French Algeria known as Colonial Algeria, was the colonial rule of France over Algeria. French rule in the region began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until the Algerian War of Independence concluded in 1962. According to historian Ben Kiernan, the French conquest and pacification of Algeria from 1830 until the early twentieth century slaughtered 825,000 Algerian people. French losses from 1830–51 were 92,329 dead in the hospital and only 3,336 killed in action. While the administration of Algeria changed over the 132 years of French rule, the Mediterranean coastal region of Algeria, housing the vast majority of its population, was administered as an integral part of France from 1848 until independence. One of France's longest-held overseas territories, Algeria became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European immigrants known as colons and as pieds-noirs. However, the indigenous Muslim population remained a majority of the territory's population throughout its history.
Dissatisfaction among the Muslim population with its lack of political and economic status fueled calls for greater political autonomy, independence from France. Tensions between the two population groups came to a head in 1954, when the first violent events began of what was called the Algerian War, characterized by guerrilla warfare and illegal methods used by the French in order to put down the revolt; the war concluded in 1962, when Algeria gained independence following the March 1962 Evian agreements and the July 1962 self-determination referendum. During its last years of existence, French Algeria was, as a part of France, a founding member state of the United Nations, NATO, the European Economic Community. Since the 1516 capture of Algiers by the Ottoman admirals, the brothers Ours and Hayreddin Barbarossa, Algeria had been a base for conflict and piracy in the Mediterranean. In 1681, Louis XIV asked Admiral Abraham Duquesne to fight the Berber pirates and ordered a large-scale attack on Algiers between 1682 and 1683 on the pretext of assisting Christian captives.
Again, Jean II d'Estrées bombarded Tripoli and Algiers from 1685 to 1688. An ambassador from Algiers visited the Court in Versailles, a Treaty was signed in 1690 that provided peace throughout the 18th century. During the Directory regime of the First French Republic, the Bacri and the Busnach, Jewish negotiators of Algiers, provided important quantities of grain for Napoleon's soldiers who participated in the Italian campaign of 1796. However, Bonaparte refused claiming it was excessive. In 1820, Louis XVIII paid back half of the Directory's debts; the dey, who had loaned to the Bacri 250,000 francs, requested from France the rest of the money. The Dey of Algiers himself was weak politically and militarily. Algeria was part of the Barbary States, along with today's Tunisia – which depended on the Ottoman Empire led by Mahmud II — but enjoyed relative independence; the Barbary Coast was the stronghold of the Berber pirates, which carried out raids against European and American ships. Conflicts between the Barbary States and the newly independent United States of America culminated in the First and Second Barbary Wars.
An Anglo-Dutch force, led by Admiral Lord Exmouth, carried out a punitive expedition, the August 1816 bombardment of Algiers. The Dey was forced to sign the Barbary treaties; the name of "Algeria" itself came from the French. Following the conquest under the July monarchy, the Algerian territories, disputed with the Ottoman Empire, were first named "French possessions in North Africa" before being called "Algeria" by Marshal General Jean-de-Dieu Soult, Duke of Dalmatia, in 1839; the conquest of Algeria was initiated in the last days of the Bourbon Restoration by Charles X, as an attempt to increase his popularity amongst the French people in Paris, where many veterans of the Napoleonic Wars lived. His intention was to bolster patriotic sentiment, distract attention from ineptly handled domestic policies by "skirmishing against the dey". In the 1790s, France had contracted to purchase wheat for the French army from two merchants in Algiers, Messrs. Bacri and Boushnak, was in arrears paying them.
These merchants and Boushnak who had debts to the dey, claimed inability to pay those debts until France paid its debts to them. The dey had unsuccessfully negotiated with Pierre Deval, the French consul, to rectify this situation, he suspected Deval of collaborating with the merchants against him when the French government made no provisions for repaying the merchants in 1820. Deval's nephew Alexandre, the consul in Bône, further angered the dey by fortifying French storehouses in Bône and La Calle against the terms of prior agreements. After a contentious meeting in which Deval refused to provide satisfactory answers on 29 April 1827, the dey struck Deval with his fly whisk. Charles X used this slight against his diplomatic representative to first demand an apology from the dey, to initiate a blockade against the port of Algiers. France demanded; when the dey responded with cannon fire directed toward one of the blockading ships, the French determined that more forceful action was required.
Pierre Deval and other French residents of Algiers left for France, while the Minister of War, Clermont-Tonnerre, proposed a military expedition. However, the Count of Villèle, an ultra-royalist, President of the Council and the monarch's heir, opposed any military action; the Restoration decided to blockade Algiers for th
Fairfield College is a co-educational state secondary school in Hamilton, New Zealand. Located in the north-east suburb of Fairfield, it was founded in 1957. Built on the site of a former 36-acre dairy farm, leased from Tainui iwi, it is one of the largest school sites in the country. First principal was C. M. Sealey, succeeded by J. Yolland, during which time the roll increased to 1140. Staff increased to 51 and three new blocks were opened, the administration block featuring a small armoury accommodating rifles for school cadets. A swimming pool and the first gymnasium were constructed, the two-storey Y block was named Yolland Block; the third principal was F. Forster; the student based school council was introduced during his tenure. John Kelly introduced mufti as an optional alternative to school uniform in 1974, the first Hamilton school to do so, only the fourth in New Zealand, he introduced the system of deans. The school grew to a maximum of 1425 in 1978, he promoted rowing and drama productions.
He introduced general studies which gave form 6 students opportunity to engage in a wide range of sporting programmes not available at the school, such as sail boarding, clay pigeon shooting and indoor bowls. Kelly was a keen supporter of overseas aid projects and involved students in fund raising for simple irrigation pumps which could be used in third world nations; the fifth principal was David Hood who continued the policies of John Kelly that he had helped formulate. From Newcastle in England, with a background as a merchant marine officer, Hood was recognised for his inclusive, relaxed style of management, he encouraged new initiatives, including establishment on unused ground of the large stands of radiata pine. He was succeeded by the sixth principal, B. Prestidge in the 1980s before Caroline Bennett was principal during the 90s until 2006. During her time the Māori roll in the school grew from eight percent to 35 percent; the marae complex, initiated by B Prestidge, was completed after a decade.
The richly carved wharenui became the base for Ngapurapura, an alternative education programme for Māori students, who were at risk of dropping out of the educational system. The seventh principal was Ashley Brown, deputy principal under Caroline Bennett, he was acting principal for a term but carried out a number of critical reforms such as re-establishing a coherent deans system and making some staffing decisions resulting in a more positive atmosphere in the school. He stayed to assist the eighth principal, Julie Small, selected by a new board of trustees, guided by Dennis Finn, a commissioner from the Ministry of Education, she had a reputation for improving NCEA results at her previous school, Rodney College. In June 2011 Fairfield College made news headlines again due to a prank played 2 years earlier. In May 2009 some one had sprayed six phallic shapes into the grass with weedkiller; as the grass died these shapes became visible. These images were captured by satellite and published on Google Earth.
These images were republished by media around the world. Sometime before February 2015, the phallic images disappeared from Google Maps and the Google Earth software. Richard Crawford was appointed principal for the start of the 2012 year; the school's NCEA Level 1 results improved in 2007 to a 51 percent pass rate but declined to 29 percent in 2008. Former board members Michael Crawford and Winston Pinkerton said this occurred because of "a campaign, by some teachers resistant to change, to undermine the authority and leadership of the principal and the board" which "impacted on teaching and learning in 2008." They said some department heads and others did this when realising their performances would be properly appraised and they would be held accountable for student academic results. "Because of this they began a campaign to undermine the school board and principal, including character assassination of the principal, bullying of other staff and misinformation to media and members of the school community.".
In the same article, Fairfield PPTA spokesperson Jennifer Hamilton said she and many of her colleagues were hurt by the comments, that management of Fairfield staff by the PPTA has been restrained and professional. In 2008 the PPTA advised the MOE that despite the best efforts of the local and regional PPTA to solve the mounting problems, issues were becoming more serious. A MOE appointed negotiator, John Carlyon, was appointed in Term 4 2008 to establish a working party to address problems at the college. During Term 1 2009 there was continued disquiet among some staff and parents. Near the end of Term 1 some 10 to 12 percent of pupils went on strike to support teaching staff; the strike received widespread media coverage, the Waikato Times reported it had received so many complaints, 90 percent in support of staff. The school board resigned. In 2009 management of the school's childcare centre was taken over by the Kindergarten Association of NZ to comply with MOE requirements. Fairfield College has signed up to the Te Kotahi tanga programme intended to improve Maori students academic performance.
The 9 year old programme seeks to change how teachers teach
HŽ series 7022 is a class of low-floor diesel multiple unit built for Croatian Railways by Croatia based company TŽV Gredelj. The prototype of diesel multiple unit designed for regional traffic is a 3-part train set composed of two end motor modules with driver's cab in each one and one middle motor module without cab. All the modules are supported by two bogies, one of, drive bogie and other is running bogie. All drive equipment is placed ond the roof of the module. Gauge: 1435 mm Axle arrangement: Bo’2’+2’Bo’+2’Bo’' Seating capacity: 209 Standing capacity: 201 Doors: 8 Door width: 1300 mm Floor height: 570/600/875 mm Overall length: 70.1 m Vehicle width: 2885 mm Vehicle height: 4280 mm Maximum weight: 170 t Continuous power: 1390 kW Starting traction force: 125 kN Maximum speed: 200 km/h Niskopodni dizel-motorni vlak za regionalni promet
Phi Tau Theta was a national religious fraternity for Methodist men which through name changes and mergers became part of Sigma Theta Epsilon. A group of Methodist men in the Wesley Foundation at the University of South Dakota had been carrying on a program as a religious fraternity, which they called Phi Lambda Phi, for some time when it occurred to them that men in other Wesley Foundations had similar groups which could be mutually helpful if they should form a union; this idea was brought up at a student council retreat held in Ames, Iowa, in 1924 and in February, 1925, invitations were sent to all Wesley Foundation units asking those interested to send representatives to an organizational meeting. This meeting was held in Lincoln, Nebraska, on April 6 and 7, 1925, was attended by members of Phi Lambda Phi of the University of South Dakota, the Wesley Guild of the University of Nebraska, the Young Men’s Club of the University of Minnesota, Methodist men’s organizations of Iowa State College, the University of Oklahoma, Pennsylvania State University.
Articles of Federation were drawn up and submitted to the individual groups for ratification and national officers were elected, thus a national religious fraternity for Methodist men to be known as Phi Tau Theta was born. The name Phi Tau Theta was derived from the Greek words for "Friends of God," Philos Tau Theos; the Methodist men’s groups from Iowa State, the University of Nebraska, the University of South Dakota, the University of Minnesota ratified the Articles of Federation and became the charter chapters of Phi Tau Theta. The group from Pennsylvania State did not ratify the Articles and the group from the University of Oklahoma had withdrawn when it was proposed that a chapter of the fraternity should be organized for Methodist men of the Negro race; the first national Conclave was held at Iowa State College on December 19–21, 1925. The Conclave adopted a constitution, drafted rituals, set up other machinery necessary for the proper functioning of a national fraternity; the spirit of the group was well expressed in the Preamble to the national constitution, drafted by Lee Carpenter of the Nebraska chapter and W. Meyer of the South Dakota chapter and adopted by the first Conclave: "Appreciating the need of a closer spiritual fellowship among men of Methodist preference in attendance at universities and colleges, believing that a fraternal organization of young men can do much to stimulate the development of high moral standards of college men and believing that college and university men of Methodist preference, if so organized can have a more effective influence upon the student life, we hereby unite ourselves as Phi Tau Theta a fraternity of Christian men for the promotion of these ideals."
In line with this spirit and desire to bring Methodist men into closer fellowship with each other and with the church, thus bringing them closer to God, five purposes of the fraternity were adopted: 1. To create a more intimate spiritual fellowship among Methodist men and to organize our life around Jesus Christ as the Master of life. 2. To develop leadership in the church, both as laymen and as professional workers. 3. To promote the study of the Bible. 4. To acquaint Methodist men with the history and purposes of the church. 5. To promote clean social activities among its members. Phi Tau Theta began to grow and develop, with Epsilon formed at the University of Iowa in October 1927; the Zeta chapter was installed at the University of California, Berkeley sometime in 1928. Over the next decade the fraternity added Eta at the Iowa State Teachers College, Theta at Ohio University, Iota at the University of Wyoming, Kappa at Ohio State University, Lambda at Kansas State University, Mu at West Virginia University, Nu at Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College.
The fraternity merged with Sigma Epsilon Theta, another Methodist fraternity, in 1941 to form Delta Sigma Theta, which would be renamed Sigma Theta Epsilon in 1949. Christian fraternity http://www.sigmatheta.org https://web.archive.org/web/20050203203508/http://www.christianfraternity.org/
The 2018 Foxwoods Resort Casino 301 is a Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series race held on July 22, 2018 at New Hampshire Motor Speedway in Loudon, New Hampshire. Contested over 301 laps on the 1.058-mile speedway, it was the 20th race of the 2018 Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series season. New Hampshire Motor Speedway is a 1.058-mile oval speedway located in Loudon, New Hampshire, which has hosted NASCAR racing annually since the early 1990s, as well as the longest-running motorcycle race in North America, the Loudon Classic. Nicknamed "The Magic Mile", the speedway is converted into a 1.6-mile road course, which includes much of the oval. The track was the site of Bryar Motorsports Park before being purchased and redeveloped by Bob Bahre; the track is one of eight major NASCAR tracks owned and operated by Speedway Motorsports. Kyle Busch was the fastest in the first practice session with a time of 28.362 seconds and a speed of 134.292 mph. Kurt Busch scored the pole for the race with a speed of 133.591 mph.
Denny Hamlin was the fastest in the second practice session with a time of 28.650 seconds and a speed of 132.942 mph. Martin Truex Jr. was the fastest in the final practice session with a time of.028937 seconds and a speed of 131,624 mph. Stage 1 Laps: 75 Stage 2 Laps: 75 Stage 3 Laps: 151 Lead changes: 7 among different drivers Cautions/Laps: 7 for 31 Red flags: 0 Time of race: 2 hours, 52 minutes and 56 seconds Average speed: 110.490 miles per hour NBC Sports covered the race on the television side. Steve Letarte, four-time and all-time Loudon winner Jeff Burton and Dale Earnhardt Jr. had the call in the booth for the race as part of a NBC Special Analyst Broadcast. Rick Allen, Parker Kligerman, Marty Snider and Kelli Stavast reported from pit lane during the race. PRN had the radio call for the race, simulcast on Sirius XM NASCAR Radio
Wang Xin-xin is a Nanyin musician from China and the founder of Xin-xin Nanguan Ensemble. Along with her ensemble, Wang is known to promote traditional music to younger audience, she is known in the west as one of the Asian musicians who invited and collaborated with traditional and contemporary musicians. Wang Xin-xin was born in China. Quanzhou is well known as the birthplace of Nanyin, one of the oldest Chinese music genre; the instruments of Nanyin were quite similar to those used in ancient Chinese music which most of them are no longer played or changed today. This kind of music has quite peculiar tune if compared with other Han Chinese music. Wang Xin-xin joined Hantang Yuefu as music supervisor. Wang Xin-xin seeks new methods to introduce Nanyin to her audience such as to make fusion music with symphony orchestra, contemporary music and modern dance, she created music fusion. In 2003, she founded Xinxin Nanguan Ensemble. Meanwhile Nanyin is still the theme of the group, she added their performance with more colorful and artistic movement such as theatrical art elements.
Xinxin Nanguan Ensemble is well-known Asian music group in international folk music festivals in Europe. Farewell My Emperor. Flowers Bloom in the Garden. Nostalgia in Moonlight. Temporality and Nirvana—Heart Sutra. Hantang Yuefu Xin-xin Nan Guan 心心南管