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A fret is a raised element on the neck of a stringed instrument. Frets extend across the full width of the neck. On most modern western fretted instruments, frets are metal strips inserted into the fingerboard. On some historical instruments and non-European instruments, frets are made of pieces of string tied around the neck. Frets divide the neck into fixed segments at intervals related to a musical framework. On instruments such as guitars, each fret represents one semitone in the standard western system, in which one octave is divided into twelve semitones. Fret is used as a verb, meaning "to press down the string behind a fret". Fretting refers to the frets and/or their system of placement. Pressing the string against the fret reduces the vibrating length of the string to that between the bridge and the next fret between the fretting finger and the bridge; this is damped. Frets make it much easier for a player to achieve an acceptable standard of intonation, since the frets determine the positions for the correct notes.

Furthermore, a fretted fingerboard makes it easier to play chords accurately. A disadvantage of frets is that they restrict pitches to the temperament defined by the fret positions. A player may still influence intonation, however, by pulling the string to the side to increase string tension and raise the pitch; this technique is used by electric guitarists of all genres, is an important part of sitar playing. On instruments with frets that are thicker off the fingerboard, string tension and pitch vary with finger pressure behind the fret. Sometimes a player can pull the string toward the bridge or nut, thus lowering or raising the string tension and pitch. However, except for instruments that accommodate extensive string pulling, like the sitar, much less influence on intonation is possible than on unfretted instruments. Since the intonation of most modern western fretted instruments is equal tempered, the ratio of the distances of two consecutive frets to the bridge is 2 12, or 1.059463. Theoretically, the twelfth fret.

To compensate for the increase in string tension when the string is pressed against the frets, the bridge position is adjusted so the 12th fret plays in tune. Many instruments' frets are not spaced according to the semitones of equal temperament, including the Appalachian dulcimer, the Turkish Saz, the Arabic Buzuq, the Persian setar and tar, the Turkish tanbur. Fan frets, or multi-scale: while frets are perpendicular to the instrument's neck centerline and parallel to each other, on a "fanned" fretboard, the frets are angled with only one center fret perpendicular to the neck’s centerline; this gives the lower-pitched strings the higher strings shorter length. The idea is to give deeper bass; some think. Fanned frets first appeared on the 16th century Orpharion, a variant of the cittern, tuned like a lute. John Starrett revived the idea in the late seventies on the Starrboard. Rickenbacker employed a slanted fret. Novax Guitars among others offers such guitars today; the appearance of angled frets on these modern instruments belies the antiquity of this technique.

Scalloped fretboard: Scalloping involves removing some of the wood between some or all of the fret. This is intended to allow a lighter touch for more precise fingering, while easing bends or vibratos, it has some popularity with musicians playing heavy metal music, although the concept can be seen in ancient instruments such as the sitar. Scalloped fretboards have not found widespread popularity because tonally accurate play requires a much lighter fretting hand than most guitarists can achieve, significantly heavier strings as well. Fat frets: on older guitars, frets were made out of thin wire, some electric guitar players replaced that with thicker wire, for "fat frets" or "jumbo frets". Fat frets make bending easier, they change the feel of the guitar; as well, large frets, offering more metal, remain playable much longer than thin frets. A side effect of a thicker fret is a less precise note, since the string is held over a wider surface, causing a slight inaccuracy of pitch, which increases in significance as frets wear.

It is possible to find semi-fretted instruments. Semi-fretted versions of guitars and other fretted string instruments, are one-off, custom adaptations made for players who want to combine elements of both types of sound. One arrangement is for the frets to extend only part of the way along the neck so that the higher notes can be played with the smooth expression possible with a fretless fingerboard. Another approach is the use of frets that extend only partway across the fretboard so that some courses of strings are fretted and others fretless, for example Ryszard Latecki's Latar. Instruments with straight frets

R323 road (Ireland)

The R323 road is a regional road in County Mayo, Ireland. Going from west to east, the route connects the towns of Kiltimagh and Ballyhaunis. En route it crosses over the N17 national primary road at a grade separated junction in the village of Knock; the official description of the R323 from the Roads Act 1993 Order 2006 reads: R323 Kiltimagh - Knock - Ballyhaunis, County MayoBetween its junction with R320 at Main Street Kiltimagh and its junction with N60 at Hazelhill in the town of Ballyhaunis via Thomas Street at Kiltimagh. The road in southeast County Mayo is 20 km long. List of roads of County Mayo National primary road National secondary road Roads in Ireland


Crumbs is an American television sitcom starring Fred Savage and Jane Curtin that ran on ABC from January 12, 2006 to February 7, 2006. It starred William Devane, Maggie Lawson and Eddie McClintock; the show's slogan is "The normal American family turned upside down." Savage played a gay screenwriter who leaves Hollywood to return home to take care of his mother, released from a mental institution after trying to run over her husband after he left her for a younger woman, who turns out to be pregnant. Much of the show takes place at the family's restaurant; the series was cancelled on May 13, 2006. Fred Savage as Mitch Crumb Jane Curtin as Suzanne Crumb Eddie McClintock as Jody Crumb William Devane as Billy Crumb Maggie Lawson as Andrea Malone Reginald Ballard as Elvis Elliott Gould as Frank Bergman Illeana Douglas as Shelley Rider Strong as Dennis Teri Garr as Lorraine Bergman Kevin Rahm as Roger Bob Glouberman as Lawyer Only the first five episodes were broadcast on ABC during the show's original run.

Crumbs on IMDb Crumbs at

In the Hands of the Gods

In the Hands of the Gods is a 2007 documentary film. The film follows five English freestyle footballers as they try to raise money by showcasing their skills, in order to fund a trip to Buenos Aires to meet their idol Diego Maradona; the five freestyle footballers are: Sami Hall, Danny Robinson, Paul Wood, Jeremy Lynch and Mikey Fisher. They have no money for travel or accommodation. Two of them were living on the streets prior to starting their mission, their journey takes them through North and South America and tests them both physically and mentally. It is a journey; the title is a reference to Maradona's famous Hand of God goal. The film was made by Fulwell 73, a production company based in London and run by Leo Pearlman, Gabe Turner, Ben Turner and Ben Winston; the film was produced by Pearlman and Winston. Lionsgate distributed the film in the United Kingdom and it was released on the opening weekend in over 60 screens, making it the widest released documentary in the United Kingdom; the movie follows five British freestylers from distinct backgrounds.

In order of appearance, they are Paul Wood, Danny Robinson, Mikey Fisher, Jeremy Lynch and Sami Hall. The freestylers fly to the United States to raise money for their trips across North America, firstly to perform on the streets of New York, as well as famous landmarks such as Times Square and Central Park, they travel to Memphis and Dallas, where they are used as half-time entertainment during a FC Dallas match. However, they do not have the money to go on a direct fight to Mexico, so they take a coach to get to Mexico City; the freestylers perform in different cities across the country, including at the Azteca Stadium, where the Hand of God goal took place. After it is revealed that the group have only have enough money for two plane tickets, they are unsure on what to do. Lynch wants the group to stay together, but tickets for the five of them would cost $3000, which Wood thinks is unlikely to happen in such a short space of time; the group have it announced by two strangers. Robinson gives up his spot to Wood due to him feeling that Wood is a better freestyler.

Hall and Wood travel further down South America towards Guatemala. The remaining three go back to the United States, in particular to Los Angeles, where they perform at Venice Beach. Fisher gets frustrated with Robinson and Lynch, feels that they are not taking the opportunity seriously, he strikes out on his own, making money off-screen, as well as performing at a bar, where he earns enough to buy a plane ticket to Buenos Aires. Hall and Wood stay overnight with a Guatemalan family, travel across the country in a back of a pickup truck in order to get to La Aurora International Airport, where the duo fly to Rio de Janeiro, they reach the Argentina–Brazil border by walking over a bridge connecting the two countries. Fisher goes to the home stadium of Boca Juniors. Maradona is a fervent supporter of the club, Fisher hopes to meet him at the ground, he talks to Maradona's chauffeur on whether if it is possible to perform tricks in front of the car to attract Maradona's attention, but he gets a look in when a crowd surround the car as it drives off.

Fisher is disappointed not to meet him, but since the brief interaction is the closest any of the five has come to meeting the Argentinean, Fisher believes that it will still be possible. He meets a woman named Camilla, who acts as a translator for the rest of the trip. Hall and Wood arrive in Buenos Aires by coach, are reunited with Fisher who explains the situation to them, their freestyling draws a steady crowd of people, they meet Daniel Arccuci, a journalist for La Nación, are photographed for a newspaper article written about them. They go on a television show, Fox para todos, which Maradona is known to watch and call in on; the taxi driver that takes them there stops by at Maradona's house, lets a family member know about their appearance that afternoon. On the show, Wood reads out an impassioned speech in Spanish directed to Maradona. After the broadcast, presenter Germán Paoloski tells Fisher that Maradona was sleeping as he was set to fly out to Peru that evening, Wood is distraught having heard this news.

They go to the Ezeiza International Airport in the small chance that they will meet Maradona there, Camilla speaks to his chauffeur, who tells her that the Argentinean would like to meet the three freestylers at his house. They meet Maradona, who embraces them, signs their shirts and poses with them for a couple of photographs, before he is driven off. Having earned enough money for two plane tickets to Buenos Aires and Lynch arrive at the airport, they watch a news report documenting the others meeting Maradona. The film received critical acclaim across the board, achieving 4 and 5 stars from the BBC, Total Film, The Guardian, Film 4 and many more. Hall had a short stint as a model, he appeared in the 2009 documentary Oh My God, where he spoke about his faith. Robinson reunited with Wood and Lynch after the film's release, he remained on the freestyle circuit as late as 2009, wherein he went into coaching, is part of the backroom staff at Pymmes SFA. Wood went on to appear in the third series of Britain's Got Talent, alongside his friend and fellow freestyler, Paul Klein, but did not make it to the live shows.

He and Klein run a YouTube channel, although much of their m

Steve Hindi

Steven Omar "Steve" Hindi is an American animal rights activist and businessman. He is the founder and president of the animal rights organization Showing Animals Respect and Kindness. Born in St. Paul, Hindi grew up in a hunting and fishing culture. In 1985, he caught a 230-pound Mako shark in a feat that received a writeup in the New York Daily News, he ceased hunting and fishing after witnessing a live pigeon shoot in Pennsylvania on Labor Day, September 4, 1989. Shocked and disgusted by the sight of thousands of pigeons getting shot after flying from boxes, Hindi vowed to give up his hunting hobby and fight against it instead. Hindi founded the Fox Valley Animal Protectors, which evolved into the Chicago Animal Rights Coalition in 1993 and is called Showing Animals Respect and Kindness, to document animal abuse and disseminate information. Hindi's animal rights activism with the organization has involved lobbying legislators to pass laws against animal cruelty and documenting and protesting against rodeos, live pigeon shoots, geese shoots, horse slaughter, deer killing.

He posts video footage of animal abuse on SHARK's YouTube channel. Hindi served a stint as shipping and receiving clerk at Carol Stream, Illinois-based Allied Rivet, a company that manufactures tubular rivets, before purchasing the company in the mid-1980s, becoming its president, moving it to Geneva, Illinois. In 1992, he ran unsuccessfully in the Republican primary for a seat in the Illinois General Assembly against Tom Cross. Born c. 1953/1954 in St. Paul, Steve Hindi grew up in a St. Paul housing project with his mother and younger brother, Gregory. While he was a young child, his father deserted the family, his mother took his brother with the help of welfare. They lived in the slums and moved to the housing project Roosevelt Homes, located at the east of St. Paul; when he was bullied by another boy in junior high, Hindi fought back and discovered that "often when you stand up to a bully he backs down". Hindi said, "But I became a bit of a bully myself." He lived in several foster homes and had brushes with the law as a teenager, committing petty theft and getting sent to a youth detention center.

Upon graduating from high school, Hindi served as a bus driver for United Cerebral Palsy of Minnesota. He became an aide at St. Paul's Union Gospel Mission; when he was in his early 20s, he traveled to Chicago around 1978. Hindi was the guitarist and was the singer in a group that played at clubs near and in Chicago. According to The Morning Call's Susan Todd, Hindi led a "down-and-out life as a struggling rock musician". Hindi told the Chicago Reader in 1993, "I got the nagging feeling that this wasn't going to work out as I had planned" and decided to change careers to work as a shipping and receiving clerk at Allied Rivet. In 1995, he resided in Kendall County, with Jacquelyn, his wife, his two daughters and Eva; the family had seven cats. Hindi and Jacquie met in 1979 and around 1999 had an amicable divorce, continuing to be friends and business partners. Hindi's animal rights activism caused his marriage to end, his repeated traveling and imprisonment turned away his wife, who said in a 2004 interview with the Daily Herald, "It was the downfall of our marriage.

I was just thinking'I'm raising these kids alone' and'I'm out.'" She said. She forgave him and backed his purpose, saying in 2004, "A lot of people will say animal activists don't care about humans, but, not the case with Steve, he just feels this is where this is where his drive is. He's a great person and a great father, too." Jacquie died on May 27, 2014, at the age of 56. Hindi has a pilot's license. Hindi said in a 1994 interview with the Chicago Tribune that he supports the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. In 2001, Hindi lived in Illinois, he stored hundreds of videotapes of animals in a "floor-to-ceiling cabinet" in his living room, assigning them titles like "Rodeo Cruelty", "Making Foie Gras", "Pennsylvania Pigeon Shoot". Some of the videos were shot at bullfights and roadside zoos. Shelves held small cameras, stun guns, walkie-talkies. In 2012, Hindi lived in Kane County, Illinois. Hindi's girlfriend, Janet Enoch, is a member of SHARK. In a 2014 interview with The Oklahoman, Hindi characterized himself as a lifelong Republican.

Instead of attending college, at age 23 Hindi switched to being a shipping and receiving clerk at Carol Stream, Illinois-based Allied Tubular Rivet, a company that manufactures tubular rivets. The company made millions of rivets for air ducts and other products, he became the operator of the company's manufacturing shop. His father-in-law sold it to Hindi about five years later. After paying $240,000 to buy the company, Hindi became its president. After reading a newspaper series about the homeless in April 1990, Hindi employed several homeless people at the company. In the early 1990s, he moved Allied Rivet to Geneva. In 1993, Allied Rivet had $2 million in annual sales and employed around 20 people, including his brother Greg, a "supersalesman", Hindi said. In 2007, Hindi's former wife Jacquie said that Hindi transformed their company Allied Rivet into a "very successful, multimillion-dollar company". Hindi ran a campaign in the Republican primary against Assistant Kendall County States Attorney Tom Cross for representing Kendall County in the 84th district of the Illinois House of Repr

Black Scorpion Arnis

Black Scorpion Arnis is a distinct Filipino martial art first developed in the late 1960s that focuses on self-defense. The hands and feet are used extensively in most of the styles moves; the black scorpion or alakdan in Tagalog is a dangerous and poisonous animal that can kill anyone with its sting. The arnis or tungkod baston in Tagalog, is a cane or stick, used in martial arts practice. Elderly men and women use this weapon as a walking stick for self-defense; the Black Scorpion Arnis International is a self-defense and martial arts organization founded by Capt. Arthur Cuadrante Teodosio, a reserve officer of the Philippine Army and the United States Army volunteer reserve. Capt. Teodosio organized and founded Black Scorpion Arnis International in his hometown of Balete, Philippines in 1969, was formalized and registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission and Department of Trade and Industry on November 10, 1982. Black Scorpion Arnis is a combination of martial art styles, its development focuses on the field of sports competition.

The ultimate goal of this association is to introduce the sport locally and internationally for self-defense and competitions. BSAI has been conducting sports competitions, instructor seminars and national and international competitions since 1969, they have promoted thousands of students including experienced tournament players and black-belt holders under the leadership. Black Scorpion Arnis uses feet to earn a point in competition. Arnis, or stick fighting, is a Philippine martial art sport, is known as Kali, Escrima, or Arnis de Mano. Kali is the oldest known Filipino martial art of stick fighting; the signature scorpion kick of the style is executed by pivoting to the back in a complete turn. The degree of effectiveness falls under two classifications: pamatay; the first is aimed at less vital parts of the physique, while the target of the second includes the heart, head and spine. Black Scorpion Arnis utilizes the hands during competition and practice; the player his hands for blocking and punching.

Violation of this injunction in tournaments, is grounds for disqualification. The entry of Black Scorpion Arnis in tournaments those of international caliber, presaged certain modifications of its original rules, such as setting a time limit, doubling the size of the fighting area required in the original arena, wearing armor for safety during full contact competition. A Dying Art: Sikaran, Art of Philippines Foot Fighting, Emmanuel del Espiritu Santo Querubin - Black Belt Magazine, April 1966 It All Began 800 Years Ago, Emmanuel del Espiritu Santo Querubin - Black Belt Magazine, June 1966 PDF scan of a Sikaran article and Asian Karate Association albums from the 60's and 70's