A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Coregonus is a diverse genus of fish in the salmon family. The Coregonus species are known as whitefishes; the genus contains at least 68 described extant taxa, but the true number of species is a matter of debate. The type species of the genus is Coregonus lavaretus. Most Coregonus species inhabit lakes and rivers, several species, including the Arctic cisco, the Bering cisco, the least cisco are anadromous, moving between salt water and fresh water; the genus was subdivided into two subgenera Coregonus and Leucichthys, Coregonus comprising taxa with sub-terminal mouth and a benthic feeding habit, Leucichthys those with terminal or supra-terminal mouth and a pelagic plankton-feeding habit. This classification is not natural however: based on molecular data, ciscoes comprise two distinct lineages within the genus. Moreover, the genus Stenodus is not phylogenetically distinct from Coregonus. Many whitefish species or ecotypes from the Great Lakes and the Alpine lakes of Europe, have gone extinct over the past century or are endangered.
Among 12 freshwater fish considered extinct in Europe, 6 are Coregonus. All Coregonus species are protected under appendix III of the Bern Convention. There is much confusion in the classification of the many of species of this genus. One extreme view of diversity recognises just two main species in Northern and Central Europe, the common whitefish C. lavaretus and the vendace C. albula, whereas others would divide these into numerous narrowly distributed species. A drastic increase in number of recognized species occurred in 2007, when a review advocated that more than 50 local European populations should be considered as distinct based on morphological differences, it has been estimated that several of them are young, having separated from each other less than 15,000 years ago. Many of these were defined based on number of gill rakers. Although this is hereditary, the number is variable, can change fast in response to changes and genetic studies have shown that they are of limited use in predicting relationships among populations.
Genetic differences between several of the proposed species ones that are distinct morphologically, are limited and sometimes they are not monophyletic. Various Coregonus, whether regarded as separate species or not interbreed with each other. A review of whitefish in the United Kingdom found that the identification key provided in 2007 did not match most individuals and that solid evidence for more than one species in that region is lacking. Many European lakes have more than one Coregonus morph differing in morphology; such morphs are sometimes reproductively isolated from each other, leading to suggestions of recognizing them as separate but clinal species. The morphs or clinal species may disappear by merging into a single in response to changes in the habitat. A similar pattern can be seen in North America where the ciscoes of the Coregonus artedi complex in the Great Lakes and elsewhere comprise several co-occurring morphs or ecotypes, whose taxonomic status remains controversial. In 2017, FishBase listed 78 species, including the more than 50 proposed for Europe in 2007.
Some of these are extinct and C. reighardi is extinct. Coregonus albellus Fatio, 1890 Coregonus albula Linnaeus, 1758 †Coregonus alpenae Coregonus alpinus Fatio, 1885 Coregonus anaulorum Chereshnev, 1996 Coregonus arenicolus Kottelat, 1997 Coregonus artedi Lesueur, 1818 Coregonus atterensis Kottelat, 1997 Coregonus austriacus C. C. Vogt, 1909 Coregonus autumnalis Coregonus baerii Kessler, 1864 Coregonus baicalensis Dybowski, 1874 Coregonus baunti Mukhomediyarov, 1948 Coregonus bavaricus Hofer, 1909 Coregonus bezola Fatio, 1888 Coregonus candidus Goll, 1883 Coregonus chadary Dybowski, 1869 Coregonus clupeaformis Coregonus clupeoides Lacépède, 1803 Coregonus confusus Fatio, 1885 Coregonus danneri C. C. Vogt, 1908 Coregonus duplex Fatio, 1890 Coregonus fatioi Kottelat, 1997 †Coregonus fera Jurine, 1825 Coregonus fontanae M. Schulz & Freyhof, 2003 †Coregonus gutturosus Coregonus heglingus Schinz, 1822 †Coregonus hiemalis Jurine, 1825 Coregonus hoferi L. S. Berg, 1932 Coregonus holsata Thienemann, 1916 Coregonus hoyi Coregonus huntsmani W. B.
Scott, 1987 †Coregonus johannae Coregonus kiletz Michailovsky, 1903 Coregonus kiyi Coregonus ladogae Pravdin, Golubev & Belyaeva, 1938 Coregonus laurettae T. H. Bean, 1881 Coregonus lavaretus Linnaeus, 1758 Coregonus lucinensis Thienemann, 1933 Coregonus lutokka Kottelat, Bogutskaya & Freyhof, 2005 Coregonus macrophthalmus Nüsslin, 1882 Coregonus maraena Coregonus maraenoides L. S. Berg, 1916 Coregonus maxillaris Günther, 1866 Coregonus megalops Widegren, 1863 Coregonus migratorius Coregonus muksun Coregonus nasus Coregonus nelsonii T. H. Bean, 1884 Coregonus nigripinnis (Milner, 1
Jewish cuisine is a diverse collection of cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide. It has evolved over many centuries, shaped by Jewish dietary laws, Jewish Festival and Shabbat traditions. Jewish cuisine is influenced by the economics and culinary traditions of the many countries where Jewish communities have settled and varies throughout the whole world; the distinctive styles in Jewish cuisine are Ashkenazi, Mizrahi, Yemenite and Latin-American. There are dishes from Jewish communities from Ethiopia to Central Asia. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and since the late 1970s, a nascent Israeli "fusion cuisine" has developed. Jewish Israeli cuisine has adapted a multitude of elements, overlapping techniques and ingredients from many diaspora Jewish culinary traditions. Using agricultural products from dishes of one Jewish culinary tradition in the elaboration of dishes of other Jewish culinary traditions, as well as incorporating and adapting various other Middle Eastern dishes from the local non-Jewish population of the Land of Israel, Israeli Jewish cuisine is both authentically Jewish and distinctively local "Israeli", yet hybridised from its multicultural diasporas Jewish origins.
The laws of keeping kosher have influenced Jewish cooking by prescribing what foods are permitted and how food must be prepared. The word kosher is translated as "proper." Certain foods, notably pork and shellfish, are forbidden. Observant Jews will eat only meat or poultry, certified kosher; the meat must have been slaughtered by a shochet in accordance with Jewish law and is drained of blood. Before it is cooked, it is soaked in water for half an hour placed on a perforated board, sprinkled with coarse salt and left to sit for one hour. At the end of this time, the salt is washed off and the meat is ready for cooking. Today, kosher meats purchased from a butcher or supermarket are already koshered as described above and no additional soaking or salting is required. According to kashrut and poultry may not be combined with dairy products, nor may they touch plates or utensils that have been touched by dairy products. Therefore, Jews who observe kashrut divide their kitchens into different sections for meat and for dairy, with separate ovens and utensils.
As a result, butter and cream are not used in preparing dishes made with meat or intended to be served together with meat. Oil, pareve margarine, rendered chicken fat. Despite religious prohibitions, some foods not considered kosher have made their way into traditional Jewish cuisine; the hearty cuisine of Ashkenazi Jews was based on centuries of living in the cold climate of Central and Eastern Europe, whereas the lighter, "sunnier" cuisine of Sephardi Jews was affected by life in the Mediterranean region. Each Jewish community has its traditional dishes revolving around specialties from their home country. In Spain and Portugal, olives are a common ingredient and many foods are fried in oil; the idea of frying fish in the stereotypically British fish and chips, for example, was introduced to Britain by Sephardic Jewish immigrants. In Germany, stews were popular; the Jews of Netherlands specialized in pickles, butter cakes and bolas. In Poland, Jews made various kinds of stuffed and stewed fish along with matza ball soup or lokshen noodles.
In North Africa, Jews eat tagine. Thus, a traditional Shabbat meal for Ashkenazi Jews might include stuffed vine leaves, roast beef, pot roast, or chicken, carrots tzimmes and potatoes. A traditional Shabbat meal for Sephardi Jews would focus more on salads and other Middle Eastern specialties; the daily diet of the ordinary ancient Israelite was one of bread, cooked grains and legumes. Bread was eaten with every meal. Vegetables played a significant role in the diet; the Israelites drank goat and sheep’s milk when it was available in the spring and summer and ate butter and cheese. Figs and grapes were the fruits most eaten, while dates and other fruits and nuts were eaten more occasionally. Wine was the most popular beverage and sometimes other fermented beverages were produced. Olives were used for their oil. Meat goat and mutton, was eaten and reserved for special occasions, such as celebrations, festival meals, or sacrificial feasts. Game, birds and fish were eaten, depending on availability.
Most food was eaten fresh and in season. Fruits and vegetables had to be eaten before they spoiled. People had to contend with periodic episodes of famine. Producing enough food required hard and well-timed labor and the climatic conditions resulted in unpredictable harvests and the need to store as much food as possible. Thus, grapes were made into raisins and wine, olives were made into oil, figs and lentils were dried and grains were stored for use throughout the year; the cuisine maintained many consistent traits based on the main products available from the
The gravenche known as the Lake Geneva whitefish or the little fera, is a extinct freshwater fish from Lake Geneva in Switzerland and France. The gravenche was a species of freshwater whitefish that reached a length between 25 and 32 centimetres; the status of the gravenche is disputed. While Emile Dottrens described it as subspecies of the common whitefish Coregonus lavaretus in 1958, other experts like Maurice Kottelat regarded it as a full species endemic to Lake Geneva; the gravenche is a benthopelagic freshwater fish that swam in the water column near the lake bottom, feeding upon zooplankton. Spawning occurred in mid-December. Together with the extinct true fera, the gravenche was one of the most important species for fisheries in Lake Geneva in the late 19th century. In 1890 these two fishes made up 68% of all fish caught in the lake. Overfishing and eutrophication drove the gravenche to near extinction and it was last seen in the early 1900s. Catalog of Fishes Corregonus hiemalis
Thymallus is a genus of freshwater fish in the salmon family Salmonidae. The type species is the grayling; the species in the genus are generically called graylings, but without qualification this refers to T. thymallus. The fishes of this genus are native to the northern parts of the Palearctic and Nearctic ecozones, ranging from the United Kingdom and northern Europe across Eurasia to Siberia, as well as northern North America. T. thymallus, the grayling, is widespread in Europe, T. arcticus, the Arctic grayling, is widespread throughout Eurasia east of the Ural Mountains and in the Nearctic. The other species have more localized ranges in northern Asia. Thymallus species are distinguished from other members of the salmon family by their larger scales, their small mouths with teeth on the maxillary bone, most striking of all, their showy, sail-like dorsal fins; this fin is longer in males and colourful, with spots of red, purple or green. The body is colourful; the body is further decorated with a smattering of small dark spots.
The longest of the graylings is the Arctic grayling, T. arcticus, at a maximum length of 76 cm and a maximum weight of 3.8 kg. T. thymallus, while somewhat shorter - 60 cm - may weigh more, 6.7 kg. The fishes of this genus may live for 18 years or more; these fishes require well-oxygenated water, preferably with a swift current. Omnivorous, they feed on crustaceans and zooplankton; the grayling species for salmonids, spawn in rivers and do not guard their brood, although they do conceal their eggs in silt. The spawning behavior of the Arctic grayling may be typical for the genus Thymallus; as they are sensitive to changes in water quality, Thymallus fishes may be considered indicator species. Due to their agreeable taste and attractive form, the grayling species are valued as food and game fishes, they are seen in public aquaria; the most economically important of these fishes, for which fisheries and aquaculture operations exist, are the grayling and the Arctic grayling. The name of the genus Thymallus first given to grayling described in the 1758 edition of Systema Naturae by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus originates from the faint smell of the herb thyme, which emanates from the flesh.
Thymallus derives from the Greek θύμαλλος, "thyme smell". According to FishBase, 14 species are placed in this genus. However, views differ on their taxonomic rank. Thymallus arcticus - Arctic grayling Thymallus baicalensis Dybowski, 1874 - Baikal black grayling Thymallus brevipinnis Svetovidov, 1931 - Baikal white grayling Thymallus brevirostris Kessler, 1879 - Mongolian grayling Thymallus burejensis Antonov, 2004 Thymallus flavomaculatus Knizhin, Antonov & Weiss, 2006 - yellow-spotted grayling Thymallus grubii Dybowski, 1869 - Amur grayling Thymallus mertensii Valenciennes, 1848 Thymallus nigrescens Dorogostaisky, 1923 - Kosogol grayling Thymallus pallasii Valenciennes, 1848 - East Siberian grayling Thymallus svetovidovi Knizhin & Weiss, 2009 - Upper Yenisei grayling Thymallus thymallus - grayling Thymallus tugarinae Knizhin, Safronov & Weiss, 2007 - Lower Amur grayling Thymallus yaluensis T. Mori, 1928The Catalog of Fishes lists the species Thymallus baikalolenensis Matveyev, Pronin & Telpukhovsky, 2005, but recognises T. yaluensis only as a subspecies.
An old controversy exists over the status of Baikal black vs white graylings, T. baicalensis and T. brevipinnis. Modern research supports the view that they are not separate taxa, but alternative ecological forms of T. baicalensis. "Thymallus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 11 December 2004. Dyldin, Y. V.. I. Romanov. "A review of the genus Thymallus with taxonomic notes". Bulletin Lampetra. VIII: 103–126
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the