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French conquest of Algeria

The French conquest of Algeria took place between 1830 and 1857. In 1827, an argument between Hussein Dey, the ruler of the Ottoman Regency of Algiers, the French consul escalated into a naval blockade, following which France invaded and seized Algiers in 1830, took control of other coastal communities. Amid internal political strife in France, decisions were taken to retain control over the territory, additional military forces were brought in over the following years to quell resistance in the interior of the country. Algerian resistance forces were divided between forces under Ahmed Bey ben Mohamed Chérif at Constantine in the east, nationalist forces in Kabylie and the west. Treaties with the nationalists under `Abd al-Qādir enabled the French to first focus on the elimination of the remaining Ottoman threat, achieved with the 1837 capture of Constantine. Abd Al-Qādir continued to give stiff resistance in the west. Driven into Morocco in 1842, by large-scale and heavy-handed French military action, he continued to wage a guerrilla war until the Moroccan government, under French diplomatic pressure following its defeat in the First Franco-Moroccan War, drove him out of Morocco.

He surrendered to French forces in 1847. The territory now known as Algeria was only under the Ottoman Empire's control in 1830; the dey ruled the entire Regency of Algiers, but only exercised direct control in and around Algiers, with Beyliks established in a few outlying areas, including Oran and Constantine. The remainder of the territory, while nominally Ottoman, was under the control of local Arab leaders; the dey acted independently of the Ottoman Emperor, although he was supported by Turkish Janissary troops stationed in Algiers. The territory was bordered to the west by the Sultanate of Morocco and to the east by the Ottoman Regency of Tunis; the western border, the Tafna River, was porous since there were shared tribal connections that crossed it. The Regency of Algiers was one of the main bases of the Barbary pirates and Barbary Slave Traders who attacked Christian ships and coastal settlements in the Mediterranean and North Atlantic. Like the rest of the Barbary Coast, the Regency of Algiers lived from the trade of slaves or goods captured from Europe and sub-Saharan Africa.

The European powers bombarded Algiers on different occasions in retaliation and the United States provoked the Barbary Wars in order to put an end to Algerian privateering against Christian shipping. The conquest of Algeria began in the last days of the Bourbon Restoration by Charles X of France, it aimed to put a definite end to Barbary privateering and increase the king's popularity among the French people in Paris, where many veterans of the Napoleonic Wars lived. Algerian slave trade and piracy ceased after the French conquered Algiers. In 1795–96, the French Republic contracted to purchase wheat for the French army from two Jewish merchants in Algiers, Charles X was uninterested in paying the Republic's debt; the merchants, who had debts to Hussein Dey, the Ottoman ruler of Algiers, claimed inability to pay those debts until France paid its debts to them. The dey unsuccessfully negotiated with Pierre Deval, the French consul, to rectify this situation, suspected Deval of collaborating with the merchants against him since the French government made no provision to pay the merchants in 1820.

Deval's nephew Alexandre, the consul in Bône, further angered the dey by fortifying French storehouses in Bône and La Calle despite prior agreements. After a contentious meeting on 29 April 1827 in which Deval refused to provide satisfactory answers, the dey struck Deval with his fly-whisk. Charles X used this slight against his diplomatic representative to first demand an apology from the dey, to initiate a blockade against the port of Algiers; the blockade lasted for three years, was to the detriment of French merchants who were unable to do business with Algiers, while Barbary pirates were still able to evade the blockade. When France in 1829 sent an ambassador to the dey with a proposal for negotiations, he responded with cannon fire directed toward one of the blockading ships; the French decided that more forceful action was required. Following the failure of the ambassador's visit, Charles appointed as President Jules, Prince de Polignac, a hardline conservative; this outraged the liberal French opposition, which had a majority in the Chamber of Deputies.

Polignac opened negotiations with Muhammad Ali of Egypt to divide up North Africa. Ali, although nominally a vassal of the Ottomans rejected this idea; as popular opinion continued to rise against Polignac and the King, they decided that a foreign policy victory such as the capture of Algiers would turn opinion in their favour again. Admiral Duperré took command in Toulon of an armada of 600 ships and headed for Algiers. Following a plan for the invasion of Algeria developed under Napoleon in 1808, General de Bourmont landed 34,000 soldiers 27 kilometres west of Algiers, at Sidi Ferruch, on 14 June 1830. To face the French, the dey sent 7,000 janissaries, 19,000 troops from the beys of Constantine and Oran, about 17,000 Kabyles; the French established a strong beachhead and pushed toward Algiers, thanks in part to superior artillery and better organization. On 19 June the French defeated the dey's army at the battle of Staouéli, entered Algiers on 5 July after a three-week campaign; the dey accepted capitulation in exchange for his freedom and the offer to retain possession of his personal wealth.

Five days h

Keirsten Alley

Keirsten Alley is an American former professional tennis player. Alley, who comes from Melrose, played college tennis for UC Berkeley. A four-time All-American, she won two Pac-10 doubles championships partnering Pam Nelson and with the same player was an NCAA doubles semi-finalist in 1995. From 1995 to 1997, Alley competed on the professional tour and reached a best singles ranking of 276, winning ITF titles in Curaçao and Santo Domingo; as a doubles player she made a WTA Tour main draw appearance at the 1997 Stanford Classic with Laxmi Poruri. Keirsten Alley at the Women's Tennis Association Keirsten Alley at the International Tennis Federation

Michael McCafferty

Michael McCafferty is an American entrepreneur, inventor known as the "Father of CRM", programmer most well known for his work in presiding over Technitrol, Inc.'s subsidiary called Eastern Data Processing and for creating the software product TeleMagic. After graduating from college, he went on to work at IBM, which led to him getting employment at Technitrol, Inc. After an unsuccessful service called Product & Area Locator, he filed for bankruptcy on March 17, 1983, went on to create TeleMagic under his company Remote Control International, met with positive reception both in terms of sales figures as well as customer reception; this success led the company and the software it created to be purchased by The Sage Group. During his college years, he worked on entrepreneurial endeavors, including a birthday cake delivery service, a restaurant, advertising, he works as a mentor to other businesspeople. Michael McCafferty was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on September 7, 1942 to Verna M. McCafferty and Charles F. McCafferty.

He is the second oldest of six siblings. He has two children and resides in Del Mar, California. In his early life, McCafferty worked on repairing bicycles with his brother, in high school, he worked at a gas station, he was accepted into Mount St. Mary's College in September 1960, he went into multiple career paths during college, including selling advertising space to local retailers on desk bottlers, birthday cake sales and delivery, a restaurant called "The Purple Onion." McCafferty was employed by IBM as a salesperson. He became a top producer at IBM, he sold computers in multiple states, including Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Maryland, he used his career at IBM to learn more about computers and running a business. In his career, he left his job at IBM and began working on his own business ventures. McCafferty got a job as a solo programmer at Technitrol, Inc. in Philadelphia programming on an IBM 1130 computer. The company's president hired him due to his own lack of experience with programming, McCafferty's background with IBM and his understanding of the programming language FORTRAN.

After a year employed as programmer and manager of the Data Processing department, he and the President of Technitrol decided to form a company in 1968 called Eastern Data Processing as a subsidiary of Technitrol when McCafferty was only 26. The goal of this company was to provide computerized payroll services to businesses, it was intended to compete with a similar business called "Automatic Data Processing". McCafferty was the company's President, he had a 20% share in the company. In the first six months of the company's operation, the company saw $400,000 in losses, due in part to the fact that much of its business was not related to its intended business structure; as such, the company did not have a product to sell. The Technitrol President allowed him to continue working with the company, though with a new vision for it. McCafferty spent the next six years building a profitable business. In spite of these problems that the business faced early on, the combined success of it and other subsidiaries of Technitrol contributed to the parent company's success.

The company experienced a 125% increase in sales between 1972 and 1973, an increase from $4.7 million to $10.6 million. Profits increased from $107,000 to $466,000; when his employer, E. Stuart Eichert, died, McCafferty learned that his promised shares in the company were not set in writing, thus he lost his ownership in the company, he quit immediately. The first prototype for EDP ran on an IBM 360 Model 30 with IBM 2311 disk storage drives and two Tape Drives, was programmed in COBOL. During seven years, it grew to support three-shift work-days and was used for thousands of companies’ payrolls; when he left EDP, he went to work in Chicago, Illinois to work for Robert F. White & Company as the company's Vice President of Operations. In his new position, he was tasked with converting physical punch cards to tape/disk payroll files. After working there for 2 years, he moved to San Diego for the weather. Michael filed for Chapter 7 personal bankruptcy on March 17, 1983. Following his filing, Michael went on to work on and invent the earliest known contact management software product for the PC called TeleMagic, made for use by salespeople and entrepreneurs so that they can keep track of customers.

The product was marketed by Remote Control International. The software was intended to be sold to telemarketers, but became popular for more sales markets; the program could be used in conjunction with other pieces of computer software, including word processors and accounting. The program was made for DOS in 1985, in 1987, versions of the program were released on Unix and Apple Macintosh systems. While it was intended for use in the United States, it was expanded to other regions in 1988, including Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland and others. Remote Control International was successful, ranked 79th and 348th on Inc. 500's list of the Fastest Growing Companies in 1991 and 1992, respectively. The company was purchased by The Sage Group in 1992, which allowed Michael to live comfortably. After its purchase, TeleMagic was made available for Microsoft Windows in 1993, Remote Control International was renamed to TeleMagic Inc. in 1994. It did not have any more software releases on platforms after this.

This is believed to be due in part to Sage's financial issues following the purchase of the company, the fact that TeleMagic under Sage was posting losses at about one million pounds per year. On February

Tocumwal

Tocumwal is a town in the southern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia, in the Berrigan Shire local government area, near the Victorian border. The town is situated on the banks of the Murray River, 270 kilometres north of the city of Melbourne; the Newell Highway and Murray Valley Highway join at the Murray River, form part of the main road route National Highway A39 between Brisbane and Melbourne. At the 2006 census, Tocumwal had a population of 1,860; the town is said to be named for the local Aboriginal word for "deep hole in the river". Prior to European settlement, the Tocumwal area was inhabited by the Ulupna and Bangerang Aborigines; the first pastoral runs were established in the 1840s. The town was established in the early 1860s and gazetted in 1862 as "a Village to be called TOCUMWAL... Situated on the Murray River, on the road from Albury to Deniliquin, about 50 miles west of Corowa, 40 south-east of Deniliquin."Tocumwal Post Office opened on 1 August 1868. Prior to Federation, Tocumwal was an important customs point for goods crossing between the colonies of Victoria and New South Wales.

A standard gauge branch line from the New South Wales Government Railways Main Southern railway line at Junee reached Narrandera in 1881 and a branch from Narrandera was completed to Tocumwal in 1898. The broad gauge Victorian Railways Melbourne-Shepparton railway line was extended to Tocumwal in 1908, creating a break-of-gauge at Tocumwal until the New South Wales Government Railways line was closed south of Narrandera. During World War 2 the town was the site of Royal Australian Air Force Station Tocumwal, a major Royal Australian Air Force training airfield and aircraft depot. Units included the 5 Operational Training Unit, 7 Operational Training Unit, 7 Aircraft Depot and the Paratroop Training Unit. Today, the airfield is a renowned gliding site. After the war families were housed at the American Air Force Hospital, the men travelled daily over the river to Yarroweyah to work on farms which they could apply for under the soldier settlement scheme; the Hospital was next to Barooga Station.

Living quarters were made in 3-4 in each with a shared bathroom. Single quarters were at the front and a cook was employed for them. After the war ended, many of the Air Force houses in Tocumwal were disassembled and trucked to Canberra to be rebuilt and reused in new and inner city suburbs where they provided Government housing to workers coming from Melbourne and Sydney to construct the new Capital City. To this day they remain a distinctive architectural form in suburbs such as Ainslie; because of the break-of-gauge between the railways north and south of Tocumwal, this station was a natural choice for military oriented storage facilities and munitions dumps. During World War 2, Tocumwal was the location of RAAF No.14 Inland Aircraft Fuel Depot, completed in 1942 and closed on 14 June 1944. Consisting of 4 tanks, 31 fuel depots were built across Australia for the storage and supply of aircraft fuel for the RAAF and the US Army Air Forces at a total cost of £900,000. Tocumwal has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Narrandera-Tocumwal railway: Tocumwal railway station Narrandera-Tocumwal railway: Tocumwal Road and Rail Bridge over Murray River Tocumwal has a semi-arid climate.

Tocumwal has one Catholic primary school. The nearest high school is in 21 kilometres to the north. Australian rules football and netball are all popular in the town. Notable sporting teams include the Tocumwal Football Club who compete in the Picola & District Football League Tocumwal is in the federal Division of Farrer and the state Electoral district of Murray. Tocumwal was where the largest Murray cod in the world was caught. Tocumwal has a 36-hole championship golf course at the Tocumwal Golf Club, a bowls club and is well known internationally for gliding at SportAviation. Media related to Tocumwal at Wikimedia Commons Tocumwal: Centre to the Murray Attractions Tocumwal Railway Station

Jamestown Church

Jamestown Church, constructed in brick from 1639 onward, in Jamestown in the Mid-Atlantic state of Virginia, is one of the oldest surviving building remnants built by Europeans in the original thirteen colonies and in the United States overall. It is now part of Historic Jamestowne, is owned by Preservation Virginia. There have been several sites and stages in the church's history, its tower is now the last surviving above-ground structure from the days when Jamestown was the capital of Virginia; the current structure, active as part of the Anglican church, is still in use today. The ruins are being researched by members of the Jamestown Rediscovery project; the established religion in England at the time of the colony's founding was the Church of England, whose basic doctrines and worship services were set out in the Book of Common Prayer. The Jamestown settlers brought their religion with them and practiced it in Virginia; the Church of England was central to the lives of the London Company leadership, with all of the men required to take an oath acknowledging the supremacy of King James and the lack of authority over him by the Pope before they set sail to Virginia.

There was no separation of church and state in 17th century England, or in any other European country. Despite the de facto requirement for Jamestown colonists to be members of the protestant Church of England, archaeological discoveries of Catholic artifacts at the Jamestown site have led to speculation that at least a few of the early Jamestown settlers may have been crypto-Catholic. Church services in James Fort were held fourteen times a week, with sermons preached at services on Sunday and on either Wednesday or Thursday. Two prayer services, one in the morning and one in the evening, were held Monday through Saturday. An afternoon catechism was held by the minister on Sunday. After the introduction of strict martial law by Deputy Governor Sir Thomas Dale in 1611, called Dale's Code, regular church attendance was required, with punishments ranging from loss of food rations to execution for violators who blasphemed "God's holy name" or challenged the authority of a preacher or minister.

As a result of detailed surveys of the site by Jamestown Rediscovery, six churches are believed to have been built on two different sites at James Fort. Churches 1-2 were located inside the confines of the original fort, whereas Churches 3-6 were built nearby on the current site, located within the extended wall area of the original fort; the oldest surviving visible section of any structure is the tower dated sometime in the mid 17th century. Captain John Smith reported that the first church services were held outdoors "under an awning" fastened to three or four trees. Shortly thereafter the settlers built the first church inside the fort in 1607. Smith said it was "a homely thing like a barn set on crachetts, covered with rafts and earth." This church soon burned down in the fires of January 7, 1608. In 2010, archaeologists discovered the site of the second church constructed at Jamestown, it was similar to the first, built on the same site, but being made of wood, it needed constant repair.

When Lord De La Warr arrived as governor in 1610, he found that the church had fallen into a sad state of disrepair, so he had it restored and its furnishings improved. This is the site where on April 1614, Pocahontas married John Rolfe. There is a reconstruction of the second church at Jamestown Settlement. In 1617-1619 when Samuel Argall was governor, he had the inhabitants build a new church "50 foot long and twenty foot broad." Situated nearby the old church, it was wooden and built on a one-foot-wide foundation of cobblestones capped by a wall one brick thick. It was in this church where the first Representative Legislative Assembly met, which convened there on July 30, 1619. In January 1639 Governor John Harvey reported that he, the Council, the ablest planters, some sea captains "had contributed to the building of a brick church" at Jamestown; this church was larger than the third church and was built around it over the next few years. It was still unfinished in November 1647, it was burned during Bacon's Rebellion on September 19, 1676.

Around this time a brick church tower was added to an existing church building over two distinctly different stages. Once completed, it was about 46 feet high with a wooden roof and two upper floors. In 1699 the churchwardens of James City Parish asked Virginia's General Assembly for money to pay for the "steeple of their church, towards the repairing of the church". A visitor in 1702 said the Jamestown church had "a tower and a bell". In the 1890s, the tower was strengthened shortly after being acquired by Preservation Virginia. Ten years a fifth church was functioning using the walls and foundations of the fourth church; this church was used until the 1750s when it was abandoned in favor of a new church constructed some three miles from Jamestown. Although the tower remained, the building fell into ruins by the 1790s when the bricks were re-purposed to build the graveyard wall; the present Memorial Church was built by the National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in 1907 and re-used the original tower.

It was built just outside the cobblestone foundations of the older 1617 church and the brick foundations of the 1639 church. It was designed by Edmund M. Wheelwright of Boston; the design is derived from the nearby St. Luke's Church, a similar church surviving from 1682 (though at the time thought to be 1

The Belle of Mayfair

The Belle of Mayfair is a musical comedy composed by Leslie Stuart with a book by Basil Hood, Charles Brookfield and Cosmo Hamilton and lyrics by George Arthurs. The story is inspired by Juliet; the original production opened at the Vaudeville Theatre in London on 11 April 1906, produced by Charles Frohman. It ran for 431 performances, closing on 13 April 1907, starred Edna May, Louie Pounds, Arthur Williams, Camille Clifford and Courtice Pounds. Hood withdrew his name from the original production after Frohman started altering the text to suit casting changes that occurred during the run; some of these changes resulted from disputes between the female leads and the management, one of which resulted in court action. Edna May stormed out of the production, the role was assumed by Phyllis Dare, making her a star. Julia Chaldicott – Edna May Hon. Raymond FinchleyFarren Soutar Princess Carl of Ehrenbreitstein – Louie Pounds Sir John Chaldicott – Arthur Williams Lady Chaldicott – Maud Boyd Hugh Meredith – Courtice Pounds Perrier – Charles Angelo Lord Mount HighgateSam Walsh Countess of Mount Highgate – Irene Desmond Duchess of Dunmow – Camille Clifford Captain Theobald – Mervyn Dene Lady Violet – Jane May Lady RosalineRuby Ray Act IA young couple, Julia Chaldicott and Raymond Mount-Highgate, fall madly in love during a sham auction taking place at a bazaar held in a London private park.

This causes alarm to Julia's father, Sir John Chaldicott, who hates Raymond's family. Among the distinguished visitors present at the auction are the Duchess of Dunmow, Princess Carl of Ehrenbreitstein, a charming English girl, married to a German Prince. Raymond's friends advise him not to worry about marriage and to enjoy himself instead, while Julia's high powered friends, including Princess Carl, try to get him sent overseas as a diplomat. Julia's father tries to end the match by announcing that his daughter is going to become engaged to the Comte de Perrier, a conductor of a foreign band, touring in the vicinity, he is paid to become Julia's official suitor; as a result, Raymond threatens to elope with Julia. Act IISir John and his lady are at the opera, Julia is being presented at Court by the Princess. A member of the orchestra brings a bag containing the band leader's costume to Sir John's house. Shortly afterwards, Sir John and Lady Chaldicott return; some guests have been invited to meet Julia after her presentation.

Soon Julia enters radiant and beautiful in her Court dress, before long Raymond arrives to plan the elopement. Raymond shall ask the Bishop of Brighton, to officiate at the wedding, they are interrupted in their scheming, Raymond, on Julia's inspiration, dons the costume of the missing bandmaster and confers with her father as to the programme of music. Sir John disturbed by the bandmaster's apparent change of manner. Just when everything is arranged, Princess Carl appeals to Julia not to run away with Raymond, as the shock might injure her father's health, Julia, like a dutiful daughter, consents to wait. Sir John demands that his daughter give up Raymond and unconditionally. Julia makes a tender and impassioned appeal that her heart may not be broken, in the end Sir John gives way. Lord Mount-Highgate and his wife, who arrive to assist in frustrating the elopement, hear Julia declare her love for Raymond, her father give his consent to the marriage. A general reconciliation takes place, everything ends happily.

Cast list, review and other information Information about the Broadway production Includes a review of a scene in the London production Information about shows opening in London in 1906 Guide to Musical Theatre - Belle of Mayfair www.gabrielleray.150m.com/ArchivePressText2006/20060923.html Information about the Australian production