Rainer Maria Latzke
Rainer Maria Latzke is a German artist working in the field of Trompe l'oeil and mural painting. He is founder of the Institute of Frescography. Latzke is Honorary Professor of the Fudan University and Guest Professor of the Shanghai Institute of Visual Art. Latzke is named by the Forbes magazine as one of the most influential painters of the 90´s decade and ranked by Artists Trade Union of Russia amongst the world-best artists of the last four centuries, he is a cousin of Poland´s wealthiest entrepreneur Jan Kulczyk. Rainer Maria Latzke was born in Germany in 1950, he was raised near Cologne along with his 8 siblings by his Father Alfons, an art teacher, his mother Lisa, an artist. His father´s family comes from Poland, while his mother was a born Kohlschütter, a family of famous scientists such as Arnold and Ernst Kohlschütter. Latzke studied art and Educational Science at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz Germany, continued Art studies from 1972 to 1976 at the Düsseldorf Academy of Fine Arts under the supervision of Joseph Beuys and Gerhard Richter.
In 1974 he earned a master's degree in Pedagogy, Philosophy and in 1976 the title of a Master Student as well as a master's degree in Arts. After teaching art for two years, he quit and traveled to Italy in 1980 where he studied Renaissance painting techniques and fresco painting in Florence and Rome. In 1981 he married Doris Boecke, with whom he had three children, Rene Marcus, married to English artist Paula Hammond, Katharina Maria and Maurice Amadeus. In 2008 his first grandchild, Tristan Francis, was born to Katharina, married to US citizen Paul Smith. In 1982 his career as a muralist started to advance: His collaboration with Harrods in London opened doors to prominent clients, like royal families in the Middle East, he worked for Mercedes Benz, for whom he designed the artwork for their 100-year celebration exhibition "Welt Mobil", prominent rock bands like The Scorpions, for whom he created the computer-controlled electronic mural "Night over Manhattan". In 1992 he was featured by the European issue of Forbes magazine in the article "Stars of tomorrow - cultural trendsetters with major input of the decade".
In 1984 Latzke acquired the 1760 built "Chateau Thal" in Belgium and restored the 38-room castle as well decorated it with numerous murals. He taught mural painting to apprentices in the castle's studio, who opened their own wall painting studios which led to a new Renaissance of wall painting in contemporary Interior Design. After his move to Monte Carlo in 1995 he acquired the "Villa Paradou" the former residence of late Henri Chrétien, the Oscar-winning inventor of the Cinemascope technique, in 1998; the villa, built by French architect Charles Garnier was due to after being abandoned for a longer time in poor condition. Latzke refurbished the estate consisting of two buildings situated in an overgrown park and restored the existing wall paintings. In 1998 he published the book "Traumwelten - Die Kunst der Dritten Dimension" and in 1990 "Dreamworlds, the making of a room with illusionary painting". In the Villa Paradou he continued his work in developing new techniques for the production and reproduction of murals, which he had started in Belgium in 1988 with the "Artscape"-technique.
In 2000 he was awarded a patent for his invention of the Frescography. He engaged himself in music, composing songs and lyrics, worked together with South France studio musicians and Phil Palmer, who worked with Roger Daltrey, the Dire Straits. In 2009 Latzke founded the Institute of Frescography, a research and educational Nonprofit organization for mural art. In the late'80s Rainer Maria Latzke began to develop new techniques for the production of murals, which led to the invention of the Frescography and the CAM Software; this patented technique consists of a computer programme, the Dreamworlds Design Studio, which allows the user to assemble individual mural designs using a large selection of cut-out images. Prior to starting a design the dimensions of the wall are entered into the software to create a workspace reflecting the project wall; the designs are transferred in the artist's studio onto a single canvas in wall size and attached on site using a similar procedure as with wallpaper.
Frescographies take only a few hours to design on the computer, are produced and delivered within a short period of time. Retailers advertise, it is being sold by over 300 franchisees in Europe. Frescographies can be seen in public buildings such as the Vienna Rathaus or the world's largest sailboat, the Royal Clipper. There are around 300 Dealers in Europe distributing Latzke's Frescographies under the brand name Frescomaster. In 2009 Rainer Maria Latzke founded the Institute of Frescography; the IOF is an recognized institution. It researches on art history, digital reproduction, printing processes and materials, restoration techniques of mural art. In cooperation with the German Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte the IOF houses a 40,000 images archive of European wall and mural paintings; the archive covers the period between the Gothic ages to the end of the 19th century. Another IOF archive, the "World of Ornaments" consists of 5,000 motifs based on the two greatest encyclopedic collections of ornament from the 19th century chromo-lithographic tradition: Auguste Racinet's L"'Ornement polychrome Volumes I and II" from 1875–1888 and "M. Dupont-Auberville's L'Ornement des tissus" from
Gothic art was a style of medieval art that developed in Northern France out of Romanesque art in the 12th century AD, led by the concurrent development of Gothic architecture. It spread to all of Western Europe, much of Southern and Central Europe, never quite effacing more classical styles in Italy. In the late 14th century, the sophisticated court style of International Gothic developed, which continued to evolve until the late 15th century. In many areas Germany, Late Gothic art continued well into the 16th century, before being subsumed into Renaissance art. Primary media in the Gothic period included sculpture, panel painting, stained glass and illuminated manuscripts; the recognizable shifts in architecture from Romanesque to Gothic, Gothic to Renaissance styles, are used to define the periods in art in all media, although in many ways figurative art developed at a different pace. The earliest Gothic art was monumental sculpture, on the walls of abbeys. Christian art was typological in nature, showing the stories of the New Testament and the Old Testament side by side.
Saints' lives were depicted. Images of the Virgin Mary changed from the Byzantine iconic form to a more human and affectionate mother, cuddling her infant, swaying from her hip, showing the refined manners of a well-born aristocratic courtly lady. Secular art came into its own during this period with the rise of cities, foundation of universities, increase in trade, the establishment of a money-based economy and the creation of a bourgeois class who could afford to patronize the arts and commission works resulting in a proliferation of paintings and illuminated manuscripts. Increased literacy and a growing body of secular vernacular literature encouraged the representation of secular themes in art. With the growth of cities, trade guilds were formed and artists were required to be members of a painters' guild—as a result, because of better record keeping, more artists are known to us by name in this period than any previous. Gothic art emerged in Île-de-France, France, in the early 12th century at the Abbey Church of St Denis built by Abbot Suger.
The style spread beyond its origins in architecture to sculpture, both monumental and personal in size, textile art, painting, which took a variety of forms, including fresco, stained glass, the illuminated manuscript, panel painting. Monastic orders the Cistercians and the Carthusians, were important builders who disseminated the style and developed distinctive variants of it across Europe. Regional variations of architecture remained important when, by the late 14th century, a coherent universal style known as International Gothic had evolved, which continued until the late 15th century, beyond in many areas. Although there was far more secular Gothic art than is thought today, as the survival rate of religious art has been better than for secular equivalents, a large proportion of the art produced in the period was religious, whether commissioned by the church or by the laity. Gothic art was typological in nature, reflecting a belief that the events of the Old Testament pre-figured those of the New, that this was indeed their main significance.
Old and New Testament scenes were shown side by side in works like the Speculum Humanae Salvationis, the decoration of churches. The Gothic period coincided with a great resurgence in Marian devotion, in which the visual arts played a major part. Images of the Virgin Mary developed from the Byzantine hieratic types, through the Coronation of the Virgin, to more human and intimate types, cycles of the Life of the Virgin were popular. Artists like Giotto, Fra Angelico and Pietro Lorenzetti in Italy, Early Netherlandish painting, brought realism and a more natural humanity to art. Western artists, their patrons, became much more confident in innovative iconography, much more originality is seen, although copied formulae were still used by most artists. Iconography was affected by changes in theology, with depictions of the Assumption of Mary gaining ground on the older Death of the Virgin, in devotional practices such as the Devotio Moderna, which produced new treatments of Christ in subjects such as the Man of Sorrows, Pensive Christ and Pietà, which emphasized his human suffering and vulnerability, in a parallel movement to that in depictions of the Virgin.
In Last Judgements Christ was now shown exposing his chest to show the wounds of his Passion. Saints were shown more and altarpieces showed saints relevant to the particular church or donor in attendance on a Crucifixion or enthroned Virgin and Child, or occupying the central space themselves. Over the period many ancient iconographical features that originated in New Testament apocrypha were eliminated under clerical pressure, like the midwives at the Nativity, though others were too well-established, considered harmless; the word "Gothic" for art was used as a synonym for "Barbaric", was therefore used pejoratively. Its critics saw this type of Medieval art as unrefined and too remote from the aesthetic proportions and shapes of Classical art. Renaissance authors believed that the Sack of Rome by the Gothic tribes in 410 had triggered the demise of the Classical world and all the values they held dear. In the 15th century, various Italian architects and writers complained that the new'barbarian' styles filtering down from north of the Alps posed a similar threat to the classical revival promoted by the early Renaissance.
The "Gothic" qualifier for this art was first used in Raphael's letter to Pope Leo X c. 1518
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
Zuber & Cie
Zuber & Cie, founded as Jean Zuber et Cie is a French Manufacture de Papier Peints et Tissus company which claims to be the last factory in the world to produce woodblock printed wallpapers and furnishing fabrics. Since its founding in 1797 by Jean Zuber, Zuber & Cie has maintained its headquarters at Rixheim, France; the Frederick Post reported that Jean Zuber's wallpapers were so respected that King Louis Philippe honored him with the Legion of Honor in 1834. The award was made for Zuber's exhibit at the French Industrial Exposition of 1834. For its production, Zuber & Cie uses woodblocks engraved during the 17th 18, 19th centuries. Zuber & Cie's panoramic wallpapers include Vues de l'Amérique du Nord, Hindoustan, les Guerres d'Independence, Isola Bella. Zuber & Cie produces dado borders and ceiling papers, some depicting faux representations of architectural details, drapery and tassels. Zuber & Cie has showrooms in Paris and Nice, New York, Los Angeles and Dubai. During the presidency of John F. Kennedy, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy on recommendation of historian Henry Francis du Pont had an antique copy of the panoramic wallpaper Vues de l'Amérique du Nord, installed in the Diplomatic Reception Room of the White House.
The wallpaper had been on the walls of a parlor in the Federal period Jones House in Maryland until 1961 when the house was demolished for a grocery store. Just before the demolition, the wallpaper was sold to the White House; as with many 18th century wallpapers, this panorama is designed to be hung above a dado. The formal dining room at the Old Louisiana Governor's Mansion in Baton Rouge, Louisiana is decorated with the Vue de l'Amérique du Nord. Another example is in the historic Shakespeare Chateau in Missouri; the main parlor of the mansion contains a complete set of Zuber panels. Abbott James A. and Elaine M. Rice. Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. Van Nostrand Reinhold: 1998. ISBN 0-442-02532-7. Seale, The White House: The History of an American Idea. White House Historical Association: 1992, 2001. ISBN 0-912308-85-0; the White House: An Historic Guide. White House Historical Association and the National Geographic Society: 2001. ISBN 0-912308-79-6. Official website Zuber & Cie objects in the collection of the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum Floral Wallpaper Streekmuseum Hoeksche Waard Zuber Wallpaper at the Shakespeare Chateau in St. Joseph, MO
Utah State University
Utah State University is a public land-grant research university in Logan, Utah. It is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Universities. With nearly 20,000 students living on or near campus, USU is Utah's largest public residential campus; as of Fall 2018, there were 27,932 students enrolled including 24,880 undergraduate students and 3,052 graduate students. The university has the highest percentage of out-of-state students of any public university in Utah totaling 23% of the student body. Founded in 1888 as Utah's agricultural college, USU focused on science, agriculture, domestic arts, military science, mechanic arts; the university offers programs in liberal arts, business, natural resource sciences, as well as nationally ranked elementary & secondary education programs. It offers master's and doctoral programs in humanities, social sciences, STEM areas, it received its current name in 1957. The university is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity". Utah State University has produced 7 Rhodes Scholars, 1 Nobel Prize winner, 1 MacArthur Fellows program inductee, 4 recipients of the Harry S. Truman Scholarship, 34 recipients of the Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship.
USU has nine colleges and offers 159 undergraduate degrees, 83 master's degrees, 41 doctoral degrees. USU's main campus is in Logan with regional campuses in Brigham City and the Uintah Basin and 28 other locations throughout Utah. In 2010, the College of Eastern Utah, in Price, Utah joined the USU system becoming Utah State University College of Eastern Utah. Throughout Utah, USU operates more than 20 distance education centers. Regional campuses, USU Eastern, distance education centers account for 59% of the students enrolled. USU has 149,000 alumni in all 110 countries. USU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Utah State Aggies, they are a member of the Mountain West Conference. On December 16, 1861, Justin Morrill introduced a bill into the U. S. House of Representatives, "to establish at least one college in each state upon a sure and perpetual foundation, accessible to all, but to the sons of toil..." President Abraham Lincoln signed the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act into effect in July of the following year.
Meanwhile, after visiting a few rural agricultural schools in his native Denmark, Anthon H. Lund of the Utah Territorial Legislature decided that there existed in Utah a need for such a school fusing the highest in scientific and academic research with agriculture, the way of life for the vast majority of locals. Upon returning to the states, Lund heard about the Morrill Act, pitched a vision for the college that would receive widespread support among the Territorial Legislature, at the time seeking to reapply for statehood. Now there came the question of location. According to historian Joel Ricks in 1938, "Provo had received the Insane Asylum, Salt Lake City had the University and Capitol, the majority of the legislature felt that the new institutions should be given to Weber and Cache Counties." Citizens in Logan, Cache County, banded together and lobbied representatives for the honor. The bill to establish the Agricultural College of Utah was passed on March 8, 1888, on September 2, 1890, 14-year-old Miss Vendla Berntson enrolled as its first student.
In its early years, the college narrowly dodged two major campaigns to consolidate its operations with the University of Utah. Much controversy arose in response to President William J. Kerr's expansion of the college's scope beyond its agricultural roots. Detractors in Salt Lake City feared that such an expansion would come at the expense of the University of Utah, pushed consolidation as a counter. In 1907, an agreement was struck to instead limit the curricula of the Agricultural College to agriculture, domestic science, mechanic arts; this meant closing all departments in Logan, including the already-impressive music department, which did not fall under that umbrella. The University of Utah became responsible, for a time, for courses in engineering, medicine, fine arts, pedagogy, despite the Agricultural College's initial charter in 1888 which mandated that it offer instruction in such things; the bulk of the curricular restrictions were lifted during the next two decades, with the exception of law and medicine, which have since remained the sole property of the University of Utah.
Amid the tumult, the Agricultural College grew modestly, adding its statewide Extension program in 1914. A year the first master's degrees were awarded. UAC, as the Utah Agricultural College was abbreviated received a notable boost in students as a direct result of World War I. Colleges and universities nationwide were temporarily transformed into training grounds for the short-lived Student Army Training Corps, composed of students who received military instruction and could return to their educations following their military service; as the then-tiny campus could not otherwise support such large numbers of new students, college president Elmer Peterson convinced the state in 1918 to appropriate funds for permanent brick buildings, which could be used as barracks for SATC students during the war, instruction afterward. Though the war was soon to end, the campus doubled in size; the 1920s and 1930s saw the genesis of major growth. A School of Education was added in 1928, a prelude to the institution being renamed Utah State Agricultural College in 1929.
Doctoral degrees were first granted in 1950. In 1957, the school was granted university status as Utah State University
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1