U.S. Route 97 in Oregon
In the U. S. state of Oregon, U. S. Route 97 is a major north -- south United States highway. In Oregon, it runs from the Oregon-California border, south of Klamath Falls, to the Oregon-Washington border on the Columbia River, between Biggs Junction and Maryhill, Washington. Other than the northernmost stretch, US 97 is known as The Dalles-California Highway. In May 2009, Oregon Senate passed a bill to rename U. S. Route 97 as "World War II Veterans Historic Highway". With the exception of Interstate 5, US 97 is the most important north–south highway corridor in the state, it serves two major population centers, is the main corridor east of the Cascade Mountains. While much of the highway remains in two-lane undivided configuration, significant sections have been upgraded to expressway or freeway status; the run of US 97 in Oregon starts at the border between Oregon and California, south of the city of Klamath Falls. The highway starts out as a two-lane road. Approaching the city of Klamath Falls, 97 becomes a freeway just south of the junction with OR 140 and OR 66.
The freeway runs along the western edge of the downtown region, ending at an interchange with Oregon Route 39 near the Oregon Institute of Technology. Within Klamath Falls is a business route, which runs through downtown via Main Street/Klamath Avenue and Esplanade Avenue which turns back to the US 97 mainline via the East Side Bypass; this section of Highway 97 has been identified as an important alternative to I-5 for traffic in the Medford area in the event of a major earthquake in the region. Various proposals have identified US 97 as a potential freeway corridor. Highway 97, once again a two-lane road, continues north along the eastern shore of Upper Klamath Lake. In the town of Chiloquin is an intersection with Oregon Route 62, which provides access to Crater Lake National Park from the southeast. Continuing north, near the town of Chemult is an interchange with Oregon Route 58, which heads northwest to Eugene and the Willamette Valley. In La Pine is a junction with Oregon Route 31. North of La Pine, the highway becomes an expressway as it passes by the resort community of Sunriver and heads towards the city of Bend.
In Bend, the highway travels on an expressway known as the Bend Parkway with right-in, right-out access at intersections. The parkway opened in November 2001 and replaced a parallel alignment on 3rd Street that now carries a signed business route. Expected interchange construction over the approaching years will increase the RIRO distance miles past the southern city limits of Bend, linking up with prior ODOT improvements and eliminating two of the five traffic signals along US 97 in Bend, in the entire 44 miles between La Pine and Redmond. Similar upgrades are possible at the northern boundary of Bend, dependent upon taxpayer and state approval. In Bend one finds interchanges with the Century Drive Highway, as well as U. S. Route 20; the busiest part of US 97 is with an average of 42,000 cars a day. This is the busiest section of road in Oregon east of the Cascade Mountains. North of Bend, the highway continues as an expressway. US 97 follows a new alignment bypassing the downtown area, with the old route designated U.
S. Route 97 Business, it maintains a standard 65-mile-per-hour speed limit on the northern section of this parkway. In Redmond is an intersection with Oregon Route 126. Continuing north out of Redmond, one enters a high desert region marked by numerous deep river gorges, including the Crooked River gorge. Towns along the route include Terrebonne, which provides access to Smith Rock State Park, a climbing mecca, Culver. North of Culver, the highway enters the agricultural community of Madras. South of Madras is an intersection with U. S. Route 26 headed eastbound. On the northern edge of town, 97 forks off to the right; the importance of 97 as a transportation corridor diminishes north of Madras, as most traffic continues to Portland. South of the community of Shaniko, US 97 forks off its only spur route, U. S. Route 197 which continues heading parallel to the Deschutes River towards Tygh Valley and The Dalles. Route 97 takes a more easterly course, passing through the high desert region of the Columbia Plateau.
Towns along the route include Grass Wasco. Just south of Biggs Junction, the highway descends from the plateau into the Columbia River Gorge. In Biggs is an interchange with Interstate 84 and U. S. Route 30; the river serves as the state line between Washington. Work on US 97 near Biggs in 1966 led to the discovery of the Biggs jasper, a sought-after gemstone. US 97 comprises the following highways, from south to north: Part of The Dalles-California Highway No. 4. 42. It was designated as the World War II Veterans Historic Highway in 2009 because it connected several training facilities used by the military during the war. US 97 Business in Klamath Falls
Uranium mining in the United States
Uranium mining in the United States produced 3,303,977 pounds of U3O8 in 2015, 32% lower than 2014's production of 4,891,332 pounds of U3O8 and the lowest US annual production since 2005. The 2015 production represents 7% of the anticipated uranium market requirements of the US's nuclear power reactors for the year. Production came from one conventional uranium mill in Utah, six in-situ leach operations: four in Wyoming, one in Texas and one in Nebraska. While uranium is used for nuclear power, uranium mining had its roots in the production of radium-bearing ore from 1898 from the mining of uranium-vanadium sandstone deposits in western Colorado; the 1950s saw a boom in uranium mining in the western U. S. spurred by the fortunes made by prospectors such as Charlie Steen. The United States was the world's leading producer of uranium from 1953 until 1980. In 1960 annual U. S. production peaked at 17,055 metric tons U3O8. Until the early 1980s, there were active uranium mines in Arizona, New Mexico, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming.
Price declines in the late 1970s and early 1980s forced the closure of numerous mines. Most uranium ore in the United States comes from deposits in sandstone, which tend to be of lower grade than those of Australia and Canada; because of the lower grade, many uranium deposits in the United States became uneconomic when the price of uranium declined in the late 1970s. By 2001, there were only three operating uranium mines in the United States. Annual production reached a low of 779 metric tons of uranium oxide in 2003, but more than doubled in three years to 1672 metric tons in 2006, from 10 mines; the U. S. DOE's Energy Information Administration reported that 90% of U. S. uranium production in 2006 came from in-situ leaching. The average spot price of uranium oxide increased from $7.92 per pound in 2001 to $39.48 per pound in 2006. In 2011 the United States mined 9% of the uranium consumed by its nuclear power plants; the remainder was imported, principally from Russia and Kazakhstan and Australia.
Although uranium production has declined to low levels, the United States has the fourth-largest uranium resource in the world, behind Australia and Kazakhstan. United States uranium reserves are dependent on price. At $50 per pound U3O8, reserves are estimated to be 539 million pounds. Rising uranium prices since 2001 have increased interest in uranium mining in Arizona, Colorado and Utah; the states with the largest known uranium ore reserves are Wyoming, New Mexico, Colorado. The radiation hazards of uranium mining and milling were not appreciated in the early years, resulting in workers being exposed to high levels of radiation. Inhalation of radon gas caused sharp increases in lung cancers among underground uranium miners employed in the 1940s and 1950s. In 1950, the US Public Health service began a comprehensive study of uranium miners, leading to the first publication of a statistical correlation between cancer and uranium mining, released in 1962. In 1969, the federal government regulated the standard amount of radon in mines.
In 1990, Congress passed the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, granting reparations for those affected by mining. Out of 50 present and former uranium milling sites in 12 states, 24 have been abandoned, are the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. Uranium in Alabama is found in the Coosa Block of the Northern Alabama Piedmont. Metamorphic uranium occurrences have been found in the Higgins Ferry Group in Coosa and Clay Counties; some exploration has been done. Uranium was discovered at the Ross-Adams deposit in 1955 by an airborne gamma radiation survey; the deposit is at Bokan Mountain on Prince of Wales Island. The principal ore mineral was uranothorite. Accessory minerals were hematite and calcite, with lesser amounts of fluorite, galena and rare earth minerals; the first mining was done in 1957, when ore was removed from an open pit 25 to 75 feet wide, 370 feet long, 30 feet deep. Additional mining took place in 1959–1964 and 1970–1971 A total of 1.3 million pounds of uranium were produced, with all of the milling taking place in Washington and Utah.
There is a firm looking at the potential of reopening the mine. Uranium mining in Arizona has taken place since 1918. Prior to the uranium boom of the late 1940s, uranium in Arizona was a byproduct of vanadium mining of the mineral carnotite. Uranium was discovered in 1954 in the Sierra Nevada of Kern County, along the Kern River about 30 miles northeast of Bakersfield. Two mines, the Kergon mine and the Miracle mine, made small shipments in 1954 and 1955. Uranium occurs as autunite in shear zones in granodiorite. Accessory minerals include the molybdenum minerals ilsemanite and jordisite; the first uranium identified in the US was pitchblende from the Wood gold mine at Central City, Colorado in 1871. Uranium mining in southwest Colorado goes back to 1898; the Uravan district of Colorado and Utah supplied about half the world's radium from 1910 to 1922, vanadium and uranium were byproducts. The last producing uranium mine in the state, the Topaz Mine, part of the Sunday Complex near Uravan, was closed down on March 18, 2009 by owner Denison Mines due to depressed uranium prices.
The Central Florida phosphorite deposits are considered to contain the la
Bly is an unincorporated small town in Klamath County, United States. By highway, it is about 50 miles east of Klamath Falls; as of 2000, the population was 486. Bly is in southeastern Klamath County west of Lake County, along Oregon Route 140. By highway, it is about 37 miles west of Lakeview and 50 miles east of Klamath Falls. Fish Hole Creek, which flows through the community, meets the South Fork Sprague River north of Bly. Fremont National Forest surrounds Bly except on the northwest. Gearhart Mountain Wilderness is about 10 miles northeast of Bly; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Bly has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the name Bly comes from the Klamath word p'lai, meaning'up' or'high', referring to its location at the upper Sprague River. The Sprague River post office was established in the area in 1873, the name was changed to Bly in 1883.
At that time, the community was near the east end of the Klamath Indian Reservation. The 21st century community of Sprague River is west of Bly and Beatty. Around 1900, Bly had two general stores, two hotels, a saloon. A history published in 1905 referred to the surrounding area as the "precinct" or the "valley" and estimated its total population at 750; the chief products of the valley at that time included cattle, mules, a few sheep as well as oats and hay. In 1935, the United States Forest Service acquired a 4-acre site in Bly for a district ranger station to manage the western part of the Fremont National Forest; the Forest Service paid $625 for the property. The ranger station was built by Civilian Conservation Corps workers under the supervision of Forest Service district ranger Perry Smith; the seven original buildings at the Bly Ranger Station were constructed between 1936 and 1942. A modern administrative headquarters building was added to the compound in the 1960s; the ranger station compound was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981.
Bly is the site of the only fatalities of World War II in the contiguous United States due to enemy attack. On May 5, 1945, a Japanese balloon bomb exploded as it was being pulled from the woods by curious picnickers. Killed in the explosion were: Elsie Mitchell, 26, wife of minister Archie E. Mitchell. Rev. Mitchell discovered the bodies; the victims' families were compensated by the government. A memorial was erected at; the OC&E Woods Line State Trail, the longest linear state park in Oregon, passes through Bly. The 100-mile rail trail was built on the roadbeds of the former Oregon and Eastern Railway, which ran from Klamath Falls to Bly, a former spur line, the Woods Line
A meadow is a open habitat, or field, vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants. They attract a multitude of wildlife and support flora and fauna that could not thrive in other conditions, they provide areas for courtship displays, food gathering, pollinating insects, sometimes sheltering, if the vegetation is high enough, making them ecologically important. There are multiple types of meadows, such as agricultural and perpetual, each important to the ecosystem. Meadows may be occurring or artificially created from cleared shrub or woodland. In agriculture, a meadow is grassland, not grazed by domestic livestock, but rather allowed to grow unchecked in order to produce hay. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the term meadow is used in its original sense to mean a hay meadow, signifying grassland mown annually in the summer for making hay. Agricultural meadows are lowland or upland fields upon which hay or pasture grasses grow from self-sown or hand-sown seed. Traditional hay meadows are now in decline.
Ecologist Professor John Rodwell states that over the past century and Wales have lost about 97% of their hay meadows. Fewer than 15.000 hectares of lowland meadows remain in the UK and most sites are small and fragmented. 25% of the UK's meadows are found in Worcestershire, with Foster's Green Meadow managed by the Worcestershire Wildlife Trust being a major site. A similar concept to the hay meadow is the pasture, which differs from the meadow in that it is grazed through the summer, rather than being allowed to grow out and periodically be cut for hay. A pasture can refer to any land used for grazing, in this wider sense the term refers not only to grass pasture, but to non-grassland habitats such as heathland and wood pasture; the term, grassland, is used to describe both hay meadows and grass pastures. The specific agricultural practices in relation to the meadow can take on various expressions; as mentioned, this could be hay production or providing food for grazing cattle and livestock but to give room for orchards or honey production.
A transitional meadow occurs when a field, farmland, or other cleared land is no longer cut or grazed and starts to display luxuriant growth, extending to the flowering and self-seeding of its grass and wild flower species. The condition is however only temporary, because the grasses become shaded out when scrub and woody plants become well-established, being the forerunners of the return to a wooded state. A transitional state can be artificially-maintained through a double-field system, in which cultivated soil and meadows are alternated for a period of 10 to 12 years each. In North America prior to European colonization, Algonquians and other Native Americans peoples cleared areas of forest to create transitional meadows where deer and game could find food and be hunted. For example, some of today's meadows originated thousands of years ago, due to regular burnings by Native Americans. A perpetual meadow called a natural meadow, is one in which environmental factors, such as climatic and soil conditions, are favorable to perennial grasses and restrict the growth of woody plants indefinitely.
Types of perpetual meadows may include: Alpine meadows occur at high elevations above the tree line and maintained by harsh climatic conditions. Coastal meadows maintained by salt sprays. Desert meadows restricted by low lack of nutrients and humus. Prairies maintained by periods of severe subject to wildfires. Wet meadows saturated with water throughout much of the year. Artificially or culturally conceived meadows emerge from and continually require human intervention to persist and flourish. In many places, the natural, pristine populations of free roaming large grazers are either extinct or limited due to human activities; this reduces or removes their natural influence on the surrounding ecology and results in meadows only being created or maintained by human intervention. Existing meadows could and decline, if unmaintained by agricultural practices, but a reintroduction of large grazers could influence meadows to reappear as natural habitats in the landscape. Mankind has influenced the ecology and the landscape for millennia in many parts of the world, so it can sometimes be difficult to discern what is natural and what is cultural.
Meadows are one example. As extensive farming like grazing is diminishing in some parts of the world, the meadow is endangered as a habitat; some scientific projects are therefore experimenting with reintroduction of natural grazers. This includes deer, goat, wild horse, etc. depending on the location. A more exotic example with a wider scope, is the European Tauros Programme; some environmental organization recommend to convert Lawns to meadows by stopping or reducing mowing. They claim that meadows can better preserve biodiversity, reduce the use of fertilizers. For example, in 2018 environmental organizations with the support of the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs of England, concerned by the decline in the numbre of Bees worldwide, in the first day of Bees' Needs Week 2018 give some recommendation how preserve bees; the recommendations include 1) growing flowers and trees, 2) letting the garden grow wild, 3) cutting grass less 4) leaving insect nest and hibernation spots alone, 5) using careful consideration with pesticides.
Foundation for Restoring European Ecosystems UK Wild Meadows Website Irish Wild Meadows Website Meadow Planting A Year in a Meadow Grow a Back Yard Meadow Adrian Higgins, "Today, 32,000 Seedlings.
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
An old-growth forest — termed primary forest or late seral forest — is a forest that has attained great age without significant disturbance and thereby exhibits unique ecological features and might be classified as a climax community. Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem; the concept of diverse tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps varying tree heights and diameters, diverse tree species and classes and sizes of woody debris. Old-growth forests are valuable for economic reasons and for the ecosystem services they provide; this can be a point of contention when some in the logging industry may desire to cut down the forests to obtain valuable timber, while environmentalists seek to preserve the forests for benefits such as maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, nutrient cycling. Old-growth forests tend to have large trees and standing dead trees, multilayered canopies with gaps that result from the deaths of individual trees, coarse woody debris on the forest floor.
Forest regenerated after a severe disturbance, such as wildfire, insect infestation, or harvesting, is called second-growth or'regeneration' until enough time passes for the effects of the disturbance to be no longer evident. Depending on the forest, this may take from a century to several millennia. Hardwood forests of the eastern United States can develop old-growth characteristics in 150–500 years. In British Columbia, old growth is defined as 120 to 140 years of age in the interior of the province where fire is a frequent and natural occurrence. In British Columbia’s coastal rainforests, old growth is defined as trees more than 250 years, with some trees reaching more than 1,000 years of age. In Australia, eucalypt trees exceed 350 years of age due to frequent fire disturbance. Forest types have different development patterns, natural disturbances and appearances. A Douglas-fir stand may grow for centuries without disturbance while an old-growth ponderosa pine forest requires frequent surface fires to reduce the shade-tolerant species and regenerate the canopy species.
In the Boreal-West Forest Region, catastrophic disturbances like wildfires minimize opportunities for major accumulations of dead and downed woody material and other structural legacies associated with old growth conditions. Typical characteristics of old-growth forest include presence of older trees, minimal signs of human disturbance, mixed-age stands, presence of canopy openings due to tree falls, pit-and-mound topography, down wood in various stages of decay, standing snags, multilayered canopies, intact soils, a healthy fungal ecosystem, presence of indicator species. Old-growth forests are biologically diverse, home to many rare species, threatened species, endangered species of plants and animals, such as the northern spotted owl, marbled murrelet and fisher, making them ecologically significant. Levels of biodiversity may be higher or lower in old-growth forests compared to that in second-growth forests, depending on specific circumstances, environmental variables, geographic variables.
Logging in old-growth forests is a contentious issue in many parts of the world. Excessive logging reduces biodiversity, affecting not only the old-growth forest itself, but indigenous species that rely upon old-growth forest habitat. A forest in old-growth stage has a mix of tree ages, due to a distinct regeneration pattern for this stage. New trees regenerate at different times from each other, because each one of them has different spatial location relative to the main canopy, hence each one receives a different amount of light; the mixed age of the forest is an important criterion in ensuring that the forest is a stable ecosystem in the long term. A climax stand, uniformly aged becomes senescent and degrades within a short time to result in a new cycle of forest succession. Thus, uniformly aged stands are less stable ecosystems. Forest canopy gaps are essential in maintaining mixed-age stands; some herbaceous plants only become established in canopy openings, but persist beneath an understory.
Openings are a result of tree death due to small impact disturbances such as wind, low-intensity fires, tree diseases. Old-growth forests are unique having multiple horizontal layers of vegetation representing a variety of tree species, age classes, sizes, as well as "pit and mound" soil shape with well-established fungal nets; because old-growth forest is structurally diverse, it provides higher-diversity habitat than forests in other stages. Thus, sometimes higher biological diversity can be sustained in old-growth forest, or at least a biodiversity, different from other forest stages; the characteristic topography of much old-growth forest consists of mounds. Mounds are caused by decaying fallen trees, pits by the roots pulled out of the ground when trees fall due to natural causes, including being pushed over by animals. Pits expose humus-poor, mineral-rich soil and collect moisture and fallen leaves, forming a thick organic layer, able to nurture certain types of organisms. Mounds provide a place free of leaf inundation and saturation, where other types of organisms thrive.
Standing snags provide food sources and habitat for many types of organisms. In particular, many species of dead-wood predators such as woodpeckers must have standing snags available for feeding. In North America, the spotted owl is well known for needing standing snags for nesting habitat. Fallen timber, or coarse woody debris, contributes carbon-rich organic matter directly to the soil, providing a substrate for mosses and seedlings, cr
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a U. S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering and construction management agencies. Although associated with dams and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works throughout the world; the Corps of Engineers provides outdoor recreation opportunities to the public, provides 24% of U. S. hydropower capacity. The corps' mission is to "Deliver vital military engineering services. Other civil engineering projects include flood control, beach nourishment, dredging for waterway navigation. Design and construction of flood protection systems through various federal mandates. Design and construction management of military facilities for the Army, Air Force, Army Reserve and Air Force Reserve and other Defense and Federal agencies. Environmental regulation and ecosystem restoration.
The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants. Colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washington's first chief engineer. One of his first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill; the Continental Congress recognized the need for engineers trained in military fortifications and asked the government of King Louis XVI of France for assistance. Many of the early engineers in the Continental Army were former French officers. Louis Lebègue Duportail, a lieutenant colonel in the French Royal Corps of Engineers, was secretly sent to America in March 1777 to serve in Washington's Continental Army. In July 1777 he was appointed colonel and commander of all engineers in the Continental Army, in November 17, 1777, he was promoted to brigadier general; when the Continental Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers in May 1779 Duportail was designated as its commander.
In late 1781 he directed the construction of the allied U. S.-French siege works at the Battle of Yorktown. From 1794 to 1802 the engineers were combined with the artillery as the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers; the Corps of Engineers, as it is known today, came into existence on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson signed the Military Peace Establishment Act whose aim was to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers... that the said Corps... shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a military academy." Until 1866, the superintendent of the United States Military Academy was always an officer of engineer. The General Survey Act of 1824 authorized the use of Army engineers to survey canal routes; that same year, Congress passed an "Act to Improve the Navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers" and to remove sand bars on the Ohio and "planters, sawyers, or snags" on the Mississippi, for which the Corps of Engineers was the responsible agency.
Separately authorized on 4 July 1838, the U. S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers consisted only of officers and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes, it was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes. In 1841, Congress created the Lake Survey; the survey, based in Detroit, Mich. was charged with conducting a hydrographical survey of the Northern and Northwestern Lakes and preparing and publishing nautical charts and other navigation aids. The Lake Survey published its first charts in 1852. In the mid-19th century, Corps of Engineers' officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with U. S. Naval officers; the Army Corps of Engineers played a significant role in the American Civil War. Many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War.
Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, P. G. T. Beauregard; the versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges and batteries, the destruction of enemy supply lines, the construction of roads; the Union forces were not the only ones to employ the use of engineers throughout the war, on 6 March 1861, once the South had seceded from the Union, among the different acts passed at the time, a provision was included that called for the creation of a Confederate Corps of Engineers. The progression of the war demonstrated the South's disadvantage in engineering expertise. To overcome this obstacle, the Confederate Congress passed legislation that gave a company of engineers to every division in the field. One of the main projects for the Army Corps of Engineers was constructing railroads and bridges, which Union forces took advantage of because railroads and bridges provided access to resources and industry.
One area where the Confederate engineers were able to outperform the Union Army was in the ability to build fortification