The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the Fourth Republic, replacing the former parliamentary republic with a semi-presidential system that split powers between a prime minister as head of government and a president as head of state. De Gaulle, the first French president elected under the Fifth Republic in December 1958, believed in a strong head of state, which he described as embodying l'esprit de la nation; the Fifth Republic is France's third-longest political regime, after the hereditary and feudal monarchies of the Ancien Régime and the parliamentary Third Republic. The trigger for the collapse of the French Fourth Republic was the Algiers crisis of 1958. France was still a colonial power, although conflict and revolt had begun the process of decolonization. French West Africa, French Indochina, French Algeria still sent representatives to the French parliament under systems of limited suffrage in the French Union.
Algeria in particular, despite being the colony with the largest French population, saw rising pressure for separation from Metropolitan France. The situation was complicated by those in Algeria, such as European settlers and many native Jews, who wanted to stay part of France; the Algerian War was not just a separatist movement. Further complications came when a section of the French Army rebelled and backed the Algérie française movement to defeat separation. Charles de Gaulle, who had retired from politics a decade before, placed himself in the midst of the crisis, calling on the nation to suspend the government and create a new constitutional system. De Gaulle was carried to power by the inability of the parliament to choose a government, popular protest, the last parliament of the Fourth Republic voting for their dissolution and the convening of a constitutional convention; the Fourth Republic suffered from a lack of political consensus, a weak executive, governments forming and falling in quick succession since 1946.
With no party or coalition able to sustain a parliamentary majority, prime ministers found themselves unable to risk their political position with unpopular reforms. De Gaulle and his supporters proposed a system of strong presidents elected for seven-year terms; the president, under the proposed constitution, would have executive powers to run the country in consultation with a prime minister whom he would appoint. On 1 June 1958, Charles de Gaulle was appointed head of the government; these plans were approved by more than 80% of those who voted in the referendum of 28 September 1958. The new constitution was signed into law on 4 October 1958. Since each new constitution established a new republic, France moved from the Fourth to the Fifth Republic; the new constitution contained transitional clauses extending the period of rule by decree until the new institutions were operating. René Coty remained president of the Republic. On 21 December 1958, Charles de Gaulle was elected president of France by an electoral college.
The provisional constitutional commission, acting in lieu of the constitutional council, proclaimed the results of the election on 9 January 1959. The new president began his office on that date; the 1958 constitution replaced the French Union with the French Community, which allowed fourteen member territories to assert their independence. 1960 became known as the "Year of Africa" because of this wave of newly independent states. Algeria became independent on 5 July 1962; the president was elected by an electoral college but in 1962 de Gaulle proposed that the president be directly elected by the citizens and held a referendum on the change. Although the method and intent of de Gaulle in that referendum were contested by most political groups except for the Gaullists, the change was approved by the French electorate; the Constitutional Council declined to rule on the constitutionality of the referendum. The president is now elected every five years, changed from seven by a constitutional referendum in 2000, to reduce the probability of cohabitation due to former differences in the length of terms for the National Assembly and presidency.
The president is elected in one or two rounds of voting: if one candidate gets a majority of votes in the first round that person is president-elect. Two major changes balances. Traditionally, France operated according to parliamentary supremacy: no authority was empowered to rule on whether statutes passed by Parliament respected the constitutional rights of the citizens. In 1971, the Constitutional Council, arguing that the preamble of the constitution referenced the rights defined in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and the preamble of the 1946 constitution, concluded that statutes must respect these rights and so declared unconstitutional a statute because it violated freedom of association. Only the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, or the president of either house of Parliament could ask for a constitutional review before
The Obie Awards or Off-Broadway Theater Awards are annual awards given by The Village Voice newspaper to theatre artists and groups in New York City. In September 2014, the awards were jointly presented and administered with the American Theatre Wing; as the Tony Awards cover Broadway productions, the Obie Awards cover Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway productions. The Obie Awards were initiated by Edwin Fancher, publisher of The Village Voice, who handled the financing and business side of the project, they were first given in 1956 under the direction of theater critic Jerry Tallmer. Only Off-Broadway productions were eligible; the first Obie Awards ceremony was held at Helen Gee's cafe. With the exception of the Lifetime Achievement and Best New American Play awards, there are no fixed categories at the Obie Awards, the winning actors and actresses are all in a single category titled "Performance." There are no announced nominations. Awards in the past have included performance, best production, special citations, sustained achievement.
Not every category is awarded every year. The Village Voice awards annual Obie grants to selected companies. There is a Ross Wetzsteon Grant, named after its former theater editor, in the amount of $2,000, for a theatre that nurtures innovative new plays; the first awards in 1955-1956 for plays and musicals were given to Absalom as Best New Play, Uncle Vanya, Best All-Around Production and The Threepenny Opera as Best Musical. Other awards for Off-Broadway theatre are the Lucille Lortel Awards, the Drama Desk Awards, the Drama League Award, the Outer Critics Circle Awards; as of September 2014, the Obie Awards are jointly presented by the American Theatre Wing and the Village Voice, with the Wing having "overall responsibility for running" the Awards. Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Actress Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Actor Obie Award for Distinguished Performance by an Ensemble Sustained Achievement Award Best New American Theatre Work Award Playwriting Award Design Award Special Citations Obie Grants The Ross Wetzsteon Award Obie Award ceremonies have been held at Webster Hall in Manhattan's East Village since the 2010-2011 season.
Winners from Infoplease.com "OBIE winners, 2011–2012", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2012–2013", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2013–2014", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2014–2015", playbill.com "OBIE winners, 2015–2016", playbill.com OBIE winners, 2017 OBIE winners, 2018 OBIE winners, 20192010s 2000s Obie Grants are awarded each year to select theatre companies. Previous recipients include: Ross Wetzsteon Award is a $2,000 grant awarded to a theatre that nurture innovative new plays. Previous recipients include: Official website
Lipit-Ishtar was the 5th king of the First Dynasty of Isin, according to the Sumerian King List. According to the SKL: he was the successor of Išme-Dagān. Ur-Ninurta succeeded Lipit-Ištar; some documents and royal inscriptions from his time have survived, however. The annals of Lipit-Ištar's reign recorded that he repulsed the Amorites; the text exists on several partial fragments. The following complete laws have been reconstructed: §8 If a man gave bare ground to another man to set out as an orchard and the latter did not complete setting out that bare ground as an orchard, he shall give to the man who set out the orchard the bare ground which he neglected as part of his share.§9 If a man entered the orchard of another man and was seized there for stealing, he shall pay ten shekels of silver.§10 If a man cut down a tree in the garden of another man, he shall pay one-half mina of silver.§11 If adjacent to the house of a man the bare ground of another man has been neglected and the owner of the house has said to the owner of the bare ground, "Because your ground has been neglected someone may break into my house: strengthen your house," and this agreement has been confirmed by him, the owner of the bare ground shall restore to the owner of the house any of his property, lost.§12 If a slave-girl or slave of a man has fled into the heart of the city and it has been confirmed that he dwelt in the house of man for one month, he shall give slave for slave.§13 If he has no slave, he shall pay fifteen shekels of silver.§14 If a man's slave has compensated his slave-ship to his master and it is confirmed his master two-fold, that slave shall be freed.§15 If a miqtum is the grant of a king, he shall not be taken away.§16 If a miqtum went to a man of his own free will, that man shall not hold him.
Afterwards, the man who bore the tax of the estate shall possess that estate and the former owner of the estate shall not raise any claim.§22 If the father is living, his daughter whether she be a high priestess, a priestess, or a hierodule shall dwell in his house like an heir.§24 If the second wife whom he had married bore him children, the dowry which she brought from her father's house belongs to her children but the children of his first wife and the children of his second wife shall divide the property of their father.§25 If a man married his wife and she bore him children and those children are living, a slave bore children for her master but the father granted freedom to the slave and her children, the children of the slave shall not divide the estate with the children of their former master.§27 If a man's wife has not borne him children but a harlot from the public square has borne him children, he shall provide grain and clothing for that harlot. The children which the harlot has borne him shall be his heirs, as long as his wife lives the harlot shall not live in the house with the wife.§29 If a son-in-law has entered the house of his father-in-law and afterwards they made him go out and gave his wife to his companion, they shall present to him the betrothal gifts which he brought and that wife may not marry his companion.§34 If a man rented an ox and injured the flesh at the nose ring, he shall pay one-third of its price.§35 If a man rented an ox and damaged its eye, he shall pay one-half its price.§36 If a man rented an ox and broke its horn, he shall pay one-fourth its price.§37 If a man rented an ox and damaged its tail, he shall pay one-fourth its price.
Isin Sumer Amorites Cuneiform law History of Sumer Sumerian people James R. Court, Codex Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Scholars Press, 1995. Francis R. Steele, The Code of Lipit Ishtar - University of Pennsylvania Museum Monographs, 1948 - includes complete text and analysis of all fragments