The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution made a profound impression on the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of national defense; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in Fran
Cresta Run was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and broodmare. As a two-year-old in 1926 she showed steady improvement, winning two of her i races including the valuable Imperial Produce Stakes. On her three-year-old debut she recorded a impressive win in the 1000 Guineas but failed to reproduce her form in two subsequent races over longer distances, she had little immediate success as a broodmare but had a long-term influence on the breed though her daughter Gold Race. Cresta Run was a bay mare bred and owned by Giles Loder who owned the Eyresfield Stud in County Kildare. Throughout her racing career she was trained by Peter Gilpin at his Clarehaven Stable in Newmarket, Suffolk, she was described as a "charming filly" with "well-developed quarters" and an "intelligent head". She was from the sixth crop of foals sired by the unbeaten champion, Hurry On, making her a representative of the Godolphin Arabian sire line. Hurry On sired numerous other major winners including Captain Cuttle, Call Boy and Precipitation.
Cresta Run's dam Bridgemount produced Foxbridge, exported to New Zealand where he sired Hi Jinx and Foxzami. Cresta Run began her racing career by finishing unplaced behind Book Law in the Queen Mary Stakes at Royal Ascot in June, she was unplaced in the National Breeders' Produce Stakes and ran third in the Prince of Wales's Plate before recording her first success in the Highclere Nursery Handicap at Newbury Racecourse. On 8 October Cresta Run carried 127 pounds in the £3,797 Imperial Produce Stakes at Kempton Park Racecourse and won by three lengths from eleven opponents in a time of 1:13.00. At Newmarket Racecourse in that month she was matched against male opposition in the Middle Park Stakes but finished uplaced behind the colt Call Boy. Cresta Run ended the season with earnings of £4,880; the 114th running of 1000 Guineas over the Rowley Mile on 29 April attracted a field of twenty-eight runners and Cresta Run, ridden by Arthur Balding, started at odds of 10/1. She appeared somewhat nervous and agitated in the paddock before the race but started well and assumed the lead.
She was never challenged and won the race with "ridiculous ease" by two lengths from Book Law and Endowment, who dead-heated for second place. Her winning time of 1:38.0 was 0.2 seconds faster than that recorded by Adam's Apple in the 2000 Guineas over the same course. In the Oaks Stakes over one and a half miles at Epsom Racecourse Cresta Run started 3/1 second favourite behind Book Law; the large, noisy crowd, high temperatures and three false starts led her to become to become upset and after being left behind the other fillies at the start she finished last of the sixteen runners in a race won by Beam. That summer she was beaten by Cinq a Sept in the Irish Oaks. In their book, A Century of Champions, based on the Timeform rating system, John Randall and Tony Morris rated Cresta Run an "average" winner of the 1000 Guineas. Cresta Run run was retired from racing to become a broodmare. Gold Race had little success as a racehorse but had considerable influence as a broodmare, with her female-line descendants including Jupiter Island and Grand Lodge.
Betty Ross Clarke was an American stage and film actress. She appeared in more than 30 films between 1920 and 1940, including silent and sound films, in both credited and uncredited roles. Clarke was born in the daughter of Charles Willard Clarke and Cora Ross, her maternal grandfather was Leonard F. Ross, a brigadier general in the American Civil War, her maternal great-grandfather was Ossian M. Ross, a prominent pioneer settler in Illinois who founded the cities of Lewistown and Havana, Illinois. At the age of three, May Clarke moved with her family to Minneapolis, where she was educated in the local schools and at the Stanley Hall School, she studied dancing in New York City and spent a year on the vaudeville circuit. She had intended to pursue a career as a ballet dancer, but she had such success as a stage and film actress that she gave up the idea of dancing as a profession. On May 28, 1921, Betty Ross Clarke married Arthur Collins, a Los Angeles banker and former lieutenant in the British Royal Flying Corps.
The couple had met at a dinner party during the filming of Mother o' Mine. In 1923, Clarke and her husband moved to England, where she became a citizen and where she continued her career as a stage and film actress. In 1926, the couple moved to Australia. Arthur Collins and Betty Ross Clarke returned to the United States in July 1929 lured back to Hollywood by the "talkies." She resumed her film career performing as a supporting or character actress, but appearing in several uncredited roles. Her banker husband, adversely affected by the stock market crash of 1929, began producing plays, directing films, acting as a dialog director. In 1930, Betty Ross Clarke was honored as an "ardent feminist" at a luncheon of the San Francisco Center of the League of Women Voters, she was lauded for her support of voting rights for women though she herself could not vote in the United States because she did not have her citizenship papers. She became a naturalized U. S. citizen on December 28, 1934. By that time, Betty Ross Clarke and Arthur Collins were divorced.
Betty Ross Clarke died in Los Angeles, California on January 24, 1970. She was interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park in California. Clarke made her first appearance on the stage in a stock company in Nova Scotia, her stock engagements included performances in Pittsburgh. In 1916, she starred in Warmer, she made her Broadway debut on September 19, 1917, at the Comedy Theatre in the play The Family Exit, in the role of Evelyn de Gascoigne. She appeared in the play True to Form at the Bramhall Playhouse in September 1921, performed the role of Liane in The Red Poppy in Greenwich Village in December 1922. After moving to England with her husband in 1923, Clarke made her London stage debut on June 2, 1924, at the Royalty Theatre, in the role of Fifi Morgan in the play Bachelor Husbands. Other plays in which she appeared included: No Man's Land. In 1926, Clarke was engaged to appear in theaters in Australia, where she performed in the plays The Ghost Train, Baby Cyclone, The Bride, Tarnished. After returning to the United States in 1929, Clarke continued to perform on the stage while appearing in sound films.
She played a leading role in the play Death Takes a Holiday, directed by her husband. After her final film in 1940, she continued to perform in local theatrical productions. During the 1920s, Clarke appeared in 14 silent films, including 11 U. S. films, two British films and one German film. In the United States, she worked for film companies that included Famous Players-Lasky, Thomas H. Ince, Vitagraph Studios, she played the female lead in the film If I Were King opposite William Farnum and had other starring roles in silent films. Clarke's first screen role in a "talkie" was as the character Dot Aldrich in The Age for Love. During the 1930s, she appeared in more than 20 sound films, including both feature films and short films, she played character roles, both credited and uncredited. Of note, she replaced the actress Sara Haden as Aunt Millie in two feature length Andy Hardy films. Betty Ross Clarke was billed in screen credits as Betsy Ross Clarke or Betty Ross Clark, her name appears as Betty Ross-Clarke in some databases.
Throughout her career, Clarke performed on both the theater stage and in films during the same time period. A newspaper advertisement in 1922 noted that audience members could "see her on stage and screen at the same time," because she was performing in the play The Morning Him and starring in the film At the Sign of the Jack O'Lantern. Commenting on the difference between stage and film acting, Clarke remarked that the "silent drama affords an easier life to those who choose it, for one has the nights free, to do as one likes. On the boards an actor's or actresses's time is always taken up."Most of the silent films in which Clarke was cast have not survived. However, at least two of her films, If I Were King and Mother o' Mine, are preserved in the silent film archive of the Library of Congress. Another print of Mother o' Mine is housed in the UCLA Film and Television Archive, a full copy of the silent film The Traveling Salesman, with Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle in the leading role, is in the George Eastman House Motion Picture Collection in Rochester, New York.