French Parliament

The French Parliament is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate and the National Assembly. Each assembly conducts legislative sessions at a separate location in Paris: the Palais du Luxembourg for the Senate and the Palais Bourbon for the National Assembly; each house has its own rules of procedure. However, they may meet as a single house, the French Congress, convened at the Palace of Versailles, to revise and amend the Constitution of France. Parliament meets for a nine-month session each year. Under special circumstances the President can call an additional session. While parliamentary power has been diminished since the Fourth Republic, the National Assembly can still cause a government to fall if an absolute majority of the legislators votes a motion of no confidence; as a result, the government is from the same political party as the Assembly and must be supported by a majority there to prevent a vote of no-confidence. However, the President appoints the Prime Minister and the ministers and is under no constitutional, mandatory obligation to make those appointments from the ranks of the parliamentary majority party.

Rare periods during which the President is not from the same political party as the Prime Minister are known as cohabitation. The President rather than the prime minister heads the Cabinet of Ministers; the government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament. The government can link its term to a legislative text which it proposes, unless a motion of censure is introduced and passed, the text is considered adopted without a vote. However, this procedure has been limited by the 2008 constitutional amendment. Legislative initiative rests with the National Assembly. Legislators enjoy parliamentary immunity. Both assemblies have committees. If necessary, they can establish parliamentary enquiry commissions with broad investigative power. However, the latter possibility is never exercised, since the majority can reject a proposition by the opposition to create an investigation commission; such a commission may only be created if it does not interfere with a judiciary investigation, meaning that in order to cancel its creation, one just needs to press charges on the topic concerned by the investigation commission.

Since 2008, the opposition may impose the creation of an investigation commission once a year against the wishes of the majority. However, they still can't lead investigations; the French Parliament, as a legislative body, should not be confused with the various parlements of the Ancien Régime in France, which were courts of justice and tribunals with certain political functions varying from province to province and as to whether the local law was written and Roman, or customary common law. The word "Parliament", in the modern meaning of the term, appeared in France in the 19th century, at the time of the constitutional monarchy of 1830–1848, it is never mentioned in any constitutional text until the Constitution of the 4th Republic in 1948. Before that time reference was made to "les Chambres" or to each assembly, whatever its name, but never to a generic term as in Britain, its form – unicameral, bicameral, or multicameral – and its functions have taken different forms throughout the different political regimes and according to the various French constitutions: Constitution of France Government of France History of France Politics of France This article is based on the article Parlement français from the French Wikipedia, retrieved on 13 October 2006.

Frank R. Baumgartner, "Parliament's Capacity to Expand Political Controversy in France", Legislative Studies Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 33–54. JSTOR: 440044 Marc Abélès, Un ethnologue à l'Assemblée. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2000. An anthropological study of the French National Assembly, of its personnel, codes of behaviors and rites. Official website Site of the CHPP and of Parlement, Revue d'histoire politique

Morgan State Bears football

The Morgan State Bears football team competes in American football on behalf of Morgan State University. The Bears compete in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision as a member of the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference; the Bears play their home games at a 10,000 seat facility in Baltimore, Maryland. Morgan State began playing football in 1898; the team's all-time record is 379 losses and 38 ties. 173 of those wins came between 1929 and 1959 when Edward P. Hurt was the head coach and the Bears won 14 Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association championships. Earl Banks won four CIAA championships during the 1960s and an additional championship in 1971 after Morgan entered the MEAC; the Bears have won three MEAC Championships. 1950–1972: NCAA College Division 1955–1965: NAIA 1970–1984: NAIA Division I 1973–1985: NCAA Division II 1986–present: NCAA Division I–AA/FCS 1899–1928: Independent 1929–1970: Central Intercollegiate Athletics Association 1971–1978: Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference 1979–1983: Division II Independent 1984–present: Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference 1976, Morgan State played Grambling State in the first American college football game in Asia.

Morgan State lost 42 -- 16 in Japan. Morgan State and Howard University are historic rivals. Towson University and Morgan State share. Morgan State has made one appearance in the FCS playoffs. Coach Eddie P. Hurt took over the Morgan Bears football team in 1929, the next year his teams won the first of the 14 CIAA championships they would win with him at the helm. More Hurt, his assistant coach Talmadge L. Hill, built a program that allowed black athletes to show case their talents where such a venue had been non-existent before. From 1931 to 1938, Hurt coached the Bears to a 54-game win streak without a single loss. During his tenure, Morgan's football teams completed 11 seasons undefeated and, in the 1943 season, opponents failed to score a single point against the Bears. Hurt is a member of the HBCU coaches Hall of Fame and in 1952 Morgan named its new $1 million gymnasium facility after him. Earl Banks took Morgan football to the next level. Banks was the Head coach from 1960 to 1973, he coached the Bears to a 31-game winning streak, three unbeaten regular seasons, four CIAA titles, a MEAC championship, four bowl games.

Twice during his tenure, Morgan led the nation in total defense. 35 of Bank's players went on to play in the NFL, including Pro Football Hall of Famers Leroy Kelly and Willie Lanier. Banks was inducted into five sports Halls of Fame including the College Football Hall of Fame in 1992. Two Coaches have had winning records at Morgan since the departure of Banks at the end of the 1973 season; the Bears had suffered 23 straight seasons with a losing record until the arrival of former Coach Donald Hill-Eley whose first team had a 7–5 record in the 2002 season. Lee Hull was named head coach on January 8, 2014 and his first team went 7–5 and won a share of the MEAC championship and played in the NCAA FCS Playoffs. Fifty two former Morgan players have gone on to play professional football. Thirty eight players went to the NFL, eight to the CFL, three to the WFL and one each to the AAFC, the Arena Football League and the AIFA. At least one player has gone to the NFL every decade since 1950 from Morgan State.

Former Morgan Bears Len Ford, Leroy Kelly, Willie Lanier and Rosey Brown are members of the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. List of black college football classics Official website


Nein — Nain or Naim in English — is an Arab village in northern Israel. Located in the Lower Galilee, 14 kilometers south of Nazareth, Nein covers a land area of 1,000 dunums and falls under the jurisdiction of Bustan al-Marj Regional Council, whose headquarters it hosts, its total land area consisted of 3,737 dunums prior to 1962. According to the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2018 it had a population of 1,845. Nein lies a short distance from Mount Tabor. A hill known in Arabic as Tell el-Ajul lay on the path that ran between Nein and nearby Indur, an Arab village destroyed in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. Biblical archaeologist Edward Robinson describes Nein as lying on the northern slope of a hill called "the little Hermon", it is described in biblical guidebooks as lying at the foot of the Hill of Moreh. Edward Robinson and Eli Smith, who visited Palestine in the mid-19th century, identified Nein as, "the Nain of the New Testament" where, according to Luke 7:11–17, Jesus raised a young man from death and reunited him with his mother.

According to Luke's account, this young man was the only son of an unnamed widow. When Jesus saw the dead son being carried out and the mourning widow, he felt compassion for her, he walked towards the bier or stretcher, touched it, stopped the funeral procession and told the man: "Young man, I say to you, arise!" The man came alive, sat up, began to speak. The people who were standing around were all struck by the event, seen as a sign that'a great prophet' had arisen among them, the report of it spread across Judea and the surrounding region. Nain is not mentioned in the other canonical gospels. Rock-sunk tombs have been found here of Christian origin. Nein is mentioned in the writing of Jerome as being situated near Endor, its identity as a biblical site was recognized by the Crusaders, who built a church there to commemorate the site of the miracle, a church rebuilt by the Franciscans. In 1101, during the Crusader era, Prince of Galilee granted Nein together with several other villages to the abbey of Mount Tabor.

In 1153, it belonged to the Hospitallers. By 1263, the area was ruled by Baybars. Nein, like the rest of Palestine, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, in the census of 1596, the village was located in the nahiya of Safa in the liwa of Lajjun, it had a population of all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 25% on agricultural products, including wheat, summer crops, olive trees and beehives, in addition to winter pastures and occasional revenues. In 1838 Robinson and Smith noted that Nein had decreased in size over the ages, was at time a small hamlet, inhabited by a few families. In 1875 Victor Guérin saw here a ruined building. In the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine, Nein was described as a small village made of stone and adobe, with a small mosque, named Mukam Sidna Aisa, to the north. In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British authorities, Nain had a population of 157, all Muslims, increasing in the 1931 census to 189, still all Muslim, in a total of 34 houses.

In the 1945 statistics the population was 270, all Muslims, while the total land area was 4,687 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 87 dunams were for plantations and irrigable land, 3,602 for cereals, while 31 dunams were classified as built-up areas. Welcome To Na'in Survey of Western Palestine, Map 9: IAA, Wikimedia commons