The French Crown Jewels comprise the crowns, sceptres and jewels that were symbols of Royal power between 752 and 1825. These were worn by Queens of France; the set was broken up, with most of it sold off in 1885 by the Third French Republic. The surviving French Crown Jewels, principally a set of historic crowns and parures, are on display in the Galerie d'Apollon of the Louvre, France's premier museum and former royal palace, together with the Regent Diamond, the Sancy Diamond and the 105-carat Côte-de-Bretagne red spinel, carved into the form of a dragon. In addition, some gemstones and jewels are on display in the Treasury vault of the Mineralogy gallery in the National Museum of Natural History; the Crown jewels comprise the instruments of the coronation, called the Regalia, the jewels of the ruling family. Since Pepin the Short in 752, the accession of the King of France was legitimated by a coronation ceremony called a sacre, since the emphasis was on the unction with the chrism of the Holy Ampulla, performed for the first time at Notre-Dame de Reims in 816 for Louis the Pious with the Crown of Charlemagne.
From 888 to 922 1027, all monarchs were crowned until the French revolution, in the Notre-Dame de Reims cathedral. After the revolution, only Emperor Napoleon I, Empress Josephine and King Charles X were crowned. Though not always used, a set of expensive crown jewels did exist and was augmented by various monarchs; the Crown Jewels or Diamants de la Couronne de France, consisting of gemstones and jewellery, became unalienable by decision of Francis I on June 15, 1530. The Côte-de-Bretagne red spinel was among the 8 main jewels, they suffered important loss by the Catholic League in 1590 but were reconstituted by Henry IV and enhanced by Louis XIV, notably with the gift of the 18 Mazarin diamonds and the purchase of the'Royal French Blue' and'Ruspoli' sapphire followed in 1717 with the Regent Diamond. Under Louis XV, they were kept in the Garde Meuble de la Couronne in one of the pavilions of the Place de la Concorde, where they suffered a theft in 1792 and a sale in 1795 after their partial recovery.
In 1814, Napoleon I had restored the crown jewels to 65,072 stones and pearls, not including the personal jewels of both Empress Josephine and Empress Marie-Louise. Enhanced during the Restoration and again during the Second Empire, they counted 77,662 stones and pearls, comprising 51,403 brilliant cut diamonds, 21,119 rose cut diamonds, 2962 pearls, 507 rubies, 136 sapphires, 250 emeralds, 528 turquoises, 22 opals, 235 amethysts and 500 other stones, when they were sold in 1885 by the Third Republic; as in 1793, an important set of stones and pearls was sent to the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle and some of the most important jewels were bought back since 1953, which makes the collection still number more than 11,000 stones and pearls. The Regalia, much hit in 1590, were kept in the treasure of the Basilica of Saint Denis from where they were removed in 1793 during the French Revolution; some few pieces of the treasure, considered to present an artistic value, were preserved and sent to the Louvre, which sold 9 of them in 1798, the National Library, the Natural History Museum, the archbishops of Rouen and Paris.
The others, were sold in 1793 like the chalice and two cruets of Saint Denis, or dismantled and melted down in April 1794, like the Crown of Charlemagne and the ones of Saint Louis and the Queens, with the rest of the basilica treasure including the cross of Saint Eligius, the screen of Charlemagne, the gilded altar of Charles the Bald or the large reliquaries. The litugical instruments kept in Reims suffered the same policy; the Regalia were restored or recreated for the coronation of Napoleon I, which at their turn suffered again partial destruction in 1819, completed for the coronation of Charles X in 1825. Of about 20 documented royal crowns of the Ancien Régime, the only surviving one from the destructions of 1590 and 1793 is the crown of Louis XV; the king had the Regent Diamond set in the lower part of the fleur-de-lis in the front of his crown, while eight of the famous Mazarin diamonds that the cardinal had bequeathed to the French Crown are set in the other seven fleur-de-lis and in the circlet of the crown.
Diamonds and colored gemstones are set between two rows of pearls on the circlet and are set into the four arches that rise behind the fleur-de-lis and the eight ornamental points between the fleur-de-lis. At the junction of these four arches is a small pedestal surrounded by two rows of small diamonds on either side of a row of small pearls. Eight larger diamonds set between this pedestal and the arches give the effect of a sunburst when the crown is viewed from above. On the pedestal rises a double fleur-de-lis formed of nine large diamonds, including the Sancy Diamond which forms the central upper petal of this double fleur-de-lis; the gold brocade cap which lines the crown is ornamented with large diamonds. Since the Middle Ages, previous to the making of this crown, the crowns of French kings were adorned with gemstones like on the crown of Charlemagne or the crown of Saint Louis, sometimes called the Sainte Couronne, but some of the most valuable precious stones could be removed from them, since it was traditional for a French king to bequeath his crown to the treasury of the Abbey, now Basilica of St Denis, on their deaths.
This crown was bequeathed to Saint Denis on the death of Louis XV, but not before the diamonds had been
Oscar Sala, Italian-Brazilian nuclear physicist and important scientific leader, Emeritus Professor of the Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo. Sala graduated in physics in 1943, at the recently created University of São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil; the Department of Physics of the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters was started with two imminent Italian physicists, Gleb Wataghin and Giuseppe Occhialini, who specialized in researching cosmic radiation. He was contemporary with a brilliant generation of young Brazilian physicians, such as César Lattes, José Leite Lopes, Mário Schenberg, Roberto Salmeron, Marcelo Damy de Souza Santos and Jayme Tiomno. While still a student, Oscar Sala started research work with the group. In 1945, Sala published with Wataghin an important paper on showers of penetrating nuclear particles. Soon after graduation, he was hired as a teaching assistant by the Chair of General and Experimental Physics, led by Prof. Marcelo Damy de Souza Santos, his entire scientific and teaching career was spent at the same institution, which became the Institute of Physics.
In this new capacity, Sala became head of the Department of Nuclear Physics. In 1946 Oscar Sala received a scholarship from the Rockefeller Foundation and went to study in the U. S. first at the University of Illinois, subsequently, in 1948, at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. There, he participated in the development of electrostatic particle accelerators for use in nuclear physics research, the first devices to use pulsed beams for the study of nuclear reactions with rapid neutrons. Upon his return to Brazil, Sala was responsible for installing and coordinating research efforts based on a large electrostatic Van de Graaff generator, he helped to build a pelletron at the University of São Paulo. As a scientific leader, Dr. Oscar Sala was one of the founders and a scientific director with the Foundation for Support of Research of the State of São Paulo (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo and president of the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science, he was a member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, the Third World Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Prof. Sala was a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. WATAGHIN, G. and SALA, O. 1945. Showers of penetrating particles. Phys. R. vol. 67, p. 55. AXEL, P. GOLDHABER, M. and SALA, O. 1948. Internal conversion electrons accompanying slow neutron capture in Gd. Phys. R. vol. 74, p. 1249. HERB, R. G. and SALA, O. 1948. Design of electrostatic generator for the Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Phys. R. vol. 74, p. 1260. BOWER, J. GOLDHABER, M. HILL, R. D. and SALA, O. 1948. Short lived metastable state of an "Even-Even" nucleus Ge72. Phys. R. vol. 73, p. 1219. ACQUADRO, J. C. HUSSEIN, M. S. PEREIRA, D. and SALA, O. 1981. The contribution of quasi-elastic processes to the total reaction cross-section of heavy ions. Physical Review Letters. Vol. B100, p. 381. SALA, O. 1982. Post-accelerator for the Pelletron of the University of São Paulo. Workshop on Nuclear Physics, 5. La Plata, Argentina
Khairul Amri bin Salehuddin is a Malaysian footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Perak in Malaysia Super League. Khairul Amri started his professional career in Perak youth teams, he was in the Perak team that competes in the Sukma Games 2008. He made his league debut in 2010, playing against Negeri Sembilan FA, he was included in the Perak team that competes in the Sukma Games 2010. From 2010 to 2012, he is the third choice goalkeeper in the Perak team, behind Mohd Nasril Nourdin and Kamarul Effandi Abdul Rahim, the first and the second choice goalkeeper respectively. After both goalkeepers were released from Perak and Mohd Farizal Marlias were brought in at the end of 2012, he was promoted to become second-choice goalkeeper behind Farizal. On November 2013, Khairul Amri joined Penang. A backup for the national team goalkeeper G. Jeevananthan, Khairul made his debut for the Panthers in place of Jeevanathan in a league match on 7 February 2014. Khairul Amri returned to Perak for the 2017 season, were retained in the team for the 2018 season.
Khairul Amri at Soccerway