Hotchkiss M1929 machine gun
The 13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine gun was a heavy machine gun designed and manufactured by Hotchkiss et Cie from the late 1920s until World War II and saw service with various nations' forces, including Italy and Japan where the gun was built under license. In the late 1920s, Hotchkiss proposed a range of anti-aircraft automatic weapons in the 13.2, 25 and 37 mm calibers. They were all based on the same type of gas-operated action; the 8 mm mle 1914 machine gun had proven reliable during World War I and was still in service. The gun started with a 13.2 x 99 cartridge but in 1935 changed over to a 13.2 x 96 cartridge. The majority of guns were fed from overhead 30 round curved box magazines; the guns had a cyclic rate of fire of 450 rounds per minute but their sustained rate of fire was 200-250 rounds per minute due to the need to change magazines which limited their rate of fire. The guns came in a number of different configurations depending on their intended role. There were single and quadruple barreled anti-aircraft weapons on a high-angle pedestal and tripod mounts as well as low-angle bi-pod mounts for anti-tank and heavy machine gun roles.
French infantry commanders that had expressed interest in acquiring light anti-aircraft guns refused to accept the 13.2 mm. They argued that those heavy bullets falling down could be dangerous to friendly troops, went to larger calibers where self-destructing shells were available, but the 13.2 mm Hotchkiss saw extensive use as a naval gun and was chosen by the French cavalry for some of its armored vehicles. The French Air Force used designated as mitrailleuse de 13.2 mm CA mle 1930, for close-range defense of its airfields and other strategic places. It came in two versions: The first was a single gun with a stock and pistol grip that came in a dual-purpose anti-aircraft/anti-armor mounting, it had a two-wheeled split-trailed carriage that weighed 117 kg empty and 155 kg with the machine-gun mounted. When the swing-arm the gun was affixed to was locked upwards, it could be used in an anti-aircraft mode; when the arm was collapsed and a bipod extended it could fire straight ahead in an anti-tank role.
When the gun was packed up and the trails closed, it was towed behind its caisson, pulled by a horse or by the gunner. Second was a fixed tripod mount with a seat and anti-aircraft sight for the gunner, it came in a single mount 120 kg empty, 160 kg mounted. Or a double mount 225 kg empty, 300 kg mounted. Early in World War II, the French and Japanese navies were using twin and quadruple mountings on many of their warships. French warships that were refitted in the United States in 1943, such as the battleship Richelieu or the destroyer Le Terrible, had their 13.2 mm machine guns replaced by more powerful Oerlikon 20 mm cannons. In Italy, the Società Italiana Ernesto Breda produced the gun under license as the Breda Mod.31 from 1931 onwards. It was used as an anti-aircraft gun aboard ships and armored trains Royal Italian Navy. After World War II it was used on the patrol boats of the Guardia di Finanza naval service; the Spanish Navy used it during the Civil War. The "Pirotecnia Militar" Army Ammunition plant produced its cartridges after 1939.
Several self-propelled anti-aircraft combinations were tested in the 1930s, with Citroën-Kegresse or Berliet chassis, but none was mass-manufactured. The 13.2 mm Hotchkiss was used on the Belgian T15 and the French AMR 35, light tanks as well as the AMD Laffly 80 AM armored car and on fortifications. The Free French used field-modified self-propelled mountings, with guns recovered from French ships, in North-East Africa in 1942; the Breda Mod.31 was used as an anti-aircraft and heavy machine gun on command tanks of the Royal Italian Army as well as on L3/33 light tanks sold to Brazil. The Japanese mounted license-produced version of the gun on a number of Type 92 Heavy armored Cars, armed with only a pair of 6.5mm machine guns. Belgium Brazil France Nazi Germany - Captured French guns were designated MG 271. Greece Israel Italy - Built under license as the Breda Model 1931 machine gun. Japan - Built under license as the Type 93 machine gun. Poland - Designated the wz.30. Republic of China Romania - 200 delivered before the Fall of France.
Spain Kingdom of Yugoslavia Anti-aircraft 25 mm Hotchkiss anti-aircraft gun - A related French anti-aircraft gun. Type 96 25 mm AT/AA Gun - A related Japanese anti-aircraft gun. Ferrard, Stéphane. France 1940 l'armement terrestre, ETAI, 1998, ISBN 978-2-7268-8380-8 "Las armas de la guerra civil española", José MAría MANRIQUE, ISBN 84-9734-475-8, pages 394 -398
The Levasseur PL.7 was a torpedo bomber developed in France in the late 1920s. It was a development of Levasseur's PL.4 reconnaissance aircraft and intended to replace their PL.2 in service with the Aéronavale. It was a single-bay biplane of conventional design, but incorporating safety features for naval operation, including jetissonable main undercarriage units, a watertight, boat-shaped fuselage, small floats on the undersides of the lower wings; the first flight was in 1928, during testing, aspects of the design underwent fine-tuning, including engine choice and the design of the wing struts and tail fin. Presented to the Navy, an order for 15 aircraft was placed in 1929. However, the Navy had reservations about the wing design, ordered five of these machines to be delivered with their spans shortened from the 18.00 m original down to 16.50 m and built to different wing areas, a sixth machine with its span shortened to 17.25 m. These miscellaneous types were all put into service together aboard the carrier Béarn in July 1930.
After testing, one of the 16.50 m wing designs was selected as the standard, 30 new aircraft were ordered with this wing. Ten of the existing PL.7s were thus modified. The PL.7s were grounded in July 1931 after two aircraft had disintegrated in flight, losses that were attributed to vibration problems. They were returned to service in September 1932 having reinforced wing bracing and engine mounts, new three-bladed metal propellers. In 1934, they were relegated to shore duties, but were put aboard the Béarn again in 1936, where they were still in service at the outbreak of the Second World War. Levasseur displayed an aircraft at the 1926 Salon de l'Aéronautique dubbed the PL.7T and promoted as an airliner. This was fitted with a Gnome et Rhône 9A Jupiter engine and had a revised fuselage with side-by-side seating for a pilot and mechanic and enclosed cabin for six passengers. This, was a PL.4 specially modified for the show. It was scrapped afterwards, never having flown. PL.7 18.5 m span, Farman 12We powered.
PL.7 18 m span, Hispano-Suiza 12Lbr powered. PL.7 17.25 m span, Hispano-Suiza 12Lbr powered. PL.7 16.5 m span, Hispano-Suiza 12Lbr powered. PL.7T An airliner derivative exhibitted at the 1926 Salon de l'Aéronautique, with side-by-side seating for a pilot and mechanic and enclosed cabin for six passengers, powered by a Gnome et Rhône 9A Jupiter. FranceAéronavale Escadrille 7B1 Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 1928, Aviafrance:Levasseur PL 7General characteristics Crew: 3 Length: 11.68 m Upper wingspan: 18.5 m Lower wingspan: 13.6 m Width: 14.2 m upper wing-tips folded Height: 4.9 m Wing area: 77.5 m2 Empty weight: 2,800 kg Gross weight: 3,650 kg Powerplant: 1 × Farman 12We W-12 water-cooled piston engine, 410 kW Performance Maximum speed: 170 km/h Range: 645 km Service ceiling: 2,900 m Time to altitude: 5 hours Wing loading: 47.1 kg/m2 Armament Guns: 2 × trainable, rearward-firing machine guns in rear cockpit Bombs: 1 × 400 mm or 450 mm torpedo Related lists List of Interwar military aircraft
La Seyne-sur-Mer, or La Seyne is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. It is part of the agglomeration of Toulon, is situated adjacent to the west of this city, it owed its importance to the shipbuilding trade, the Société des Forges et Chantiers de la Mediterranée having here one of the finest shipbuilding yards in Europe, which gave employment to about 3,000 workers. In recent years the town has moved from its traditional industries to tourism; the docks used have had extensive work and now comprise a park, marinas and a new hotel overlooking Toulon and the marinas. The population is diverse in origins and the outer suburbs are undergoing a transformation with old multi storey apartments being replaced with modern developments. La Seyne has Gare de La Seyne-Six-Fours, on the line from Toulon to Marseille. Iraq's "Osiris class" nuclear reactors destroyed by Israel in Operation Opera, were built in La Seyne-sur-Mer. Pont basculant de la Seyne-sur-Mer, a former bascule bridge.
Jean Gaspard de Vence Napoléon Bonaparte George Sand Michel Pacha Henri Rieunier Maurice Tranchant de Lunel, French architect died in La Seyne Jean Marquet Henri Olive Tamari Édouard Jauffret Fernand Bonifay Gabriel Pérès Pierre Moustiers Johannès Galland Henri Tisot Andrzej "André" Orliński, Polish adventurer and philosopher Valerie Hirschfield Léon Loppy Marcus Malte Frédéric Meyrieu Gérald Orsoni Patrice Collazo Marc Zanotti Sylvain Prudhomme, French writer Sébastien Squillaci Mohamed Sy Camille Traversa Pascal Ragondet John Revox Sébastien Bisciglia Alexis Farjaudon Bafétimbi Gomis, footballer playing for Al-Hilal FC Fabien Lamatina Pier-Nicol Feldis Jérôme J. Dufourg Bruno Lancelle Emmanuel Ragondet Mickaël Ivaldi Nampalys Mendy Gaël Fickou Communes of the Var department INSEE This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Seyne sur Mer". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 756. Official website LaSeyne. Info Tourist office website Personal website about the history of La Seyne-sur-Mer Website about the history and directory of La Seyne-sur-Mer
French battleship Dunkerque
Dunkerque was the lead ship of the Dunkerque class of battleships built for the French Navy in the 1930s. The class included Strasbourg; the two ships were the first capital ships to be built by the French Navy after World War I. Dunkerque was laid down in December 1932, was launched October 1935, was completed in May 1937, she was armed with a main battery of eight 330mm/50 Modèle 1931 guns arranged in two quadruple gun turrets and had a top speed of 29.5 knots. Dunkerque and Strasbourg formed the French Navy's 1ère Division de Ligne prior to the Second World War; the two ships searched for German commerce raiders in the early months of the war, Dunkerque participated in convoy escort duties. The ship was badly damaged during the British attack at Mers-el-Kébir after the Armistice that ended the first phase of France's participation in World War II, but she was refloated and repaired to return to Toulon for comprehensive repairs. Dunkerque was scuttled in November 1942 to prevent her capture by the Germans, subsequently seized and scrapped by the Italians and the Germans.
Her wreck remained in Toulon until she was stricken in 1955, scrapped three years later. The French Navy's design staff spent the decade following the 1922 Washington Naval Treaty attempting to produce a satisfactory design to fill 70,000 tons as allowed by the treaty; the French sought a reply to the Italian Trento-class cruisers of 1925, but all proposals were rejected. A 17,500-ton cruiser, which could have handled the Trentos, was inadequate against the old Italian battleships and the 37,000-ton battlecruiser concepts were prohibitively expensive and would jeopardize further naval limitation talks; these attempts were followed by an intermediate design for a 23,690-ton protected cruiser in 1929. Visually, it bore a profile strikingly similar to the final Dunkerque; the German Deutschland-class cruisers became the new focus for French naval architects in 1929. The design had to respect the 1930 London Naval Treaty, which limited the French to two 23,333-ton ships until 1936. Drawing upon previous work, the French developed a 23,333-ton design armed with 305 mm guns, armoured against the German cruisers' 280 mm guns, with a speed of 30 kn.
As with the final Dunkerque, the main artillery was concentrated forward. The design was sent back for revision; the final revision grew to 26,500 tons. Parliamentary approval was granted in early 1932, Dunkerque was ordered on 26 October. Dunkerque displaced 26,500 t as built and 35,500 t loaded, with an overall length of 214.5 m, a beam of 31.08 m and a maximum draft of 8.7 m. She was powered by four Parsons geared steam turbines and six oil-fired Indret boilers, which developed a total of 112,500 shaft horsepower and yielded a maximum speed of 29.5 kn. Her crew numbered between 1,381 and 1,431 men; the ship carried a pair of spotter aircraft on the fantail, the aircraft facilities consisted of a steam catapult and a crane to handle the floatplanes. The floatplanes were Gourdou-Leseurre GL-832 HY, Loire 130, she was armed with eight 330mm/50 Modèle 1931 guns arranged in two quadruple gun turrets, both of which were placed in a superfiring pair forward of the superstructure. Her secondary armament consisted of sixteen 130 mm /45 dual-purpose guns.
The quadruple turrets were placed on the stern, the twin turrets were located amidships. Close range antiaircraft defense was provided by a battery of eight 37 mm guns in twin mounts and thirty-two 13.2 mm guns in quadruple mounts. The ship's belt armor was 225 mm thick amidships, the main battery turrets were protected by 330 mm of armor plate on the faces; the main armored deck was 115 mm thick, the conning tower had 270 mm thick sides. Dunkerque was modified several times throughout her short career. In 1937, a funnel cap was added and four of the 37 mm guns, which were the Modèle 1925 variant, were removed; these were replaced the following year with new Modèle 1933 guns. The 13.2 mm guns were rearranged with the two mounts that were located abreast of the second main battery turret moved further aft. A new 14 m rangefinder was installed in 1940 on the fore tower. Dunkerque was laid down in the Brest Navy Yard, on 24 December 1932, in the Salou graving dock number 4; the hull was completed except for the forward-most 17 m section.
She was launched on 2 October 1935 and towed to Laninon graving dock number 8, where the bow was fitted. Sea trials were carried out, starting on 18 April 1936; the trials lasted until late-April 1937. Dunkerque represented France at the British Naval Review in May 1937, marking the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth; that month on May 27, she took part in another review off Île de Sein, where the French Mediterranean and Atlantic squadrons were assembled following combined exercises.
Port and starboard
Port and starboard are nautical and aeronautical terms of orientation that deal unambiguously with the structure of vessels and aircraft. Their structures are bilaterally symmetrical, meaning they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided long-ways down the middle. One asymmetric feature is that on aircraft and ships where access is at the side, this access is only provided on the port side. To understand, which, when a person is on board and facing the bow on a vessel or aircraft, that is, facing forward towards the direction the vehicle is heading when underway, the port side is the left-hand side and the starboard side is the right-hand side; however and starboard never change. The term starboard derives from the Old English steorbord, meaning the side on which the ship is steered. Before ships had rudders on their centrelines, they were steered with a steering oar at the stern of the ship on the right hand side of the ship, because more people are right-handed. Since the steering oar was on the right side of the boat, it would tie up at the wharf on the other side.
Hence the left side was called port. The Oxford English Dictionary cites port in this usage since 1543. Larboard was used instead of port; this is from Middle English ladebord and the term lade is related to the modern load. Larboard sounds similar to starboard and in 1844 the Royal Navy ordered that port be used instead; the United States Navy followed suit in 1846. Larboard continued to be used well into the 1850s by whalers. An Anglo-Saxon record of a voyage by Ohthere of Hålogaland used the word "bæcbord" for the left side of a ship; the navigational treaty convention, the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea—for instance, as appears in the UK's Merchant Shipping Regulations 1996 —sets forth requirements for maritime vessels to avoid collisions, whether by sail or powered, whether a vessel is overtaking, approaching head-on, or crossing. To set forth these navigational rules, the terms starboard and port are essential, to aid in in situ decision-making, the two sides of each vessel are marked, dusk to dawn, by navigation lights, the vessel's starboard side by green and its port side by red.
Aircraft are lit in the same way. Anatomical terms of location, another example of terms of directionality that do not depend on the location of the observer for things that are bilaterally symmetrical Direction Glossary of nautical terms Handedness Laterality Proper right and proper left Reflection symmetry Sinistral and dextral
A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884; because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is suited to be used to drive an electrical generator—about 85% of all electricity generation in the United States in the year 2014 was by use of steam turbines. The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in thermodynamic efficiency from the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the steam, which results in a closer approach to the ideal reversible expansion process; the first device that may be classified as a reaction steam turbine was little more than a toy, the classic Aeolipile, described in the 1st century by Hero of Alexandria in Roman Egypt. In 1551, Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt described a steam turbine with the practical application of rotating a spit. Steam turbines were described by the Italian Giovanni Branca and John Wilkins in England.
The devices described by Taqi al-Din and Wilkins are today known as steam jacks. In 1672 an impulse steam turbine driven car was designed by Ferdinand Verbiest. A more modern version of this car was produced some time in the late 18th century by an unknown German mechanic. In 1775 at Soho James Watt designed a reaction turbine, put to work there. In 1827 the Frenchmen Real and Pichon constructed a compound impulse turbine; the modern steam turbine was invented in 1884 by Sir Charles Parsons, whose first model was connected to a dynamo that generated 7.5 kW of electricity. The invention of Parsons' steam turbine made cheap and plentiful electricity possible and revolutionized marine transport and naval warfare. Parsons' design was a reaction type, his patent was the turbine scaled-up shortly after by an American, George Westinghouse. The Parsons turbine turned out to be easy to scale up. Parsons had the satisfaction of seeing his invention adopted for all major world power stations, the size of generators had increased from his first 7.5 kW set up to units of 50,000 kW capacity.
Within Parson's lifetime, the generating capacity of a unit was scaled up by about 10,000 times, the total output from turbo-generators constructed by his firm C. A. Parsons and Company and by their licensees, for land purposes alone, had exceeded thirty million horse-power. A number of other variations of turbines have been developed that work with steam; the de Laval turbine accelerated the steam to full speed before running it against a turbine blade. De Laval's impulse turbine does not need to be pressure-proof, it can operate with any pressure of steam, but is less efficient. Auguste Rateau developed a pressure compounded impulse turbine using the de Laval principle as early as 1896, obtained a US patent in 1903, applied the turbine to a French torpedo boat in 1904, he taught at the École des mines de Saint-Étienne for a decade until 1897, founded a successful company, incorporated into the Alstom firm after his death. One of the founders of the modern theory of steam and gas turbines was Aurel Stodola, a Slovak physicist and engineer and professor at the Swiss Polytechnical Institute in Zurich.
His work Die Dampfturbinen und ihre Aussichten als Wärmekraftmaschinen was published in Berlin in 1903. A further book Dampf und Gas-Turbinen was published in 1922; the Brown-Curtis turbine, an impulse type, developed and patented by the U. S. company International Curtis Marine Turbine Company, was developed in the 1900s in conjunction with John Brown & Company. It was used in John Brown-engined merchant ships and warships, including liners and Royal Navy warships; the present-day manufacturing industry for steam turbines is dominated by Chinese power equipment makers. Harbin Electric, Shanghai Electric, Dongfang Electric, the top three power equipment makers in China, collectively hold a majority stake in the worldwide market share for steam turbines in 2009-10 according to Platts. Other manufacturers with minor market share include Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Alstom, General Electric, Doosan Škoda Power, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Toshiba; the consulting firm Frost & Sullivan projects that manufacturing of steam turbines will become more consolidated by 2020 as Chinese power manufacturers win increasing business outside of China.
Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small <0.75 kW units used as mechanical drives for pumps and other shaft driven equipment, to 1.5 GW turbines used to generate electricity. There are several classifications for modern steam turbines. Turbine blades are of two basic types and nozzles. Blades move due to the impact of steam on them and their profiles do not converge; this results in a steam velocity drop and no pressure drop as steam moves through the blades. A turbine composed of blades alternating with fixed nozzles is called an impulse turbine, Curtis turbine, Rateau turbine, or Brown-Curtis turbine. Nozzles appear similar to blades; this results in a steam pressure velocity increase as steam moves through the nozzles. Nozzles move due to both the impact of steam on them and the reaction due to the high-velocity steam at the exit. A turbine composed of moving nozzles alternating with fixed nozzles is called a reaction turbine or Parsons turbine. Except for low-power applications, turbine blades are arranged in multiple stages in series, called c
History of the French Navy
Although the history of the French Navy goes back to the Middle Ages, its history can be said to begin with Richelieu under Louis XIII. Since the establishment of her present territory, France had to face three major challenges on the naval level: Geographically France had two large sections of coastline separated by the Iberian Peninsula, so she had to keep two naval forces and divide resources between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Politically and strategically France's main threats came from Central Europe which required a strong army rather than a strong navy. Inconsistent support for her navy. To be effective, navies require infrastructure, dockyards, foundries which must be maintained in peacetime. Officers and crews need plenty of experience at sea. Shortage of resources and political misunderstanding damaged the service, creating created a series of brilliant eras followed by disasters; the history of the French Navy can be divided into the following eras: The creation of the first actual State Navy, under Louis XIII, thanks to the politics of Richelieu.
This navy was ruined by the troubles of the Fronde. A rebuilt and brilliant era under Louis XIV thanks to Jean-Baptiste Colbert; the effort was not pursued under the Régence of Philippe d'Orléans and the beginning of the reign of Louis XV. A period of rebirth under the impulsion of Choiseul, which culminated under Louis XVI with de Grasse's victory over the British during the American Revolutionary War. In the same period, explorers like Bougainville expanded French geography, naval maps, founded outposts; the downfall occurred during the French Revolution and the First Empire, leaving the British with a century of undisputed domination of the seas. Under Napoleon III, a modern navy was built, taking advantage of new technologies like steam and ship armour, which made elder fleets obsolete; this force was an important instrument in the constitution and keeping of the French Empire. The fleet maintained a high standard, between the two world wars, a significant effort was made counter the threat of the German and Italian navies.
With the Fall of France, most of the Navy never got a chance to fight, what survived Mers-el-Kebir was annihilated in the scuttling of the French fleet at Toulon. The French Navy is affectionately known as La Royale; the reason is not well known: it might be for its traditional attachment to the French monarchy. Medieval fleets, in France as elsewhere, were entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into naval service in time of war, but the early beginning of the French Navy goes back to the Middle Ages, when it defeated the English Navy at the Battle of Arnemuiden, on 23 September 1338. The Battle of Arnemuiden was the first naval battle using artillery. During the reign of Henry IV, France was in an unstable state, striving to guarantee her independence from Spanish and papal influences; this prompted both an emphasis on land forces, which drained resources, an alliance with England, which would have unfavourably seen France challenging her naval supremacy. When Richelieu became Minister of the Navy, he decided on a plan to rebuild a powerful navy, divided into two distinct forces.
The Mediterranean force was to be composed of galleys, to take advantage of the calm sea. The plan called for 40 galleys, but was downsized to 24 of them, notably because of a lack of galley slaves — each galley was 400 or 500 slave strong; the oceanic force was to be composed of men-of-war. The designs were moderately large ships, for a lack of harbours fit for large units, but heavily armed with large calibre guns; the first ships were ordered from the Dutch, French production started with the famous Couronne, a prestige ship typical of this era. In 1627, the Navy was not ready to challenge the English fleet at the Siege of La Rochelle, which led to the construction of a seawall to establish a blockade. Fleets of this period were largely composed of merchant vessels, hastily loaded with cannons and poorly handled. With newly built ships, designed as ships of war and crewed by sailors and trained gunners, fighting experience was gained in the Franco-Spanish War and the Thirty Years' War with notable victories at the Battle of Cádiz won by France's first Grand Admiral Jean Armand de Maillé-Brézé, son of Marshall Urbain de Maillé-Brézé and nephew of Cardinal Richelieu.
The Navy built a French empire, conquering the "Nouvelle-Guyenne", "Nouvelle France", Martinique, several other islands in the Caribbean, the Bahamas, Madagascar. Under the tutelage of the "Sun King," the French Navy was well financed and equipped, managing to score several early victories in the Nine Years' War against the Royal Navy and the Dutch Navy. Financial troubles, forced the navy back to port and allowed the English and the Dutch to regain the initiative. Under the impulsion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert's ambitious policy of ship building, the French Navy began to gain a magnificence matching the symbolism of the Louis XIV era, as well as an actual military significance; the ship of the line Soleil Royal is illustrative of the trend of the time. Colbert is credited with forging a good part of the naval tradition