French Consulate

The Consulate was the top-level Government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire on 10 November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire on 18 May 1804. By extension, the term The Consulate refers to this period of French history. During this period, Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul, established himself as the head of a more authoritarian and centralized republican government in France while not declaring himself sole ruler. Due to the long-lasting institutions established during these years, Robert B. Holtman has called the Consulate "one of the most important periods of all French history." Napoleon brought authoritarian personal rule, viewed as military dictatorship. French military disasters in 1798 and 1799 had shaken the Directory, shattered it in November 1799. Historians sometimes date the start of the political downfall of the Directory to 18 June 1799, when the now only one month in office serving anti-Jacobin Director Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, with the help of the Directory's only surviving original member, the anti-Jacobin Paul Barras rid himself of the other three then-sitting directors.

The March-April 1799 elections to the two councils had produced a new Neo-Jacobin majority in the two bodies, being unhappy with the existing five man Directory, by 5 June 1799, these councils had found an irregularity in the election of the Director Jean Baptiste Treilhard, who thus retired in favor of Louis Jérôme Gohier, a Jacobin more'in tune' with the feelings in the two councils. The next day, 18 June 1799, the anti-Jacobins Philippe-Antoine Merlin and Louis-Marie de La Revellière-Lépeaux were driven to resign, although one long time anti-Jacobin, popularly known for his cunning, survived the day's coup; the three new directors were seen by the anti-Jacobin elite of France as non-entities, a'put-down' if there was one, but that same elite could take some comfort in knowing that the five man Directory was still in anti-Jacobin hands, but with a reduced majority. A few more military disasters, royalist insurrections in the south, Chouan disturbances in a dozen departments of the western part of France, Orléanist intrigues, the end became certain.

In order to soothe the populace and protect the frontier, more than the French Revolution's usual terrorist measures was necessary. The new Directory government, led by the anti-Jacobin Sieyès, decided that the necessary revision of the constitution would require "a head" and "a sword". Jean Victor Moreau being unattainable as his sword, Sieyès favoured Barthélemy Catherine Joubert. Although Guillaume Marie Anne Brune and André Masséna won the Battles of Bergen and of Zürich, although the Allies of the Second Coalition lingered on the frontier as they had done after the Battle of Valmy, still the fortunes of the Directory were not restored. Success was reserved for Bonaparte landing at Fréjus with the prestige of his victories in the East, now, after Hoche's death, appearing as sole master of the armies. In the coup of 18 Brumaire Year VIII, Napoleon seized French parliamentary and military power in a two-fold coup d'état, forcing the sitting directors of the government to resign. On the night of the 19 Brumaire a remnant of the Council of Ancients abolished the Constitution of the Year III, ordained the Consulate, legalised the coup d'Etat in favour of Bonaparte with the Constitution of the Year VIII.

The initial 18 Brumaire coup seemed to be a victory for Sieyès, rather than for Bonaparte. Sieyès was a proponent of a new system of government for the Republic, the coup seemed certain to bring his system into force. Bonaparte's cleverness lay in counterposing Pierre Claude François Daunou's plan to that of Sieyès, in retaining only those portions of each which could serve his ambition; the new government was composed of three parliamentary assemblies: the Council of State which drafted bills, the Tribunate which could not vote on the bills but instead debated them, the Corps législatif, whose members could not discuss the bills but voted on them after reviewing the Tribunate's debate record. The Sénat conservateur was a governmental body equal to the three aforementioned legislative assemblies and verified the draft bills and directly advised the First Consul on the implications of such bills. Ultimate executive authority was vested in three consuls. Popular suffrage was retained, though mutilated by the lists of notables.

The four aforementioned governmental organs were retained under the Constitution of the Year XII, which recognized Napoleon as the French sovereign Emperor, but their respective powers were diminished. Napoleon vetoed Sieyès' original idea of having a single Grand Elector as supreme executive and Head of State. Sieyès had intended to reserve this important position for himself, by denying him the job Napoleon helped reinforce the authority of the consuls, an office which he would assume. Nor was Napoleon content to be part of an equal triumvirate; as the years would progress he would move to consolidate his own power as First Consul, leave the two other consuls, Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès and Charles-François Lebrun, a

HMAS Launceston (J179)

HMAS Launceston, named for the city of Launceston, was one of 60 Bathurst-class corvettes constructed during World War II and one of 20 built for the Admiralty but manned by personnel of and commissioned into the Royal Australian Navy. In 1938, the Australian Commonwealth Naval Board identified the need for a general purpose'local defence vessel' capable of both anti-submarine and mine-warfare duties, while easy to construct and operate; the vessel was envisaged as having a displacement of 500 tons, a speed of at least 10 knots, a range of 2,000 nautical miles The opportunity to build a prototype in the place of a cancelled Bar-class boom defence vessel saw the proposed design increased to a 680-ton vessel, with a 15.5 knots top speed, a range of 2,850 nautical miles, armed with a 4-inch gun, equipped with asdic, able to fitted with either depth charges or minesweeping equipment depending on the planned operations: although closer in size to a sloop than a local defence vessel, the resulting increased capabilities were accepted due to advantages over British-designed mine warfare and anti-submarine vessels.

Construction of the prototype HMAS Kangaroo did not go ahead. The need for locally built'all-rounder' vessels at the start of World War II saw the "Australian Minesweepers" approved in September 1939, with 60 constructed during the course of the war: 36 ordered by the RAN, 20 ordered by the British Admiralty but manned and commissioned as RAN vessels, 4 for the Royal Indian Navy. Launceston was laid down by Evans Deakin & Co at Brisbane, Queensland on 23 December 1940, she was launched on 30 June 1941 by the wife of William Forgan Smith Premier of Queensland, was commissioned into the RAN on 9 April 1942. After entering service, Launceston was assigned to convoy escort duties in Australian waters before sailing to Colombo in September 1942 to join the British Eastern Fleet; the corvette as used to escort convoys across the Indian Ocean. On 11 February 1944, sister ship HMAS Ipswich and the Indian sloop HMIS Jumna destroyed Japanese submarine RO-110. Convoy duties continued until September 1944.

After refit, Launceston operated from Fremantle as an anti-submarine patrol ship until February 1945, when she was sent to Manus Island to join the British Pacific Fleet. As part of the Pacific Fleet, the corvette was involved in the Battle of Okinawa. Following the end of World War II, Launceston was based in Hong Kong as a minesweeper and anty-piracy patrol ship, before returning to Australia in late 1945. Official visits were made to cities in Tasmania, including the corvette's namesake city, before the corvette sailed to Sydney; the corvette received four battle honours for her wartime service: "Pacific 1942–45", "Indian Ocean 1942–44", "East Indies 1944", "Okinawa 1945". After the war's end, Launceston was marked for transfer to the Turkish Navy; the corvette was placed in reserve in mid-April 1946 was recommissioned into the Royal Navy on 21 May as HMS Launceston for the transfer. The corvette, along with sister ships Pirie and Gawler sailed for Colombo, where they were commissioned into the Turkish Navy.

Launceston was named TCG Ayancik, but was renamed TCG Hamit Naci. The ship was withdrawn from service in 1965. BooksDonohue, Hector. From Empire Defence to the Long Haul: post-war defence policy and its impact on naval force structure planning 1945–1955. Papers in Australian Maritime Affairs. No. 1. Canberra: Sea Power Centre. ISBN 0-642-25907-0. ISSN 1327-5658. OCLC 36817771. Stevens, David. A Critical Vulnerability: the impact of the submarine threat on Australia's maritime defence 1915–1954. Papers in Australian Maritime Affairs. No. 15. Canberra: Sea Power Centre Australia. ISBN 0-642-29625-1. ISSN 1327-5658. OCLC 62548623. Stevens, David. Stevens, David; the Royal Australian Navy. The Australian Centenary History of Defence. South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554116-2. OCLC 50418095. Journal and news articlesStevens, David. "The Australian Corvettes". Hindsight. Sea Power Centre – Australia. 2010. Archived from the original on 20 March 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2010


Kraftkar is a blue cheese from Tingvoll in Nordmøre, Western Norway, made from unskimmed cow's milk and cream, with injected culture of the mold Penicillium roqueforti. The name Kraftkar relates to the legendary farmhand Tore Nordbø and his supernatural strength and size. Produced by the cheesemaker Tingvollost, Kraftkar was first introduced in 2004. Kraftkar was awarded gold medal for blue cheese at the World Cheese Awards in 2011, gold medal at the International Cheese Awards in 2013, silver medal at the 2015 World Cheese Awards. At the 2016 World Cheese Awards in San Sebastián, Kraftkar was selected "World Champion", among more than 3,000 participating cheeses from 35 countries. List of cheeses