In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. In analog frequency modulation, such as FM radio broadcasting of an audio signal representing voice or music, the instantaneous frequency deviation, the difference between the frequency of the carrier and its center frequency, is proportional to the modulating signal. Digital data can be encoded and transmitted via FM by shifting the carrier's frequency among a predefined set of frequencies representing digits – for example one frequency can represent a binary 1 and a second can represent binary 0; this modulation technique is known as frequency-shift keying. FSK is used in modems such as fax modems, can be used to send Morse code. Radioteletype uses FSK. Frequency modulation is used for FM radio broadcasting, it is used in telemetry, seismic prospecting, monitoring newborns for seizures via EEG, two-way radio systems, music synthesis, magnetic tape-recording systems and some video-transmission systems.
In radio transmission, an advantage of frequency modulation is that it has a larger signal-to-noise ratio and therefore rejects radio frequency interference better than an equal power amplitude modulation signal. For this reason, most music is broadcast over FM radio. Frequency modulation and phase modulation are the two complementary principal methods of angle modulation; these methods contrast with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier wave varies, while the frequency and phase remain constant. If the information to be transmitted is x m and the sinusoidal carrier is x c = A c cos , where fc is the carrier's base frequency, Ac is the carrier's amplitude, the modulator combines the carrier with the baseband data signal to get the transmitted signal: y = A c cos = A c cos = A c cos where f Δ = K f A m, K f being the sensitivity of the frequency modulator and A m being the amplitude of the modulating signal or baseband signal. In this equation, f is the instantaneous frequency of the oscillator and f Δ is the frequency deviation, which represents the maximum shift away from fc in one direction, assuming xm is limited to the range ±1.
While most of the energy of the signal is contained within fc ± fΔ, it can be shown by Fourier analysis that a wider range of frequencies is required to represent an FM signal. The frequency spectrum of an actual FM signal has components extending infinitely, although their amplitude decreases and higher-order components are neglected in practical design problems. Mathematically, a baseband modulating signal may be approximated by a sinusoidal continuous wave signal with a frequency fm; this method is named as single-tone modulation. The integral of such a signal is: ∫ 0 t x m d τ = A m sin
Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech computer or speech synthesizer, can be implemented in software or hardware products. A text-to-speech system converts normal language text into speech. Synthesized speech can be created by concatenating pieces of recorded speech that are stored in a database. Systems differ in the size of the stored speech units. For specific usage domains, the storage of entire words or sentences allows for high-quality output. Alternatively, a synthesizer can incorporate a model of the vocal tract and other human voice characteristics to create a "synthetic" voice output; the quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its similarity to the human voice and by its ability to be understood clearly. An intelligible text-to-speech program allows people with visual impairments or reading disabilities to listen to written words on a home computer. Many computer operating systems have included speech synthesizers since the early 1990s.
A text-to-speech system is composed of two parts: a back-end. The front-end has two major tasks. First, it converts raw text containing symbols like numbers and abbreviations into the equivalent of written-out words; this process is called text normalization, pre-processing, or tokenization. The front-end assigns phonetic transcriptions to each word, divides and marks the text into prosodic units, like phrases and sentences; the process of assigning phonetic transcriptions to words is called text-to-phoneme or grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. Phonetic transcriptions and prosody information together make up the symbolic linguistic representation, output by the front-end; the back-end—often referred to as the synthesizer—then converts the symbolic linguistic representation into sound. In certain systems, this part includes the computation of the target prosody, imposed on the output speech. Long before the invention of electronic signal processing, some people tried to build machines to emulate human speech.
Some early legends of the existence of "Brazen Heads" involved Pope Silvester II, Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon. In 1779 the German-Danish scientist Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein won the first prize in a competition announced by the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts for models he built of the human vocal tract that could produce the five long vowel sounds. There followed the bellows-operated "acoustic-mechanical speech machine" of Wolfgang von Kempelen of Pressburg, described in a 1791 paper; this machine added models of the tongue and lips, enabling it to produce consonants as well as vowels. In 1837, Charles Wheatstone produced a "speaking machine" based on von Kempelen's design, in 1846, Joseph Faber exhibited the "Euphonia". In 1923 Paget resurrected Wheatstone's design. In the 1930s Bell Labs developed the vocoder, which automatically analyzed speech into its fundamental tones and resonances. From his work on the vocoder, Homer Dudley developed a keyboard-operated voice-synthesizer called The Voder, which he exhibited at the 1939 New York World's Fair.
Dr. Franklin S. Cooper and his colleagues at Haskins Laboratories built the Pattern playback in the late 1940s and completed it in 1950. There were several different versions of this hardware device; the machine converts pictures of the acoustic patterns of speech in the form of a spectrogram back into sound. Using this device, Alvin Liberman and colleagues discovered acoustic cues for the perception of phonetic segments. In 1975 MUSA was released, was one of the first Speech Synthesis systems, it consisted of a stand-alone computer hardware and a specialized software that enabled it to read Italian. A second version, released in 1978, was able to sing Italian in an "a cappella" style. Dominant systems in the 1980s and 1990s were the DECtalk system, based on the work of Dennis Klatt at MIT, the Bell Labs system. Early electronic speech-synthesizers sounded robotic and were barely intelligible; the quality of synthesized speech has improved, but as of 2016 output from contemporary speech synthesis systems remains distinguishable from actual human speech.
Kurzweil predicted in 2005 that as the cost-performance ratio caused speech synthesizers to become cheaper and more accessible, more people would benefit from the use of text-to-speech programs. The first computer-based speech-synthesis systems originated in the late 1950s. Noriko Umeda et al. developed the first general English text-to-speech system in 1968 at the Electrotechnical Laboratory, Japan. In 1961 physicist John Larry Kelly, Jr and his colleague Louis Gerstman used an IBM 704 computer to synthesize speech, an event among the most prominent in the history of Bell Labs. Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer recreated the song "Daisy Bell", with musical accompaniment from Max Mathews. Coincidentally, Arthur C. Clarke was visiting his friend and colleague John Pierce at the Bell Labs Murray Hill facility. Clarke was so impressed by the demonstration that he used it in the climactic scene of his screenplay for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, where the HAL 9000 computer sings the same song as astronaut Dave Bowman puts it to slee
New England Digital
New England Digital Corporation was founded in Norwich and relocated to White River Junction, Vermont. It was best known for its signature product, the Synclavier Synthesizer System, which evolved into the Synclavier Digital Audio System or "Tapeless Studio." The company sold an FM digital synthesizer/16-bit polyphonic synthesizer and magnetic disk-based non-linear 16-bit digital recording product, referred to as the "Post-Pro." The Synclavier was developed as the "Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer" by Dartmouth College Professors Jon Appleton and Frederick J. Hooven, in association with NED co-founders Sydney A. Alonso and Cameron W. Jones; the Synclavier would become the pioneering prototype hardware and software system for all digital non-linear synthesis, polyphonic sampling, magnetic recording and sequencing systems technology, commonplace in all music and sound effects/design today. The instrument's development picked up speed in late 1978/early 1979, when master synthesist, sound designer, musical arranger, Denny Jaeger, began working with NED to help create system upgrades, advanced capabilities, unique sounds that were tailored to fit the needs of the product for the commercial music industry.
The second generation's user interface panel and overall music design features of the original Synclavier were driven and designed by Denny Jaeger. His relentless attention to detail and unparalleled understanding of synthesis, audio recording, technology provided tremendous product/market insight to the original founding hardware and software engineering team of Alonso and Jones. In November 1979 following the arrival of Denny Jaeger, Alonso hired Brad Naples as the company's Business Manager. Working in tandem and Naples were the main drivers of the marketing and sales/business development efforts of the company. However, all four individuals—Alonso, Jones and Naples—worked as a collaborative team, quite unique and unparalleled at the time. NED unveiled the newly improved Synclavier II at the AES show in May 1980, where it became an instant hit. In 1981 New England Digital pioneered the recording of digital audio to hard disk with the introduction of their Sample-To-Disk option, their software module known as SFM was popular among the academic world for research and analysis of audio.
The SFM found use in the US Military for the analysis of submarine sounds. The company continued to refine the Synclavier II, with Jaeger leading more musician-friendly, technological improvements, Naples evolving to become the company's President/CEO to assist Alonso and Jones, who were expanding the hardware and software team. Musicians such as New York City-based multi-instrumentalist Kashif were involved in the creative development of Synclavier, it became one of recording tools of the day. Early adopters included: John McLaughlin Pat Metheny Michael Jackson on his 1982 album Thriller. Denny Jaeger and Michel Rubini, the first to use the Synclavier to score a major motion picture and to score the first network TV series. Laurie Anderson, whose 1984 album "Mister Heartbreak" includes visual depictions of Synclavier sound waves in the liner notes Frank Zappa, who composed his 1986 Grammy-winning album Jazz from Hell on the instrument, he continued to use it on his studio albums until his death in 1993, culminating in the posthumous release of his magnum opus Civilization, Phaze III Producer Mike Thorne, who used the Synclavier to shape the sound of the 80s producing bands such as Siouxsie and The Banshees, Soft Cell, Marc Almond, Bronski Beat Record label founder Daniel Miller.
It found use on most Depeche Mode albums. Sting Genesis The Cars Herbie Hancock Sean Callery Eddie Jobson The system was nearly as famous for where it was not used, as it was for the list of premier studios in which it was: the sophisticated synthesizer enjoyed the distinction of being banned from many famous concert halls, out of fear that it would make the musicians themselves obsolete; the mature Synclavier was a modular, component-based system that included facilities for FM-based synthesis, digital sampling, hard-disk recording, sophisticated computer-based sound editing. By the late 1980s, complete Synclavier systems were selling for upwards of $200,000, to famous musicians such as Sting, Michael Jackson and Stevie Wonder, to major studios the world over; the Synclavier was employed by experimental musicians, such as John McLaughlin, Laurie Anderson, Frank Zappa and Peter Buffett who used it extensively in their music. It is still used to this day in major movies for sound design, along with TV, Commercials and Music composition and production.
The Synclavier became a victim of the early 1990s economic downturn, the high prices, the increasing capabilities of personal computers, MIDI-enabled synthesizers and low-cost digital samplers. In the span of two years, the company saw enormous sales evaporate, in 1992 they closed their doors forever. Parts of the company were purchased by Fostex, which used the technical knowledge base of staff to build several hard-disk recording systems in the 1990s, AirWorks Media, a Canadian company who used portions of code in their TuneBuilder product
Additive synthesis is a sound synthesis technique that creates timbre by adding sine waves together. The timbre of musical instruments can be considered in the light of Fourier theory to consist of multiple harmonic or inharmonic partials or overtones; each partial is a sine wave of different frequency and amplitude that swells and decays over time due to modulation from an ADSR envelope or low frequency oscillator. Additive synthesis most directly generates sound by adding the output of multiple sine wave generators. Alternative implementations may use the inverse Fast Fourier transform; the sounds that are heard in everyday life are not characterized by a single frequency. Instead, they consist of a sum of each one at a different amplitude; when humans hear these frequencies we can recognize the sound. This is true for both "non-musical" sounds and for "musical sounds"; this set of parameters are encapsulated by the timbre of the sound. Fourier analysis is the technique, used to determine these exact timbre parameters from an overall sound signal.
In the case of a musical note, the lowest frequency of its timbre is designated as the sound's fundamental frequency. For simplicity, we say that the note is playing at that fundamental frequency though the sound of that note consists of many other frequencies as well; the set of the remaining frequencies is called the overtones of the sound. In other words, the fundamental frequency alone is responsible for the pitch of the note, while the overtones define the timbre of the sound; the overtones of a piano playing middle C will be quite different from the overtones of a violin playing the same note. There are subtle differences in timbre between different versions of the same instrument. Additive synthesis aims to exploit this property of sound in order to construct timbre from the ground up. By adding together pure frequencies of varying frequencies and amplitudes, we can define the timbre of the sound that we want to create. Harmonic additive synthesis is related to the concept of a Fourier series, a way of expressing a periodic function as the sum of sinusoidal functions with frequencies equal to integer multiples of a common fundamental frequency.
These sinusoids are called harmonics, overtones, or partials. In general, a Fourier series contains an infinite number of sinusoidal components, with no upper limit to the frequency of the sinusoidal functions and includes a DC component. Frequencies outside of the human audible range can be omitted in additive synthesis; as a result, only a finite number of sinusoidal terms with frequencies that lie within the audible range are modeled in additive synthesis. A waveform or function is said to be periodic if y = y for all t and for some period P; the Fourier series of a periodic function is mathematically expressed as: y = a 0 2 + ∑ k = 1 ∞ = a 0 2 + ∑ k = 1 ∞ r k cos where f 0 = 1 / P is the fundamental frequency of the waveform and is equal to the reciprocal of the period, a k = r k cos = 2 f 0 ∫ 0 P y cos d
Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni
Oscillation is the repetitive variation in time, of some measure about a central value or between two or more different states. The term vibration is used to describe mechanical oscillation. Familiar examples of oscillation include a swinging pendulum and alternating current. Oscillations occur not only in mechanical systems but in dynamic systems in every area of science: for example the beating of the human heart, business cycles in economics, predator–prey population cycles in ecology, geothermal geysers in geology, vibration of strings in guitar and other string instruments, periodic firing of nerve cells in the brain, the periodic swelling of Cepheid variable stars in astronomy; the simplest mechanical oscillating system is a weight attached to a linear spring subject to only weight and tension. Such a system may be approximated on an air ice surface; the system is in an equilibrium state. If the system is displaced from the equilibrium, there is a net restoring force on the mass, tending to bring it back to equilibrium.
However, in moving the mass back to the equilibrium position, it has acquired momentum which keeps it moving beyond that position, establishing a new restoring force in the opposite sense. If a constant force such as gravity is added to the system, the point of equilibrium is shifted; the time taken for an oscillation to occur is referred to as the oscillatory period. The systems where the restoring force on a body is directly proportional to its displacement, such as the dynamics of the spring-mass system, are described mathematically by the simple harmonic oscillator and the regular periodic motion is known as simple harmonic motion. In the spring-mass system, oscillations occur because, at the static equilibrium displacement, the mass has kinetic energy, converted into potential energy stored in the spring at the extremes of its path; the spring-mass system illustrates some common features of oscillation, namely the existence of an equilibrium and the presence of a restoring force which grows stronger the further the system deviates from equilibrium.
All real-world oscillator systems are thermodynamically irreversible. This means there are dissipative processes such as friction or electrical resistance which continually convert some of the energy stored in the oscillator into heat in the environment; this is called damping. Thus, oscillations tend to decay with time unless there is some net source of energy into the system; the simplest description of this decay process can be illustrated by oscillation decay of the harmonic oscillator. In addition, an oscillating system may be subject to some external force, as when an AC circuit is connected to an outside power source. In this case the oscillation is said to be driven; some systems can be excited by energy transfer from the environment. This transfer occurs where systems are embedded in some fluid flow. For example, the phenomenon of flutter in aerodynamics occurs when an arbitrarily small displacement of an aircraft wing results in an increase in the angle of attack of the wing on the air flow and a consequential increase in lift coefficient, leading to a still greater displacement.
At sufficiently large displacements, the stiffness of the wing dominates to provide the restoring force that enables an oscillation. The harmonic oscillator and the systems it models have a single degree of freedom. More complicated systems have more degrees of freedom, for example three springs. In such cases, the behavior of each variable influences that of the others; this leads to a coupling of the oscillations of the individual degrees of freedom. For example, two pendulum clocks mounted on a common wall will tend to synchronise; this phenomenon was first observed by Christiaan Huygens in 1665. The apparent motions of the compound oscillations appears complicated but a more economic, computationally simpler and conceptually deeper description is given by resolving the motion into normal modes. More special cases are the coupled oscillators where energy alternates between two forms of oscillation. Well-known is the Wilberforce pendulum, where the oscillation alternates between an elongation of a vertical spring and the rotation of an object at the end of that spring.
As the number of degrees of freedom becomes arbitrarily large, a system approaches continuity. Such systems have an infinite number of normal modes and their oscillations occur in the form of waves that can characteristically propagate; the mathematics of oscillation deals with the quantification of the amount that a sequence or function tends to move between extremes. There are several related notions: oscillation of a sequence of real numbers, oscillation of a real valued function at a point, oscillation of a function on an interval. Crystal oscillator Neutron stars Cyclic Model Neutral particle oscillation, e.g. neutrino oscillations Quantum harmonic oscillator Cellular Automata oscillator Media related to Oscillation at Wikimedia Commons Vibrations – a chapter from an online textbook
The Korg OASYS is a workstation synthesizer released in early 2005, 1 year after the successful Korg Triton Extreme. Unlike the Triton series, the OASYS uses a custom Linux operating system, designed to be arbitrarily expandable via software updates, with its functionality limited only by the PC-like hardware. OASYS was a software implementation of the research project that resulted in the OASYS PCI, a DSP card which offered multiple synthesis engines; the original OASYS keyboard concept had to be scrapped because of excessive production costs and limitations of then-current technology. Production of the OASYS was discontinued in April 2009. Korg sold just over 3000 units worldwide; the final software update was released on November 24, 2009. In 2011, Korg Kronos, a successor of Korg OASYS, was introduced at that year's NAMM Show; the standard Oasys comes with hardware similar to many personal computers: 2.8 GHz Pentium 4 CPU 40GB hard disk drive 1GB DDR RAM, user-expandable to 2GB 10.4" LCD touch screenIt features Korg's OASYS technology, which allows multiple synthesis engines to be used simultaneously.
The OASYS includes second-generation KARMA technology. It has either 88 key hammer-action keyboard. EXB-DI The optional EXB-DI adds 8 channels of ADAT Optical format 24-bit 48 kHz digital output, as well as a word clock input; the EXB-DI was first made available for the Korg Triton Studio keyboard and Triton Rack module - on these units only 6 outputs are available via ADAT. Bar a few early models of the Oasys, the EXB-DI is user installable; as of November 24, 2009 the latest version of the OASYS OS is 1.3.3a, featuring the following synthesis engines: HD-1: A PCM synthesizer, with 628 MB of preloaded samples and Wave Sequencing. EXs: A sample library that works by itself or with other engines. EXs-1 is a set of EXs-2 is a grand piano. AL-1: A 96-note polyphonic virtual analog synthesizer CX-3: A modeled tonewheel organ based on the current CX-3 STR-1: A plucked string physical model LAC-1: Optional bundle including two virtual analog synthesizers, the PolysixEX and MS-20EX, which are updated models of the vintage Korg Polysix and Korg MS20.
The LAC-1 is available as a free upgrade, but has to be requested by the current owner of the OASYS from Korg. MOD-7: Optional that Combines Variable Phase Modulation, ring modulation, PCM sample playback, subtractive synthesis in a patchable, semi-modular synthesizer; the MOD-7 is available as a free upgrade, but has to be requested by the current owner of the OASYS from Korg. The HD-1 is a sample+synthesis engine with a two "oscillator" structure. In addition to the two "oscillators," an HD-1 Program contains a Vector Envelope, Common LFO, two common key tracking generators, KARMA settings, effects; each "oscillator" consists of a sample playback oscillator, dual multimode filter, nonlinear "drive" and low boost section and pan. The sample playback oscillator has four velocity zones, each of which can play a mono or stereo sample or a Wave Sequence. Velocity zones can crossfade. Korg claims low aliasing distortion, due to the use of band limited interpolation. Wave Sequences were first introduced on Korg's Wavestation synthesizer, released in 1990.
Wave Sequences allow a single note to play through a list of samples, one after the other, with or without crossfades, with other associated parameters changing for each sample, as listed below. This can create evolving timbres, or rhythmic effects. Internally, Wave Sequences are implemented by using two voices. Other synthesizers have featured concepts which are similar in some aspects, such as PPG, Access Virus wavetables, Synclavier resynthesis, Ensoniq Transwaves and Hyperwaves. In the lists below, features new to the OASYS are noted. OASYS Wave Sequences include, for each step: The sample to play Sample start offset Reverse on/off The length of the step, in milliseconds or rhythmic value The crossfade time into the next step, in milliseconds Crossfade fade-in shape Crossfade fade-out shape Volume Transpose and fine-tune Two modulation value outputs, to control any assignable parameters of the synthesizer in the rest of the Program And, for the sequence as a whole: Time/Tempo mode Run on/off Key sync on/off Swing and swing resolution Quantize Triggers on/off Start step and start step modulation End step Loop start and direction Loop repeats Note-on advance Position modulation Duration modulation Additions to the original Wavestation implementation include time/tempo modes, sample-locked tempo sync, constant-time crossfades in tempo mode, f