. The Republic-claimed borders were based upon the Treaties of Velasco between the newly created Texas Republic and Antonio López de Santa Anna of Mexico.
The eastern boundary had been defined by the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 between the United States and Spain, which recognised the Sabine River as the eastern boundary of Spanish Texas and western boundary of the Missouri Territory. Under the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 the United States had renounced its claim to Spanish land to the east of the Rocky Mountains and to the north of the Rio Grande, which it claimed to have acquired as part of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803; the republic's southern and western boundary with Mexico was disputed throughout the republic's existence. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its southern boundary, while Mexico insisted that the Nueces River was the boundary. Texas was annexed by the United States on December 29, 1845 and was admitted to the Union as the 28th state on that day, with the transfer of power from the Republic to the new state of Texas formally taking place on February 19, 1846. However, the United States again inherited the southern and western border dispute with Mexico, which became a trigger for the Mexican–American War.
Texas had been one of the Provincias Internas of New Spain, a region known historiographically as Spanish Texas. Though claimed by Spain, it was not formally colonized by them until competing French interests at Fort St. Louis encouraged Spain to establish permanent settlements in the area. Sporadic missionary incursions occurred into the area during the period from the 1690s–1710s, before the establishment of San Antonio as a permanent civilian settlement. Owing to the area's high Native American populations and its remoteness from the population centers of New Spain, Texas remained unsettled by Europeans, although Spain maintained a small military presence to protect Christian missionaries working among Native American tribes, to act as a buffer against the French in Louisiana and British North America. In 1762, France ceded to Spain most of its claims to the interior of North America, including its claim to Texas, as well as the vast interior that became Spanish Louisiana. During the years 1799 to 1803, the height of the Napoleonic Empire, Spain returned Louisiana back to France, which promptly sold the territory to the United States.
The status of Texas during these transfers was unclear and was not resolved until 1819, when the Adams–Onís Treaty ceded Spanish Florida to the United States, established a clear boundary between Texas and Louisiana. Starting in 1810, the territories of New Spain north of the Isthmus of Panama sought independence in the Mexican War of Independence. Many Americans fought on the side of Mexico against Spain in filibustering expeditions. One of these, the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition consisted of a group of about 130 Americans under the leadership of Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara. Gutierrez de Lara initiated Mexico's secession from Spain with efforts contributed by Augustus Magee. Bolstered by new recruits, led by Samuel Kemper, the expedition gained a series of victories against soldiers led by the Spanish governor, Manuel María de Salcedo, their victory at the Battle of Rosillo Creek convinced Salcedo to surrender on April 1, 1813. On April 6, 1813, the victorious Republican Army of the North drafted a constitution and declared the independent Republic of Texas, with Gutiérrez as its president.
Soon disillusioned with the Mexican leadership, the Americans under Kemper returned to the United States. The ephemeral Republic of Texas came to an end following the August 18, 1813 Battle of Medina, where the Spanish Army crushed the Republican Army of the North; the harsh reprisals against the Texas rebels created a deep distrust of the Royal Spanish authorities, veterans of the Battle of Medina became leaders of the Texas Revolution and signatories of the Texas Declaration of Independence from Mexico 20 years later. Along with the rest of Mexico, Texas gained its independence from Spain in 1821 following the Treaty of Córdoba, the new Mexican state was organized under the Plan of Iguala, which created Mexico as a constitutional monarchy under its first Emperor Agustín de Iturbide. During the transition from a Spanish territory to part of the independent country of Mexico, Stephen F. Austin led a group of American settlers known as the Old Three Hundred, who negotiated the right to settle in Texas with the Spanish Royal governor of the territory.
Since Mexican independence had been ratified by Spain shortly thereafter, Austin traveled to Mexico City to secure the support of the new country for his right to settle. The establishment of Mexican Texas coincided with the Austin-led settleme
Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol. The Twenty-first Amendment was proposed by Congress on February 20, 1933, was ratified by the requisite number of states on December 5, 1933, it is unique among the 27 amendments of the U. S. Constitution for being the only one to repeal a prior amendment, as well as being the only amendment to have been ratified by state ratifying conventions; the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified on January 16, 1919, the result of years of advocacy by the temperance movement. The subsequent passage of the Volstead Act established federal enforcement of the nationwide prohibition on alcohol; as many Americans continued to drink despite the amendment, Prohibition gave rise to a profitable black market for alcohol, fueling the rise of organized crime. Throughout the 1920's, Americans came to see Prohibition as unenforceable, a movement to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment grew until the Twenty-first Amendment was ratified in 1933.
Section 1 of the Twenty-first Amendment expressly repeals the Eighteenth Amendment. Section 2 bans the importation of alcohol into states and territories that have laws prohibiting the importation or consumption of alcohol. Several states continued to be "dry states" in the years after the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment, but in 1966 the last dry state legalized the consumption of alcohol. Nonetheless, several states continue to regulate the distribution of alcohol. Many states delegate their power to ban the importation of alcohol to counties and municipalities, there are numerous dry communities throughout the United States. Section 2 has arisen as in issue in Supreme Court cases that touch on the Commerce Clause. Section 1; the eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2; the transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress; the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution had ushered in a period known as Prohibition, during which the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages was illegal. Passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919 was the crowning achievement of the temperance movement, but it soon proved unpopular. Crime rates soared under Prohibition as gangsters, such as Chicago's Al Capone, became rich from a profitable violent black market for alcohol; the federal government was incapable of stemming the tide: enforcement of the Volstead Act proved to be a nearly impossible task and corruption was rife among law enforcement agencies. In 1932, wealthy industrialist John D. Rockefeller, Jr. stated in a letter:When Prohibition was introduced, I hoped that it would be supported by public opinion and the day would soon come when the evil effects of alcohol would be recognized.
I have and reluctantly come to believe that this has not been the result. Instead, drinking has increased; as more and more Americans opposed the Eighteenth Amendment, a political movement grew for its repeal. However, repeal was complicated by grassroots politics. Although the U. S. Constitution provides two methods for ratifying constitutional amendments, only one method had been used up until that time. However, the wisdom of the day was that the lawmakers of many states were either beholden to or fearful of the temperance lobby; the Congress adopted the Blaine Act and proposed the Twenty-first Amendment on February 20, 1933. The proposed amendment was adopted on December 5, 1933, it is the only amendment to have been ratified by state ratifying conventions, specially selected for the purpose. All other amendments have been ratified by state legislatures, it is the only amendment, approved for the explicit purpose of repealing a existing amendment to the Constitution. The Twenty-first Amendment ending national prohibition became effective on December 15, though people started drinking before that date.
The various responses of the 48 states is as follows:The following states ratified the amendment: Ratification was completed on December 5, 1933. The amendment was subsequently ratified by conventions in the following states: The amendment was rejected by the following state: South Carolina Voters in the following state rejected holding a convention to consider the amendment: North Carolina The following states took no action to consider the amendment: Georgia Kansas Louisiana Mississippi Nebraska North Dakota Oklahoma South Dakota The second section bans the importation of alcohol in violation of state or territorial law; this has been interpreted to give states absolute control over alcoholic beverages, many U. S. states still remained "dry" long after its ratification. Mississippi was the last, remaining dry until 1966. Many states now delegate the authority over alcohol granted to them by this Amendment to their municipaliti