Zoltán Halmay was a Hungarian Olympic swimmer. He competed in four Olympics, winning the following medals: 1900: silver, bronze 1904: gold 1906: gold, silver 1908: silver Halmay was born in Magasfalu, Kingdom of Hungary and died in Budapest. Zoltán Halmay, a double Olympic champion, was the most successful sportsman in freestyle swimming. 1904 he won the 50 and 100 yards at the St. Louis Games and in 1906 he was a member of the 4×250 m relay team that won the gold medal, he won a bronze medal at other Olympics. He was Hungarian champion 14 times and won the English, the German and the Austrian Championships as well, he was a world record holder at 100 metres and at 50 and 220 yards. His versatility is shown by the fact that he was a remarkable athlete and football player, he won a national-level championship in roller-skating over 5000 metres. After his retirement he worked as a trainer, he was the federal chief trainer of the Hungarian Swimming Association, he was born on 18 June 1881 in Kingdom of Hungary.
At the ceremony organised at the main square of the village, a monument unifying the memorial plaque and the statue of Halmay was set up in collaboration with the Slovak Olympic Committee and the local government of Vysoká pri Morave. Zoltán Halmay died on 20 May 1956. World record progression 100 metres freestyle World record progression 200 metres freestyle
The Cavill family of Australia is known for its significant contributions to the development of the sport of swimming. Prominent family members in the sport include Frederick Cavill, sons Ernest Cavill, Charles Claude Cavill, Percy Frederick Cavill, Arthur Rowland Channel Cavill, credited by sports journalist W. F. Corbett with originating the Australian crawl stroke, which now predominates in "freestyle" swimming races. Youngest son Richmond Theophilus Cavill was the first to use the crawl in a competition, winning 100 yards State championship in 1899 and in England, in 1902, he was the first to swim 100 yards in under a minute. Six members of the family were jointly inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame in 1970; the three daughters, Madeline Cavill, Fredda Cavill and Alice Cavill were all accomplished swimmers and swimming instructors. And his great nephews Maxwell Cavill, William Cavill and Stuart Cavill are significant in the city of Adelaide
Anthony Lee Ervin is an American competition swimmer who has won four Olympic medals and two World Championship golds. At the 2000 Summer Olympics, he won a gold medal in the men's 50-meter freestyle, earned a silver medal as a member of the second-place United States relay team in the 4×100-meter freestyle event, he was the second swimmer of African descent after Anthony Nesty of Suriname to win an individual gold medal in Olympic swimming. He is the first United States citizen of African descent to medal gold in an individual Olympic swimming event. Ervin stopped swimming competitively at the age of 22 in 2003 and auctioned off his 2000 Olympic gold medal on eBay to aid survivors of the 2004 tsunami, but he began to train again in 2011. Ervin competed in the 50-meter freestyle event at the 2012 Summer Olympics. In the Spring of 2016, Akashic Books released Ervin's memoir, Chasing Water, co-authored by Ervin and Constantine Markides. At the 2016 Summer Olympics, 16 years after his first Olympic gold medal, he won the event for the second time, at the age of 35, becoming the oldest individual Olympic gold medal winner in swimming.
Ervin is African-American and Jewish, was born in Hollywood. He is of Ashkenazi Jewish descent on his mother's side and African-American descent on his father's, he was raised in California. Ervin has described himself as a "practicing Zen Buddhist". In July 2017 he said: "I’m proud to be a Jew."While living in Santa Clarita, he swam for Canyons Aquatic Club, competed on the Hart High School's swim team in Newhall, California. Anthony enrolled in the University of California, where he received his bachelor's degree in English in 2010, he is pursuing a graduate degree in sport and education at Cal. At the 2000 United States Olympic Trials in Indianapolis, Ervin competed in two events: the 50-meter and 100-meter freestyle. In the finals of the 100-meter freestyle, Ervin finished fifth with a time of 49.29, ensuring him a spot on the 4×100-meter freestyle relay. In the final of the 50-meter freestyle, Ervin finished tied for first place with Gary Hall Jr. with a time of 21.98. At the 2000 Summer Olympics, Ervin won one silver medal.
In his first final, the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, Ervin teamed up with Gary Hall Jr. Neil Walker and Jason Lezak. Going into the final, the Americans had never lost the event at the Olympics. Ervin swam the leadoff leg in 48.89, the second best lead-off behind Michael Klim's world record time of 48.18. The American team ended up finishing in second place with a time of 3:13.86 behind Australia, who finished in a world record time of 3:13.67. In the final of the 50-meter freestyle, Ervin tied Gary Hall Jr. for the gold with a time of 21.98. After the gold medal race, reporter Jim Gray asked Ervin what it felt like to be the first swimmer of African American descent to win gold. Referring to this moment in a 2012 interview, Ervin stated, "I didn't know a thing about what it was like to be part of the black experience, but now I do. It's like having a bunch of old white people ask you what it's like to be black; that is my black experience." Ervin won two gold medals at the 2001 World Aquatics Championships in the 50-meter freestyle and the 100-meter freestyle.
He competed in the 4 x 100 freestyle relay, but the United States relay team was disqualified. At the 2002 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships Ervin won silver medals in both the 50-meter freestyle and the 4 x 100 freestyle relay. Twelve years after competing in his last Olympics as a 19-year-old, Ervin qualified for his second United States Olympic team as a 31-year-old at the 2012 United States Olympic Trials in Omaha, Nebraska, by finishing second in the men's 50-meter freestyle, his time of 21.60 seconds was only one one-hundredth of a second behind Cullen Jones and a personal best for Ervin. At the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, he finished fifth in the finals of the 50-meter freestyle with a time of 21.78 seconds. At the 2013 US National Championships, Ervin qualified to swim at the 2013 World Aquatics Championships in Barcelona by placing second in the 50-meter freestyle with a time of 21.70, third in the 100-meter freestyle with a time of 48.49. In his first event at the World Championships, Ervin combined with Nathan Adrian, Ryan Lochte and Jimmy Feigen in the 4×100-meter freestyle relay, with the team finishing behind France.
Swimming the third leg, Ervin recorded a split of 47.44, the team finished with a final time of 3:11.44. Ervin's split was the fastest among the Americans. In his only individual event, the 50-meter freestyle, Ervin entered the final as the second seed with a semi-final time of 21.42, a personal best for him and only 2-hundredths of a second behind the American record. In the final, Ervin finished in 6th place with a time of 21.65. In 2014, on the Gold Coast, Ervin collected 2 silver medals at the Pan Pacs. In the 2016 Olympics, Ervin swam the 50 m freestyle, placing 1st in the final with a time of 21.40 seconds. At the age of 35, this made him the oldest individual Olympic gold medal winner in swimming, taking the record from Michael Phelps, he won a gold medal in the relay 4 × 100 m with United States by swimming in the morning heat. Ervin took part in the torch lighting ceremony at the 2017 Maccabiah Games on July 6, 2017, he won gold medals in the 50-meter freestyle, the 100-meter freestyle, the 4×100m medley relay.
In the special 4x50m relay race between Israeli and American all-star teams, American Olympic champions Ervin, Lenny Krayzelburg, Jason Lezak, with masters swimmer Alex Blavatnik, swam a time of 1:48.23 and defea
The butterfly is a swimming stroke swum on the chest, with both arms moving symmetrically, accompanied by the butterfly kick. While other styles like the breaststroke, front crawl, or backstroke can be swum adequately by beginners, the butterfly is a more difficult stroke that requires good technique as well as strong muscles, it is the newest swimming style swum in competition, first swum in 1933 and originating out of the breaststroke. The peak speed of the butterfly is faster than that of the front crawl, or freestyle due to the synchronous pull/push with both arms and legs, done quite fast, yet since speed drops during the recovery phase, it is overall slower than front crawl over longer distances. Another reason it is slower is because of the different physical exertion it puts on the swimmer compared to the freestyle, its name was taken from the butterfly. The breaststroke and front crawl can all be swum even if the swimmer's technique is flawed; the butterfly, however, is unforgiving of mistakes in style.
Many swimmers and coaches consider it the most difficult swimming style. The main difficulty for beginners is the synchronous over-water recovery when combined with breathing, since both arms, the head and part of the chest have to be lifted out of the water for these tasks. Once efficient technique has been developed, it becomes a fast stroke. Australian Sydney Cavill, son of the "swimming professor" Frederick Cavill, was 220 yards amateur champion of Australia at the age of 16 and is credited as the originator of the butterfly stroke, he followed his famous brothers to America and coached notable swimmers at San Francisco's Olympic Club. In late 1933 Henry Myers swam a butterfly stroke in competition at the Brooklyn Central YMCA; the butterfly style evolved from the breaststroke. David Armbruster, swimming coach at the University of Iowa, researched the breaststroke considering the problem of drag due to the underwater recovery. In 1934 Armbruster refined a method to bring the arms forward over the water in a breaststroke.
He called this style "butterfly". While the butterfly was difficult, it brought a great improvement in speed. One year in 1935, Jack Sieg, a swimmer from the University of Iowa, developed a kick technique involving swimming on his side and beating his legs in unison, similar to a fish tail, modified the technique afterward to swim it face down, he called. Armbruster and Sieg found that combining these techniques created a fast swimming style consisting of butterfly arms with two dolphin kicks per cycle. Richard Rhodes claims that Volney Wilson invented the'Dolphin' after studying fish, used it to win the 1938 US Olympic Trials, earning him a disqualification; the entire style is referred to as butterfly, but sometimes still called dolphin when referring to the dolphin kick. This new style was faster than a regular breaststroke. Using this technique Jack Sieg swam 100 yards in 1:00.2. However, the dolphin fishtail kick violated the breaststroke rules was not allowed. Therefore, the butterfly arms with a breaststroke kick were used by a few swimmers in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin for the breaststroke competitions.
In 1938 every breaststroke swimmer was using this butterfly style, yet this stroke was considered a variant of the breaststroke until 1952, when it was accepted by FINA as a separate style with its own set of rules. The 1956 Summer Olympics were the first Olympic games where the butterfly was swum as a separate competition, 100 m and 200 m; the butterfly technique with the dolphin kick consists of synchronous arm movement with a synchronous leg kick. Good technique is crucial to swim this style effectively; the wave-like body movement is very significant in creating propulsion, as this is the key to easy synchronous over-water recovery and breathing. In the initial position, the swimmer lies on the breast, the arms are stretched to the front, the legs are extended to the back; the butterfly stroke has three major parts, the pull, the push, the recovery. These can be further subdivided. From the initial position, the arm movement starts similarly to the breast stroke. At the beginning the hands sink a little bit down with the palms facing outwards and down at shoulder width the hands move out to create a Y.
This is called catching the water. The pull movement follows a semicircle with the elbow higher than the hand and the hand pointing towards the center of the body and downward to form the traditionally taught "keyhole"; the push pushes the palm backward through the water underneath the body at the beginning and at the side of the body at the end of the push. The swimmer only pushes the arms 1/3 of the way to the hips, making it easier to enter into the recovery and making the recovery shorter and making the breathing window shorter; the movement increases speed throughout the pull-push phase until the hand is the fastest at the end of the push. This step is crucial for the recovery; the speed at the end of the push is used to help with the recovery. The recovery swings the arms sideways across the water surface to the front, with the elbows straight; the arms should be swung forward from the end of the underwater movement, the extension of the triceps in combination with the butterfly kick will allow the arm to be brought forwards relaxed yet quickly.
In contrast to the front crawl recovery, this arm recovery is a ballistic shot. The only other way of lifting th
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
Backstroke is one of the four swimming styles used in competitive events regulated by FINA, the only one of these styles swum on the back. This swimming style has the advantage of easy breathing, but the disadvantage of swimmers not being able to see where they are going, it has a different start from the other three competition swimming styles. The swimming style is similar to an upside down front freestyle. Both backstroke and front crawl are long-axis strokes. In individual medley backstroke is the second style swum. Backstroke is an ancient style of swimming, popularized by Harry Hebner, it was the second stroke to be swum in competitions after the front crawl. The first Olympic backstroke competition was the 1900 Paris Olympics. In the initial position, the swimmer performing backstroke lies flat on the back. In backstroke, the arms contribute most of the forward movement; the arm stroke consists of two main parts: the recovery. The arms alternate. One complete arm turn is considered one cycle.
From the initial position, one arm sinks under water and turns the palm outward to start the catch phase. The hand enters downward pulling out at a 45 degree angle, catching the water. During the power phase the hand follows a semi-circular path from the catch to the side of the hip; the palm is always facing away from the swimming direction, while remaining straight as an extension of the arm, the elbow always points downward towards the bottom of the pool. This is done so that both the arms and the elbow can push the maximum amount of water back in order to push the body forward. At the height of the shoulders, the upper and lower arms should have their maximum angle of about 90 degrees; this is called the Mid-Pull of the power phase. The Mid-Pull phase consists of pushing the palm of the hand as far down as possible with the fingers pointing upward. Again, the goal is to push the body forward against the water. At the end of the Mid-Pull, the palm flaps down for a last push forward down to a depth of 45 cm, creating the finish of the power phase.
Besides pushing the body forward, this helps with the rolling back to the other side as part of the body movement. During the power phase, the fingers of the hand can be apart, as this will increase the resistance of the hand in the water due to turbulence. To prepare for the recovery phase, the hand is rotated so that the palms point towards the legs and the thumb side points upwards. At the beginning of the recovery phase of the one arm, the other arm begins its power phase; the recovering arm is moved in a semicircle straight over the shoulders to the front. During this recovery, the palm rotates so that the small finger enters the water first, allowing for the least amount of resistance, the palms point outward. After a short gliding phase, the cycle repeats with the preparation for the next power phase. A variant is to move both arms synchronized and not alternating, similar to an upside down breast stroke; this is easier to coordinate, the peak speed during the combined power phase is faster, yet the speed is much slower during the combined recovery.
The average speed will be less than the average speed of the alternating stroke. This stroke is called the elementary backstroke; this elementary backstroke swim was used in the 1908 Olympics. The backcrawl swim supplanted the elementary backstroke swim after 1908 as the competitive back swim and it is now the referred to as the backstroke. Another variant is the old style of swimming backstroke, where the arm movement formed a complete circle in a windmill type pattern. However, this style is not used for competitive swimming, as a lot of energy is spent on pushing the body up and down instead of forward. Furthermore, the added strain on the shoulder is considered less than ideal and can lead to injuries, it is possible to move only one arm at a time, where one arm moves through the power and recovery phases while the other arm rests. This is slow, but it is used to teach students the movement, as they have to concentrate on only one arm; this drill technique can work well with the swimmer holding a float, however it is important not to overuse this drill as a "paused stroke" can become habitual and can be challenging to unlearn.
The leg movement in backstroke is similar to the flutter kick in front crawl. The kick makes a large contribution to the forward speed, while stabilizing the body; the leg stroke alternates, with one leg sinking down straight to about 30 degrees. From this position, the leg makes a fast kick upward bending the knee at the beginning and stretching it again in the horizontal. However, there are frequent variants with four or only two kicks per cycle. Sprinters tend to use 6 kicks per cycle, whereas long distance swimmer may use fewer, it is possible to use a butterfly kick, although this is rare except after the initial start and after turns. The dolphin kick is essential for many top athletes, it may constitute the majority of the race. A great example of this is Olympic gold medallist Natalie Coughlin. Breaststroke kicks are most comfortable if the arms are used synchronized, as the breaststroke kick makes it more difficult to compensate for the rolling movement with alte