French Indochina

French Indochina known as the Indochinese Union from 1887 and the Indochinese Federation after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia. A grouping of the three Vietnamese regions of Tonkin and Cochinchina with Cambodia was formed in 1887. Laos came under French control in 1893 and became part of Indochina in 1899; the leased Chinese territory of Guangzhouwan was added in 1898. The capital was moved from Saigon to Hanoi in 1902 and again to Da Lat in 1939. In 1945 it was moved back to Hanoi. After the Fall of France during World War II, the colony was administered by the Vichy government and was under Japanese occupation until March 1945, when the Japanese overthrew the colonial regime. After the Japanese surrender, the Viet Minh, a communist organization led by Hồ Chí Minh, declared Vietnamese independence, but France subsequently took back control of French Indochina. An all-out independence war, known as the First Indochina War, broke out in late 1946 between French and Viet Minh forces.

In order to create a political alternative to the Viet Minh, the State of Vietnam, led by former Emperor Bảo Đại, was proclaimed in 1949. On 22 October and 9 November 1953, the Kingdom of Laos and Kingdom of Cambodia proclaimed their respective independence. Following the Geneva Accord of 1954, the French evacuated Vietnam and French Indochina came to an end. French–Vietnamese relations started during the early 17th century with the arrival of the Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes. Around this time, Vietnam had only just begun its "Push to the South"—"Nam Tiến", the occupation of the Mekong Delta, a territory being part of the Khmer Empire and to a lesser extent, the kingdom of Champa which they had defeated in 1471. European involvement in Vietnam was confined to trade during the 18th century, as the remarkably successful work of the Jesuit missionaries continued. In 1787, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, a French Catholic priest, petitioned the French government and organised French military volunteers to aid Nguyễn Ánh in retaking lands his family lost to the Tây Sơn.

Pigneau died in Vietnam but his troops fought on until 1802 in the French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh. The French colonial empire was involved in Vietnam in the 19th century. For its part, the Nguyễn dynasty saw Catholic missionaries as a political threat. In 1858, the brief period of unification under the Nguyễn dynasty ended with a successful attack on Tourane by French Admiral Charles Rigault de Genouilly under the orders of Napoleon III. Prior to the attack French diplomat Charles de Montigny's efforts to reach a peaceable solution had failed. Seeing no other recourse, France sent Genouilly forward in a military effort to end Vietnam's persecution and expulsion of Catholic missionaries. Fourteen French gunships, 3,300 men including 300 Filipino soldiers provided by the Spanish attacked the port of Tourane causing significant damage and occupying the city. After fighting the Vietnamese for three months and finding himself unable to progress further in land, de Genouilly sought and received approval of an alternative attack on Saigon.

Sailing to southern Vietnam, de Genouilly captured the poorly defended city of Saigon on February 17, 1859. Once again, however, de Genouilly and his forces were unable to conquest territory outside of the defensive perimeter of the city. De Genouilly was criticised for his actions and was replaced by Admiral Page in November 1859 with instructions to obtain a treaty protecting the Catholic faith in Vietnam while refraining from making territorial gains. Peace negotiations proved unsuccessful and the fighting in Saigon continued. In 1861, the French brought additional forces to bear in the Saigon campaign, advanced out of the city and began to capture cities in the Mekong Delta. On June 5, 1862, the Vietnamese conceded and signed the Treaty of Saigon whereby they agreed to legalize the free practice of the Catholic religion. In 1864 the aforementioned three provinces ceded to France were formally constituted as the French colony of Cochinchina. In 1867, French Admiral Pierre de la Grandière forced the Vietnamese to surrender three additional provinces, Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên and Vĩnh Long.

With these three additions all of southern Vietnam and the Mekong Delta fell under French control. In 1863, the Cambodian king Norodom had requested the establishment of a French protectorate over his country. In 1867, Siam renounced suzerainty over Cambodia and recognised the 1863 French protectorate on Cambodia, in exchange for the control of Battambang and Siem Reap provinces which became part of Thailand.. France obtained control over northern Vietnam following its victory over China in the Sino-French War. French Indochina was formed on 17 October 1887 from Annam, Tonkin and the Kingdom of Cambodia.


The Highly Magnified Woggle-Bug is a character in the Oz books by L. Frank Baum, he first appears in the book The Marvelous Land of Oz in 1904. He goes by the name H. M. Woggle-Bug, T. E.. In books the hyphen was sometimes dropped: "Wogglebug". In illustrations he is depicted wearing bright colors and several pairs of glasses on his elongated proboscis. According to The Marvelous Land of Oz, the Woggle-Bug was once a regular tiny woggle-bug, about the size of a pea, he lived the life of a normal insect until he crawled into a country schoolhouse and listened to the lessons and lectures the famous Professor Nowitall gave his pupils for about three years. One day the teacher found and caught him, decided to use him for an impromptu lesson on woggle-bugs. Nowitall put the bug under a microscope and projected his magnified image onto a screen with advanced technology; the bug was proud of his new size. While everyone rushed outside to see if she was all right, the bug secretly jumped off the screen and ran away.

He has remained magnified since. He found a tailor, after he saved the tailor's life in an unknown way, the tailor made him his first clothes, he founded and runs the Royal College of Art and Athletic Perfection known as the Royal College of Athletic Arts or the Royal College of Athletic Sciences, located in the western part of the Munchkin Country, not far from the Emerald City. He invented knowledge pills that give a student knowledge without having to attend lessons, so that the student's time can be applied to athletic pursuits. In Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, Woggle-Bug appears as the prosecutor in Princess Ozma's court. In The Road to Oz, Woggle-Bug is among the guests at Princess Ozma's birthday party; when the Woggle-bug is first introduced in The Marvelous Land of Oz, he is portrayed as having a charming disposition and a quirky and somewhat eccentric personality. He has a love of big words, Latin phrases and colorful puns relating to his immediate situation; these puns cause his companions a great deal of distress, in response to the aforementioned pun, "he Scarecrow gave a gasp and the Tin Woodman stopped short and looked reproachfully at the Woggle-Bug.

At the same time the Sawhorse loudly snorted in derision. Puns have been regarded as a sign of superior education and Baum uses the Woggle-Bug's puns to highlight his conceitedness regarding his own education; the Tinman threatens to murder the Woggle-Bug if he does not stop using his puns to show off. He is proud of his education, wants to put it to good use, he is always courteous and polite whatever the situation, cares about the well-being of others. In the Sunday comics series through the following year, the Woggle-Bug is depicted as leading his companions out of trouble, displaying his wisdom, doing random acts of kindness for the poor citizens of America; the Woggle-Bug, like many of Baum's characters, contains many contradictions. He is polite and courtly while at times being conceited and uncaring; when he next appears in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz as the prosecutor in Ozma's court, Baum decided to portray him as more pompous and arrogant, decidedly unlikeable. Baum was using him as a mocking of arrogance found in scholars.

The Emerald City of Oz features Dorothy, Aunt Em and Uncle Henry paying a visit to the Woggle-Bug at his academy. In the continuing Oz series, the Professor goes on no more adventures until the last of Baum's books, Glinda of Oz, in which he is given a harsh description as being so conceited no one cares to associate with him, he is no one's favorite in spite of his famous college of athletics. When Ruth Plumly Thompson took over the series after Baum's death, she portrayed him like this; when he sets into motion the plot of The Royal Book of Oz, he accuses the Scarecrow of lacking any ancestry for him to list in the Royal Genealogy. Authors have portrayed him in varying ways since, sometimes lovable as he was and sometimes arrogant, sometimes as just well-meaningly lofty; the Professor has a significant role in John R. Neill's The Runaway in Oz. To promote his new book The Marvelous Land of Oz, Baum wrote a series of short stories called Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz, with comics illustrations by Walt McDougall.

These stories were syndicated to newspapers across the country, appeared in the children's page of the Sunday comics. The stories ran from 28 August 1904 through 26 February 1905; the first seventeen of them ended with a bit of missing information and the question, "What did the Woggle-bug say?" One of the characters would ask the Woggle-Bug a question, readers were invited to guess the answer for a prize. The correct answer was given the following Sunday. Much publicity surrounded the contest including sheet music, pin-back buttons, postcards and more. Following the success of The Marvelous Land of Oz, Baum wrote a stage musical loosely based on the story; the new musical was called The Woggle-Bug and featured 26-year-old Fre


Krogerus is one of the largest business law firms in Finland. It has offices in Kuopio and Turku; the firm’s revenue was EUR 36 million, as of the financial period ending 31 March 2019. Krogerus employs 100 lawyers and 75 other staff; the firms practice covers a broad spectrum of transactional, dispute resolution and regulatory matters. Krogerus has a strong focus in the energy, finance and beverage, real estate and telecommunications sectors. Krogerus is retained in some of the most challenging and high-profile assignments in the Finnish market. Krogerus' lawyers are ranked in the top tiers by leading legal guides such as Chambers & Partners, The Legal 500 and IFLR 1000. In 2013, Krogerus won the Chambers Europe Award for Excellence in Finland; this was the first year Partners has presented this award in Finland. Krogerus has A practice groups in the Finnish market; the firm's partners have received awards such as Best Lawyers "Lawyer of the Year" and the International Law Office Client Choice Award.

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