click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

French Baroque architecture

French Baroque architecture, sometimes called French classicism, was a style of architecture during the reigns of Louis XIII, Louis XIV and Louis XV. It was preceded by French Renaissance architecture and Mannerism and was followed in the second half of the 18th century by French Neoclassical architecture; the style was inspired by the Italian Baroque architecture style, but under Louis XIV, it gave greater emphasis to regularity, the colossal order of facades, the use of colonnades and cupolas, to symbolize the power and grandeur of the King. Notable examples of the style include the Grand Trianon of the Palace of Versailles, the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. In the final years of Louis XIV and the reign of Louis XV, the colossal orders disappeared, the style became lighter and saw the introduction of wrought iron decoration in rocaille designs; the period saw the introduction of monumental urban squares in Paris and other cities, notably Place Vendôme and the Place de la Concorde. The style profoundly influenced 18th-century secular architecture throughout Europe.

The French Baroque, from the beginning, was an expression of the power and majesty of the Kings of France. It proceeded deliberately in a different direction from Italy and the rest of Europe, combining classical elements colossal orders of columns, avoiding the exuberant decoration that appeared on facades and interiors in Spain and Central Europe, it was used less on churches and more in the design of royal palaces and country residences. Another distinctive element of the French Baroque style was the integration of the architecture of the house with the formal gardens around it, in what became known as the French formal garden. Salomon de Brosse was one of the first French architects to adopt the style, in the construction of the Palais du Luxembourg he built for the mother of Louis XIII, Marie de Medici between 1615 and 1624; the Luxembourg Palace established a new pattern for royal residences, with pavilions on the corners, lateral wings, a grand central entrance surmounted by a cupola.

The walls feature colossal orders of columns with triangular pediments, indicating the classical inspiration behind the French movement. A traditional French feature was the complex roofline. Like the palaces of the Medicis in Rome, the palace was surrounded by fountains; the interior design was innovative. One of the most accomplished formulators of the new style was François Mansart, a tireless perfectionist credited with introducing the full Baroque to France, he was not the first to use the sloping mansard roof, but he used it so that it took his name. In his design for the Château de Maisons in Maisons-Laffitte, Mansart showed the continuity between the French Renaissance style and the new style; the structure is symmetrical, with an order applied to each story in pilaster form. The frontispiece, crowned with a separate aggrandized roof, is infused with remarkable plasticity and the whole ensemble reads like a three-dimensional whole. Mansart's structures are stripped of overblown decorative effects, so typical of contemporary Rome.

Italian Baroque influence is relegated to the field of decorative ornamentation. Louis Le Vau was another central figure in the early French Baroque style, he designed the Château of Vaux-le-Vicomte for Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances of the young Louis XIV, The design of the chateau itself was similar to that of the Luxembourg Palace and the Palazzo Barberini in Rome. What made it distinctive from earlier styles was the unity of its architecture and landscape around it, its facade featured stylized monumental columns, wings combined with mansard roofs and a prominent dome, in the Baroque style. The interior was lavishly decorated with murals by Charles Le Brun and it was placed in the center of enormous formal gardens designed by André Le Notre, laid out in geometric patterns paths, flower beds and reflecting pools, which seemed to extend the architecture of the house in every direction; the grand salon of the building opened out onto the garden, a feature which thereafter became a regular feature of Baroque palaces.

After seeing the lavishness of the building, the King dismissed and imprisoned Fouquet, took possession of the house for the crown, soon put Le Vau to work to create his own palace in Versailles. The same three artists scaled this concept to monumental proportions in the royal hunting lodge and main Palace of Versailles. On a far grander scale, the palace is a hypertrophied and somewhat repetitive version of Vaux-le-Vicomte, it was both the most imitated residential building of the 17th century. Mannheim and Drottningholm were among many foreign residences for which Versailles provided a model. In 1665, the chief minister of Louis XIV, Jean Colbert, invited the most famous architect and sculptor of the Italian Baroque, Gian Lorenzo Bernini to Paris, to propose a design for the new east wing of the Louvre, located on the eastern side of the Cour Carrée; this design would have aligned the architecture of Paris to the Italian Baroque style. However, in the end Louis turned instead to French designers.

He wanted a design, rather than a copy of the Italian style. In April 1667, he gave the commission to a committee, the Petit Conseil, consisting of Louis

Every Day is Mother's Day

Every Day is Mother's Day is the first novel by British author Hilary Mantel, published in 1985 by Chatto and Windus. It was inspired in part by Hilary Mantel's own experiences as a social work assistant at a geriatric hospital which involved visits to patients in the community and access to case notes, the loss of which play an important part of the novel, it is a black comedy set in the mid-1970s and begins with the widowed spiritualist Evelyn Axon's discovery that her mentally handicapped daughter Muriel is pregnant. Isabel Field is the latest social worker to tackle the Axons but Evelyn is determined not to let anyone interfere with Muriel, whose condition she blames on her daughter's recent weekly visits to a daycare centre. Isabel Field herself is having an affair with the brother of Evelyn's neighbour and the story of this relationship is interwoven with that of Evelyn and Muriel's and the birth of the baby... The story is continued in Hilary Mantel's next novel Vacant Possession. 1985, UK, Chatto & Windus, ISBN 0-7011-2895-X, Hardback 1986, UK, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-008550-5, Paperback 2000, US, Owl, ISBN 0-8050-6272-6, Pub date 15 Mar 2000, Paperback 2001, UK, Chivers, ISBN 0-7540-4540-4, Pub date Jun 2001, Large print 2006, UK, Harper Perennial, ISBN 1-84115-339-7, Pub date 16 Jan 2006, Paperback 2010, US, Picador, ISBN 0-312-66803-1, Pub date 31 Aug 2010, Paperback Every Day is Mother's Day at complete review

Clifford B. Harmon

Clifford Burke Harmon was a wealthy real estate developer and aviator. He was the sponsor of the Harmon Trophy. Harmon's real estate success came from developing suburban New York, New York villages, such as Pelhamwood and Harmon-on-Hudson, he was born on July 1866 in Urbana, Ohio. He had William Elmer Harmon. On August 20, 1910 Harmon became the first man to fly across the Long Island Sound, he flew from Garden City to Greenwich. In 1926 he started the Harmon Trophy for aviation. In 1931 he created the Clifford B. Harmon Cup to be awarded to amateur golfers. In 1932 he may have tried to commit suicide in France, he died on June 1945 in Cannes, France. In his will he left $48,431 for the continuation of the Harmon Trophy. Among other things, the Metro North Railroad station Croton-Harmon and the Croton-Harmon School District are named after Harmon. Bell, Blake. "Clifford B. Harmon, Developer of Pelhamwood". Archived from the original on 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2007-02-16

Yaghan people

The Yaghan called Yagán, Yahgan, Yámana, Yamana or Tequenica, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Southern Cone, who are regarded as the southernmost peoples in the world. Their traditional territory includes the islands south of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, extending their presence into Cape Horn, they have been there for more than 10,000 years. In the 19th century, they were known as Fuegians by the English-speaking world, but the term is now avoided as it can refer to any of the several indigenous peoples of Tierra del Fuego; some are reputed to still speak the Yaghan language, considered to be a language isolate. As of 2017, Cristina Calderón, who lives in Chile territory, is known as the last full-blooded Yaghan and last native speaker of the Yaghan language; the Yaghan were traditionally hunter-gatherers. They traveled by canoes between islands to collect food: the men hunted sea lions, while the women dove to collect shellfish. Yaghans share a series of similarities with the more northern tribes of Alacalufe.

These are a traditional canoe-faring hunter-gatherers lifestyle as well as shared physical traits such as being of short stature, being long-headed and having a "low face". Despite similarities their languages were different. In 1871, Anglican missionaries Thomas Bridges and George Lewis established a mission at Tierra del Fuego, where they both raised their families. Bridges had learned the language starting when he lived on Keppel Island at the age of 17. Over more than a decade, he compiled a 30,000-word dictionary of Yaghan-English. Bridges' second son, Lucas Bridges learned the language and is one of the few Europeans to do so. In his 1948 book, a history of that period, he writes that in Yaghan, their autonym or name for themselves was yamana; the name Yaghan, was first used by his father Thomas Bridges from the name of their territory, Yahgashaga, or Yahga Strait. They called themselves Yahgashagalumoala, it was the name of the inhabitants of the Murray Channel area, from whom Thomas Bridges first learned the language.

The name Tekenika, first applied to a sound in Hoste Island means "I do not understand", evidently originated as the answer to a misunderstood question. Despite the cold climate in which they lived, early Yaghan wore little to no clothing until after their extended contact with Europeans, they were able to survive the harsh climate because: They kept warm by huddling around small fires when they could, including in their boats to stay warm. The name of "Tierra del Fuego" was based on the many fires seen by passing European explorers, they made use of rock formations to shelter from the elements. They covered themselves in animal grease. Over time, they had evolved higher metabolisms than average humans, allowing them to generate more internal body heat, their natural resting position was a deep squatting position, which reduced their surface area and helped to conserve heat. The Yaghan may have been driven to this inhospitable area by enemies to the north, they were famed for their complete indifference to the bitter weather around Cape Horn.

Although they had fire and small domed shelters, they went about naked in the frigid cold and biting wind of Tierra del Fuego. Women swam in its cold 48th parallel south waters hunting for shellfish, they were observed to sleep in the open unsheltered and unclothed, while Europeans shivered under blankets. A Chilean researcher claimed their average body temperature was warmer than a European's by at least one degree. Mateo Martinic, in Crónica de las tierras del sur del canal Beagle, asserts that there were five groups under the Yahgan people: Wakimaala on both shores of the Beagle Channel from Yendegaia to Puerto Róbalo and at the Murray Channel; the Yaghan established many temporary, but reused, settlements within Tierra del Fuego. A significant Yaghan archaeological site from the Megalithic period has been found at Wulaia Bay. C. Michael Hogan has called it the Bahia Wulaia Dome Middens; the Yaghan left strong impressions on all who encountered them, including Ferdinand Magellan, Charles Darwin, Francis Drake, James Cook, James Weddell and Julius Popper.

Spanish explorers came upon the area around Tierra del Fuego in the early sixteenth century, but it was not until the 19th century that Europeans started to be interested in the zone and its peoples. The Yahgan were estimated to number 3,000 persons in the mid-19th century, when Europeans started colonizing the area; the British officer Robert FitzRoy was made captain of HMS Beagle in November 1828, continued her first survey voyage. On the night following 28 January 1830 the ship's whaleboat was stolen by Fuegians, over a month of fruitless searching to recover the boat he took guides and prisoners who escaped taking a man and a young girl hostage. A week he took another youth hostage (renamed Boat Memory, estimated age 2

List of elections in 1969

The following elections occurred in 1969. 1969 Botswana general election 1969 Chadian parliamentary election 1969 Chadian presidential election 1969 Chilean parliamentary election 1969 Ethiopian general election 1969 Gabonese legislative election 1969 Kenyan general election 1969 Norwegian parliamentary election 1969 Ghanaian parliamentary election 1969 Philippine House of Representatives elections 1969 Philippine Senate election 1969 Philippine general election 1969 Philippine presidential election 1969 Rwandan general election 1969 Somali parliamentary election 1969 Rhodesian constitutional referendum 1969 Zambian constitutional referendum 1969 Afghan parliamentary election 1969 Israeli legislative election 1969 Malaysian general election 1969 Philippine House of Representatives elections 1969 Republic of China legislative election 1969 Sarawak state election 1969 Indian presidential election 1969 Australian federal election 1969 Tasmanian state election 1969 Gibraltar general election 1969 Irish general election 1969 Polish legislative election 1969 Portuguese National Assembly election 1969 Turkish general election 1969 French presidential election 1969 French constitutional referendum 1969 West German federal election 1969 Birmingham Ladywood by-election 1969 Glasgow Gorbals by-election 1969 Islington North by-election 1969 Louth by-election 1969 Mid Ulster by-election 1969 Newcastle-under-Lyme by-election 1969 Northern Ireland general election 1969 Ulster Unionist Party leadership election 1969 British Honduras legislative election 1969 British Columbia general election 1969 Manitoba general election 1969 New Democratic Party of Manitoba leadership election 1969 Ottawa municipal election 1969 Toronto municipal election The Battle of Aspen 1969–70 New Orleans mayoral election 1969 Pittsburgh mayoral election 1969 New York City mayoral election The Battle of Aspen 1969–70 New Orleans mayoral election 1969 Pittsburgh mayoral election 1969 New York City mayoral election 1969 Maryland special gubernatorial election The Battle of Aspen 1969–70 New Orleans mayoral election 1969 Maryland special gubernatorial election 1969 New York City mayoral election 1969 Pittsburgh mayoral election 1969 New Zealand general election 1969 Australian federal election 1969 Tasmanian state election

Visalia Municipal Airport

Visalia Municipal Airport is five miles west of downtown Visalia, in Tulare County, California. The airport is eligible for the Essential Air Service program but has no scheduled air service and is not eligible to request funding for service until April 30, 2026; the Federal Aviation Administration says this airport had 1,831 passenger boardings in calendar year 2010, a decrease from 2,455 in 2009. The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 categorized it as a general aviation airport. Visalia Municipal Airport was built in 1927 and purchased by the city in 1928; the Works Progress Administration began several projects at the Visalia Municipal Airport in 1936, the WPA would continue to make improvements at the field. The War Department assumed control of the airport in February 1942, just weeks after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, which led the United States to enter World War II; the airport was renamed the Visalia Army Air Field and operations at the facility began immediately upon the United States Army Air Forces control of the airfield.

Anti-submarine patrols were conducted from Visalia AAF by the 47th Bombardment Squadron using Lockheed A-29 Hudson, B-25 Mitchell medium bombers. In June 1942, the Visalia AAF was established as a sub-installations of the newly built Hammer Field in Fresno, it shared Hammer Field's mission to train light and heavy bomber squadrons. During that period Consolidated B-24 "Liberator", B-25s, Martin B-26 "Marauder" and the A-29s operated from Visalia AAF. In January 1944, Army Air Forces headquarters ordered the entire Air University night fighter training program to California to be headquartered at Hammer Field. Under the supervision of the Army Air Force School of Applied Tactics and the 481st Night Fighter Operational Training Group, night fighter crews were organized into Overseas Training Units and entered three phases of training. In all phases, Visalia AAF was used as a satellite training site. During this period, Douglas P-70 "Nighthawk" and Northrop P-61 "Black Widow" operated from Visalia AAF.

It is known that the 425th Night Fighter Squadron was stationed at Visalia AAF for its entire training cycle from February until May 1944 when it was deployed to the European Theater at RAF Charmy Down, England as part of the Ninth Air Force. In 1946 the War Assets Administration, acting on behalf of the War Department, terminated the leases with the City of Visalia and other parties with the remainder of the lands transferred to the City of Visalia in 1947. United Airlines flights began in 1946-47. After the deregulation of the airline industry in 1978, Visalia Municipal Airport became eligible for the Essential Air Service program. Since served the airport, but none was successful. SeaPort Airlines was the most recent airline at Visalia. Starting February 9, 2015, SeaPort operated 12 nonstop round trips a week to Burbank Bob Hope Airport and 12 nonstop round trips a week to Sacramento International Airport; the airline suspended its service without notice on January 15, 2016. On November 18, 2015, Visalia Transit began operating its new V-Line bus service connecting the Visalia Airport to Downtown Visalia, Downtown Fresno, California State University and the Fresno Yosemite International Airport.

After the abrupt cancellation of commercial air service, the US Department of Transportation received proposals from three other airlines to start service from Visalia using Essential Air Service funding, but the community rejected the offers. The City stated in a letter that, "Based on a thorough review of all proposals and consideration of industry trends and the recent history of declining air service performance in Visalia, it is the Council's belief that none of the carriers have a strong enough proposal to guarantee that Visalia would maintain eligibility in the EAS program." In January 2017, the city asked to be enrolled in the Essential Air Service Community Flexibility Pilot Program which allows communities to receive a cash grant equal to two years worth of subsidy in exchange for forgoing their EAS funding for the next ten years. Visalia was the first community to enroll in the program established in 2003. In March 2017, Visalia received a grant worth $3,703,368 for the construction of two 10-unit tee hangars to serve small single-engine aircraft, one corporate hangar to serve business jets and large aircraft.

In exchange, the city will be ineligible to receive EAS subsidy funding for service until April 30, 2026. Visalia Municipal Airport covers 821 acres at an elevation of 295 feet, it has one asphalt runway, 12/30, 6,559 by 150 feet, one helipad 45 by 45 feet. In the year ending April 28, 2011 the airport had 63,900 aircraft operations, average 175 per day: 92% general aviation, 4% airline, 4% air taxi, <1% military. 134 aircraft were based at this airport: 78% single-engine, 18% multi-engine, 4% jet, 1% glider. California World War II Army Airfields Visalia Municipal Airport, official web site Great Lakes Aviation Aerial image as of May 1994 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for VIS, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for VIS AirNav airport information for KVIS ASN accident history for VIS FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical