Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo. The term shipping referred to transport by sea but in American English, it has been extended to refer to transport by land or air as well. "Logistics", a term borrowed from the military environment, is used in the same sense. Land or "ground" shipping can be made by truck. In air and sea shipments, ground transport is required to take the cargo from its place of origin to the airport or seaport and to its destination because it is not always possible to establish a production facility near ports due to the limited coastlines of countries. Ground transport is more affordable than air, but more expensive than sea in developing countries, where inland infrastructure may not be efficient. Shipment of cargo by trucks, directly from the shipper's place to the destination, is known as a door-to-door shipment, or more formally as multimodal transport. Trucks and trains make deliveries to sea and airports.
Much freight transport is done by ships. An individual nation's fleet and the people that crew it are referred to as its merchant navy or merchant marine. Merchant shipping is the lifeblood of the world economy, carrying 90% of international trade with 102,194 commercial ships worldwide. On rivers and canals, barges are used to carry bulk cargo. Cargo is transported by air in specialized cargo aircraft and in the luggage compartments of passenger aircraft. Air freight is the fastest mode for long-distance freight transport, but it is the most expensive. Intermodal freight transport refers to shipments. More it refers to the use of intermodal shipping containers that are transferred between ship, rail and truck. For example, a shipper works together with both ground and air transportation to ship an item overseas. Intermodal freight transport is used to plan the route and carry out the shipping service from the manufacturer to the door of the recipient. Common trading terms used in shipping goods internationally include: Free on board –the exporter delivers the goods at the specified location.
Costs paid by the exporter include load, lash and stow the cargo, including securing cargo not to move in the ships hold, protecting the cargo from contact with the double bottom to prevent slipping, protection against damage from condensation. For example, "FOB JNPT" means that the exporter delivers the goods to the Jawahar lal Nehru Port and pays for the cargo to be loaded and secured on the ship; this term declares where the responsibility of shipper ends and that of buyer starts. The exporter is bound to deliver the goods at his expense. In this case, the freight and other expenses for outbound traffic are borne by the importer. Carriage and freight: Insurance is payable by the importer, the exporter pays all expenses incurred in transporting the cargo from its place of origin to the port/airport and ocean freight/air freight to the port/airport of destination. For example, C&F Los Angeles. Most of the governments ask their exporters to trade on these terms to promote their exports worldwide such as India and China.
Many of the shipping carriers offer guarantees on their delivery times. These are known as GSR guarantees or "guaranteed service refunds". Carriage and freight: Insurance and freight are all paid by the exporter to the specified location. For example, at CIF Los Angeles, the exporter pays the ocean shipping/air freight costs to Los Angeles including the insurance of cargo; this states that responsibility of the shipper ends at the Los Angeles port. The term "best way" implies that the shipper will choose the carrier who offers the lowest rate for the shipment. In some cases, other factors, such as better insurance or faster transit time will cause the shipper to choose an option other than the lowest bidder. Door-to-door shipping is a service provided by many international shipping companies; the quoted price of this service includes all shipping, handling and customs duties, making it a hassle-free option for customers to import goods from one jurisdiction to another. This is compared to standard shipping, the price of which includes only the expenses incurred by the shipping company in transferring the object from one place to another.
Customs fees, import taxes and other tariffs may contribute to this base price before the item arrives. "Review of Maritime Transport 2014". United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 2014. "Special Chapter: Asia". Review Maritime Transport 2010 Flyer. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2011. Media related to Freight at Wikimedia Commons Schreiber, Zvi 2016: The Year Freight Goes Online. December 2015 Humplik, Carmen Winds of change in freight transportation supply chain: Platooning technology. July 2017 Bloomberg.com First freight deal takes Russian wheat to Turkey. January 2018
The FIFA Futsal World Cup is the international championship for futsal, the indoor version of association football organized by FIFA. The world championship tournament is held every four years, on the year between two football World Cups; the first event was held in 1989. It was held in the Netherlands to commemorate the popularity of the game there; the current champion is Argentina. The next FIFA Futsal World Cup will take place in 2020 to be held in Lithuania. All events prior to 2008 had been 16-team events; the first event featured 6 teams from Europe, 3 from South America, 2 from Africa, 2 from Asia, 2 from North and Central America, 1 from Oceania. Since 2012 it includes 24 teams which split to a six group round-robin tournament, with four teams in each group; the top two teams in each group, together with the 4 highest-ranked third-place finishers, advanced to a sixteen team knockout final series. Host Bold for teams; the adidas Golden Ball award is awarded to the player who plays the most outstanding football during the tournament.
It is selected by the media poll. The adidas Golden Shoe is awarded to the topscorer of the tournament. If more than one players are equal by same goals, the players will be selected based by the most assists during the tournament; the Golden Glove Award is awarded to the best goalkeeper of the tournament. Goal of the Tournament is awarded to the best goal of the tournament. FIFA Fair Play Award is given to the team who has the best fair play record during the tournament with the criteria set by FIFA Fair Play Committee. In 2012, FIFA extended the FIFA Champions Badge to the winners of the competition, where it was first won by Brazil. AMF Futsal World Cup Futsal Confederations Cup Women's Futsal World Tournament FIFA Futsal World Cup, FIFA.com RSSSF archive
Mana Khemia: Alchemists of Al-Revis is a role-playing video game developed by Gust Co. Ltd. in 2007 for the PlayStation 2. The game is the ninth entry to Gust's Atelier series, incorporates elements of standard turn-based combat and alchemy. A PlayStation Portable version was released. Mana Khemia shares many common elements with the Atelier Iris trilogy. At the core of the game is alchemy through which the player can create weapons, usable items, complex ingredients for these recipes; the player is required to gather core materials through field exploration, spoils of combat, or by purchasing them in the shops. Each item carries fundamental properties that include elemental and special abilities, character stat improvements, that can be infused into equipment. Through the creation of new items, these properties can transfer over into the new item. A new "alchemy wheel" allows the player to adjust the quality of each ingredient as it is added to the mix, for better or worse, in order to alter the final item's properties as well.
Recipes for items are learned over the course of the game by finding or buying recipe books, conversing with characters, or can be extrapolated from existing recipes by altering the ingredients list. When in the field, the player can opt to avoid encounters with monsters by running and jumping over them, but may attempt to strike first to go into battle. Mana Khemia uses a turn-based system similar to previous Atelier Iris games. Once the player has more than three characters in the party, he or she can have up to three characters in reserve; the swapped out characters require a number of turns to recover before being called in again. As the player becomes able to inflict more damage, they can activate "Burst Mode" that temporarily increases the damage from each attack. Additionally, about mid-game, Burst Mode can lead to a "Finishing Burst" that requires the player to meet a certain condition while Burst Mode is activated, such as striking with each team member, or healing a certain amount of damage.
Both alchemy and combat are necessary to grow the characters. Unlike typical role-playing games, there are no experience characters levels. Instead, through combat, characters earn "action points" which are used in the character-specific "grow book" to unlock new skills, character bonuses such as additional health or mana points. However, these bonuses are tied to completing the recipes for specific items in that book; the grow book is presented as a graph of synthesizable items. The bonuses for an item cannot be acquired using action points until an adjacent item on the graph, the item itself, has been made; the game is presented as a series of terms at a school. Each term is made up of several weeks starting and ending with an event leading to a key battle to be won. In between, the player is required to complete two or three courses, earning a grade depending on how well the course was completed; this is followed by two or three days of free time. If the player should fail to make a decent cumulative grade by the end of courses, they will need to spend one day of free time in detention, doing required tasks.
Once in free time, the player is free to take odd jobs, talk with characters, perform side quests related to the other members of the party. The game's main focus is on the lead protagonist, Vayne Aurelius, the son of a legendary alchemist named Theofratus who had disappeared sometime after Vayne's birth. Since Vayne has led the life of a hermit, his only companion being a Mana in cat form named Sulpher. Vayne is invited to the Al-Revis Academy for alchemy training by one of the professors, he is indoctrinated into the school by becoming part of an atelier led by Flay Gunnar along with two other students and Nikki. They are soon joined by Pamela, Anna and Muppy; the eight of them are able to succeed at completing assignments, learn the skills of alchemy, allow the workshop to prosper. Vayne Aurelius Voiced by: Akira IshidaVayne is the protagonist and main character, who lives alone deep in the forest with Sulpher, a black cat. One day, he is invited to come to Al-Revis Academy because his is the son of a famous alchemist.
He is shy and has a weak personality, his friends talk him into trouble. He performs several miraculous acts as the game progresses, it is revealed that he is an artificial Mana, created by his famous alchemist father, able to grant wishes. Depending on his relationship with others, he will either continue to live on knowing that he is the Mana of wishes, or choose to disappear from the world. In all the good endings, Vayne saves his friends and the school by wishing his power away. Jessica Philomele Voiced by: Sakura NogawaVayne's classmate, fears no one, she has a friendly and outgoing personality, but is klutzy. She loves alchemy, tests her strangely unique syntheses whenever she has the time, always causing something to explode. S