Tatting is a technique for handcrafting a particularly durable lace from a series of knots and loops. Tatting can be used to make lace edging as well as doilies, accessories such as earrings and necklaces, and other decorative pieces. The lace is formed by a pattern of rings and chains formed from a series of cow hitch or half-hitch knots, called double stitches, gaps can be left between the stitches to form picots, which are used for practical construction as well as decorative effect. Tatting dates to the early 19th century, gaining popularity in the 1860s through 1880s, the term for tatting in most European languages is derived from French frivolité, which refers to the purely decorative nature of the textiles produced by this technique. Tatting with a shuttle is the earliest method of creating tatted lace, a tatting shuttle facilitates tatting by holding a length of wound thread and guiding it through loops to make the requisite knots. Historically, it was a metal or ivory pointed-oval shape less than 3 inches long, shuttles often have a point or hook on one end to aid in the construction of the lace.
Antique shuttles and unique shuttles have become sought after by collectors — even those who do not tat, to make the lace, the tatter wraps the thread around one hand and manipulates the shuttle with the other hand. No tools other than the thread, the hands and the shuttle are used, traditional shuttle tatting may be simulated using a tatting needle or doll needle instead of a shuttle. There are two techniques for needle tatting. With the more widely disseminated technique, a double thread passes through the stitches, the result is similar to shuttle tatting but is slightly thicker and looser. The second technique more closely approximates shuttle tatting because a single thread passes through the stitches, needle tatting originated in the early twentieth century, but did not become popular until much later. A tatting needle is a long, blunt needle that does not change thickness at the eye of the needle, the needle used must match the thickness of the thread chosen for the project. Rather than winding the shuttle, the needle is threaded with a length of thread, to work with a second color, a second needle is used.
Although needle tatting looks similar to shuttle tatting, it differs in structure and is thicker and looser because both the needle and the thread must pass through the stitches. However, it may be seen that the Victorian tatting pin would function as a tatting needle, as well, Florence Hartley refers in The Ladies Hand Book of Fancy and Ornamental Work to the use of the tatting needle, so it must have originated prior to the mid-1800s. In the late 20th century, tatting needles became commercially available in a variety of sizes, few patterns are written specifically for needle tatting, some shuttle tatting patterns may be used without modification. There are currently two manufacturers of tatting needles, cro-tatting combines needle tatting with crochet. The cro-tatting tool is a needle with a crochet hook at the end
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature. Carbon ranging from 1. 8–4 wt%, and silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron, Iron alloys with less carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram, cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. It is resistant to destruction and weakening by oxidation, the earliest cast iron artefacts date to the 5th century BC, and were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare, during the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for artillery in Burgundy, and in England during the Reformation. The first cast iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, cast iron is used in the construction of buildings.
Cast iron is made by re-melting pig iron, often along with quantities of iron, limestone, carbon. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the iron, but this burns out the carbon. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into a furnace or ladle. Cast irons properties are changed by adding various alloying elements, or alloyants, next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant because it forces carbon out of solution. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide, a high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon and copper increase strength, and machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed.
The carbon in the form of graphite results in an iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength. Sulfur, largely a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, the problem with sulfur is that it makes molten cast iron viscous, which causes defects. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide, the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag
A metal is a material that is typically hard, opaque and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are generally malleable—that is, they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking—as well as fusible and ductile, about 91 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals, the others are nonmetals or metalloids. Some elements appear in both metallic and non-metallic forms, astrophysicists use the term metal to collectively describe all elements other than hydrogen and helium, the simplest two, in a star. The star fuses smaller atoms, mostly hydrogen and helium, to larger ones over its lifetime. In that sense, the metallicity of an object is the proportion of its matter made up of all chemical elements. Many elements and compounds that are not normally classified as metals become metallic under high pressures, the atoms of metallic substances are typically arranged in one of three common crystal structures, namely body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, and hexagonal close-packed.
In bcc, each atom is positioned at the center of a cube of eight others, in fcc and hcp, each atom is surrounded by twelve others, but the stacking of the layers differs. Some metals adopt different structures depending on the temperature, atoms of metals readily lose their outer shell electrons, resulting in a free flowing cloud of electrons within their otherwise solid arrangement. This provides the ability of metallic substances to easily transmit heat, while this flow of electrons occurs, the solid characteristic of the metal is produced by electrostatic interactions between each atom and the electron cloud. This type of bond is called a metallic bond, Metals are usually inclined to form cations through electron loss, reacting with oxygen in the air to form oxides over various timescales. Examples,4 Na + O2 →2 Na2O2 Ca + O2 →2 CaO4 Al +3 O2 →2 Al2O3, the transition metals are slower to oxidize because they form a passivating layer of oxide that protects the interior. Others, like palladium and gold, do not react with the atmosphere at all, some metals form a barrier layer of oxide on their surface which cannot be penetrated by further oxygen molecules and thus retain their shiny appearance and good conductivity for many decades.
The oxides of metals are generally basic, as opposed to those of nonmetals, exceptions are largely oxides with very high oxidation states such as CrO3, Mn2O7, and OsO4, which have strictly acidic reactions. Painting, anodizing or plating metals are good ways to prevent their corrosion, however, a more reactive metal in the electrochemical series must be chosen for coating, especially when chipping of the coating is expected. Water and the two form an electrochemical cell, and if the coating is less reactive than the coatee. Metals in general have high conductivity, high thermal conductivity. Typically they are malleable and ductile, deforming under stress without cleaving, in terms of optical properties, metals are shiny and lustrous. Sheets of metal beyond a few micrometres in thickness appear opaque, although most metals have higher densities than most nonmetals, there is wide variation in their densities, lithium being the least dense solid element and osmium the densest
Knitting is a method by which yarn is manipulated to create a textile or fabric. Knitting creates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line or tube, Knitting has multiple active stitches on the needle at one time. Knitted fabric consists of a number of rows of interlocking loops. Knitting may be done by hand or by using a machine, different types of yarns, needle sizes, and stitch types may be used to achieve knitted fabrics with different properties. Like weaving, knitting is a technique for producing a two-dimensional fabric made from a one-dimensional yarn or thread, in weaving, threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise or crosswise. By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a path, forming symmetric loops symmetrically above. These meandering loops can be stretched in different directions giving knit fabrics much more elasticity than woven fabrics. Depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%, for this reason, knitting was initially developed for garments that must be elastic or stretch in response to the wearers motions, such as socks and hosiery.
Thread used in weaving is usually much finer than the used in knitting. If they are not secured, the loops of a course will come undone when their yarn is pulled. To secure a stitch, at least one new loop is passed through it, although the new stitch is itself unsecured, it secures the stitch suspended from it. A sequence of stitches in each stitch is suspended from the next is called a wale. To secure the initial stitches of a fabric, a method for casting on is used, to secure the final stitches in a wale. During knitting, the stitches are secured mechanically, either from individual hooks or from a knitting needle or frame in hand-knitting. There are two varieties of knitting, weft knitting and warp knitting. In the more common weft knitting, the wales are perpendicular to the course of the yarn, in warp knitting, the wales and courses run roughly parallel. In weft knitting, the fabric may be produced from a single yarn, by adding stitches to each wale in turn. By contrast, in warp knitting, one yarn is required for every wale, since a typical piece of knitted fabric may have hundreds of wales, warp knitting is typically done by machine, whereas weft knitting is done by both hand and machine
Photomontage is the process and the result of making a composite photograph by cutting, gluing and overlapping two or more photographs into a new image. Sometimes the resulting image is photographed so that a final image may appear as a seamless photographic print. A similar method, although one that does not use film, is realized today through image-editing software and this latter technique is referred to by professionals as compositing, and in casual usage is often called photoshopping. A composite of related photographs to extend a view of a scene or subject would not be labeled as a montage. Such environments as dioramas were made of composited images, the first and most famous mid-Victorian photomontage was The Two Ways of Life by Oscar Rejlander, followed shortly thereafter by the images of photographer Henry Peach Robinson such as Fading Away. These works actively set out to challenge the then-dominant painting and theatrical tableau vivants, fantasy photomontage postcards were popular in the Victorian and Edwardian periods.
The preeminent producer in this period was the Bamforh Company, in Holmfirth, West Yorkshire, many of the early examples of fine-art photomontage consist of photographed elements superimposed on watercolours, a combination returned to by George Grosz in about 1915. In 1916, John Heartfield and George Grosz experimented with pasting pictures together, as so often happens in life, we had stumbled across a vein of gold without knowing it. ”John Heartfield and George Grosz were members of Berlin Club Dada. The German Dadists were instrumental in making montage into a modern art-form, the term photomontage” became widely known at the end of World War I, around 1918 or 1919. Heartfield used photomontage extensively in his innovative book dust jackets for the Berlin publishing house Malik-Verlag and he revolutionized the look of these book covers. Heartfield was the first to use photomontage to tell a “story” from the front cover of the book to the back cover and he employed groundbreaking typography to enhance the effect.
From 1930-1938, John Heartfield used photomontage to create 240 “Photomontages of The Nazi Period” to use art as a weapon against fascism, continuing to produce anti-fascist art in Czechoslovakia until 1938, Heartfield’s political photomontages earned him the number five position on the Gestapo’s Most Wanted List. Other major artists who were members of Berlin Club Dada and major exponents of photomontage were Hannah Höch, Kurt Schwitters, Raoul Hausmann, Photomontage survived Dada and was a technique inherited and used by European Surrealists such as Salvador Dalí. Its influence spread to Japan where avant-garde painter Harue Koga produced photomontage-style paintings based on images culled from magazines, the worlds first retrospective show of photomontage was held in Germany in 1931. A term coined in Europe was, which referred to large and ambitious works that added typography, brushwork. In the education sphere, media arts director Rene Acevedo and Adrian Brannan have left their mark on art classrooms the world over and his contemporary, Lola Alvarez Bravo, experimented with photomontage on life and social issues in Mexican cities.
In Argentina during the late 1940s, the German exile, Grete Stern, began to contribute work on the theme of Sueños, as part of a regular psychoanalytical article in the magazine. The pioneering techniques of early photomontage artists were co-opted by the industry from the late 1920s onward
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument, the history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt. Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment, Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications. The date and origin of the first device considered an instrument is disputed. The oldest object that some refer to as a musical instrument. Some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago, many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin.
By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North and South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical instrument development slowed in areas and was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, Instruments can be classified by their effective range, their material composition, their size, etc. However, the most common method, Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound. The academic study of instruments is called organology. Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies—for example, by using objects to create music from sounds. Primitive instruments were designed to emulate natural sounds, and their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment. The concept of melody and the pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early players of musical instruments. A player sounding a flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the notion of making music.
Musical instruments are constructed in an array of styles and shapes
Spinning is a major part of the textile industry. The textiles are fabricated into finished fabrics, home textiles, clothes or other products, there are three industrial processes available to spin yarn, and a handicraft community who use hand spinning techniques. Spinning is the twisting together of drawn out strands of fibres to form yarn, though it is used to describe the process of drawing out, inserting the twist. In simple words, spinning is a process in which we convert fibres by passing through certain processes like blow room, drawing, simplex, ring frame and these yarns are wound onto the cones. Artificial fibres are made by extruding a polymer through a spinneret into a medium where it hardens, wet spinning uses a coagulating medium. In dry spinning, the polymer is contained in a solvent that evaporates in the heated exit chamber, in melt spinning the extruded polymer is cooled in gas or air and sets. All these fibres will be of length, often kilometers long. Natural fibres are either from animals, mineral, or from plants and these vegetable fibres can come from the seed, the stem or the leaf.
Without exception, many processes are needed before a clean even staple is obtained – each with a specific name. With the exception of silk, each of these fibres is short, being only centimetres in length, artificial fibres can be processed as long fibres or batched and cut so they can be processed like a natural fibre. Ring-spinning is the most common spinning method in the world, other systems include air-jet and open-end spinning. Open-end spinning is done using break or open-end spinning and this is a technique where the staple fibre is blown by air into a rotor and attaches to the tail of formed yarn that is continually being drawn out of the chamber. Other methods of break spinning use needles and electrostatic forces, the processes to make yarn short-staple yarn are blending, carding, pin-drafting, spinning, and—if desired—plying and dyeing. In long staple spinning, the process may start with stretch-break of tow, in open-end and air-jet spinning, the roving operation is eliminated. The spinning frame winds yarn a bobbin, after this step the yarn is wound to a cone for knitting or weaving.
In mule spinning the roving is pulled off a bobbin and fed through rollers, if the roving was not a consistent size, this step could cause a break in the yarn, or could jam the machine. The yarn is twisted through the spinning of the bobbin as the carriage moves out, mule spinning produces a finer thread than the less skilled ring spinning. The mule was an intermittent process, as the advanced and returned a distance of 5ft. It was the descendant of a 1779 Crompton device
Collage is a technique of an art production, primarily used in the visual arts, where the artwork is made from an assemblage of different forms, thus creating a new whole. The origins of collage can be traced back hundreds of years, the term collage was coined by both Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the beginning of the 20th century when collage became a distinctive part of modern art. Techniques of collage were first used at the time of the invention of paper in China, around 200 BC. The use of collage, wasnt used by many people until the 10th century in Japan, when began to apply glued paper, using texts on surfaces. The technique of collage appeared in medieval Europe during the 13th century, gold leaf panels started to be applied in Gothic cathedrals around the 15th and 16th centuries. Gemstones and other metals were applied to religious images, icons. An 18th-century example of art can be found in the work of Mary Delany. In the 19th century, collage methods were used among hobbyists for memorabilia, the exhibition traveled to The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The Art Gallery of Ontario.
For example, the Tate Gallerys online art glossary states that collage was first used as a technique in the twentieth century. The glued-on patches which Braque and Picasso added to their canvases offered a new perspective on painting when the patches collided with the plane of the painting. Collage in the modernist sense began with Cubist painters Georges Braque, according to some sources, Picasso was the first to use the collage technique in oil paintings. According to the Guggenheim Museums online article about collage, Braque took up the concept of collage itself before Picasso, applying it to charcoal drawings. Picasso adopted collage immediately after, It was Braque who purchased a roll of simulated oak-grain wallpaper and began cutting out pieces of the paper, Picasso immediately began to make his own experiments in the new medium. In 1912 for his Still Life with Chair Caning, Picasso pasted a patch of oilcloth with a design onto the canvas of the piece. Surrealist artists have made use of collage.
Cubomania is a made by cutting an image into squares which are reassembled automatically or at random. Collages produced using a similar, or perhaps identical, method are called etrécissements by Marcel Mariën from a method first explored by Mariën, surrealist games such as parallel collage use collective techniques of collage making. Many of these artists used techniques in their work
A bracket is an architectural element, a structural or decorative member. It can be made of wood, plaster, metal and it projects from a wall, usually to carry weight and sometimes to. strengthen an angle. A corbel and console are types of brackets, in mechanical engineering a bracket is any intermediate component for fixing one part to another, usually larger, part. What makes a bracket a bracket is the fact that it is intermediate between the two and fixes the one to the other. By extension almost any object that performs this function of attaching one part to another component is called a bracket. Brackets can support many architectural items, including a wall, parapets, eaves, in adjustable shelving systems, the bracket may be in two parts, with the load-bearing horizontal support fitting into a wall-mounted slotted vertical metal strip. Brackets are an element in the used to mount modern facade cladding systems onto the outside of contemporary buildings. Architectural sculptures Brackets are often in the form of sculptures with reliefs of objects.
Depending on their material, decorated ones can be carved and they can be of cast stone or resin-foam materials with faux finishes for use on new buildings in historic revival styles of architecture. Some brackets and corbels are only ornamental, and serve no actual supporting purpose, corbel Dougong—wooden brackets commonly found in East Asian architecture Index, Architectural elements Media related to Brackets at Wikimedia Commons
Crochet is a process of creating fabric by interlocking loops of yarn, thread, or strands of other materials using a crochet hook. The name is derived from the French term crochet, meaning small hook and these are made of materials such as metal, wood, or plastic and are manufactured commercially and produced in artisan workshops. The word crochet is derived from the Old French crochet, a diminutive of croche, in turn from the Germanic croc, although that fabric is not known to be crochet in the present sense, a genealogical relationship between the techniques sharing that name appears likely. Knitted textiles survive from early periods but the first substantive evidence of crocheted fabric relates to its appearance in Europe during the 19th century, earlier work identified as crochet was commonly made by nålebinding, a separate looped yarn technique. The first known published instructions for crochet explicitly using that term to designate the craft in its present sense and this includes a color plate showing five different style purses of which three were intended to be crocheted with silk thread.
The first is simple open crochet, a mesh of chain-stitch arches, the second starts in a semi-open form, where chain-stitch arches alternate with equally long segments of slip-stitch crochet, and closes with a star made with double-crochet stitches. The third purse is made entirely in double-crochet, the instructions prescribe the use of a tambour needle and introduce a number of decorative techniques. The earliest dated English reference to garments made of cloth produced by looping yarn with a hook — shepherds knitting — is in, The Memoirs of a Highland Lady, by Elizabeth Grant. The journal entry, itself, is dated 1812 but was not recorded in its published form until some time between 1845 and 1867, and the actual date of publication was first in 1898. Nonetheless, the 1833 volume of Penélopé describes and illustrates a shepherds hook, in 1842, one of the numerous books discussing crochet that began to appear in the 1840s states, Crochet needles, sometimes called Shepherds hooks, are made of steel, ivory, or box-wood.
They have a hook at one end similar in shape to a fish-hook, by which the wool or silk is caught and these instruments are to be procured of various sizes. It derives its present name from the French, the instrument with which it is worked being by them, from its crooked shape, termed crochet. This art has attained its highest degree of perfection in England, whence it has been transplanted to France and Germany, an instruction book from 1846 describes Shepherd or Single Crochet as what in current British usage is either called single crochet or slip-stitch crochet, with U. S. American terminology always using the latter and it similarly equates Double and French crochet. Notwithstanding the categorical assertion of a purely British origin, there is evidence of a connection between French tambour embroidery and crochet. The former method of production was illustrated in detail in 1763 in Diderots Encyclopedia, the 1823 Penélopé instructions unequivocally state that the tambour tool was used for crochet and the first of the 1840s instruction books uses the terms tambour and crochet as synonyms.
This equivalence is retained in the 4th edition of work,1847. The strong taper of the shepherds hook eases the production of slip-stitch crochet but is less amenable to stitches that require multiple loops on the hook at the same time, early yarn hooks were continuously tapered but gradually enough to accommodate multiple loops
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting and braiding or plaiting, the longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. The method in which these threads are inter woven affects the characteristics of the cloth, cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth can be using other methods, including tablet weaving, back-strap. The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave, the majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves, plain weave, satin weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be plain, or can be woven in decorative or artistic design, in general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other, the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft that crosses it.
One warp thread is called an end and one weft thread is called a pick, the warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other, typically in a loom. There are many types of looms, Weaving can be summarized as a repetition of these three actions, called the primary motion of the loom. Beating-up or battening, where the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by the reed. The warp is divided into two overlapping groups, or lines that run in two planes, one another, so the shuttle can be passed between them in a straight motion. Then, the group is lowered by the loom mechanism. Repeating these actions form a fabric mesh but without beating-up, the distance between the adjacent wefts would be irregular and far too large. The warp-beam is a wooden or metal cylinder on the back of the loom on which the warp is delivered, the threads of the warp extend in parallel order from the warp-beam to the front of the loom where they are attached to the cloth-roll. Each thread or group of threads of the passes through an opening in a heddle.
The warp threads are separated by the heddles into two or more groups, each controlled and automatically drawn up and down by the motion of the heddles, where a complex design is required, the healds are raised by harness cords attached to a Jacquard machine. Every time the harness moves up or down, an opening is made between the threads of warp, through which the pick is inserted, traditionally the weft thread is inserted by a shuttle. On a conventional loom, the thread is carried on a pirn. A handloom weaver could propel the shuttle by throwing it from side to side with the aid of a picking stick, the picking΅ on a power loom is done by rapidly hitting the shuttle from each side using an overpick or underpick mechanism controlled by cams 80-250 times a minute
Rug hooking is both an art and a craft where rugs are made by pulling loops of yarn or fabric through a stiff woven base such as burlap, linen, or rug warp. The loops are pulled through the material by using a crochet-type hook mounted in a handle for leverage. In contrast latch-hooking uses a hook to form a knotted pile from short. Wool strips ranging in size from 3/32 to 10/32 of an inch in width are often used to create hooked rugs or wall hangings and these precision strips are usually cut using a mechanical cloth slitter, the strips can be hand-cut or torn. When using the technique the rugs are usually done in a primitive motif. Designs for the rugs are often produced and can be as complex as flowers or animals to as simple as geometrics. Rug-hooking has been popular in North America for at least the past 200 years, the author William Winthrop Kent believed that the earliest forebears of hooked rugs were the floor mats made in Yorkshire, England during the early part of the 19th century.
Workers in weaving mills were allowed to collect thrums, pieces of yarn that ran 9 inches long and these by-products were useless to the mill, and the weavers took them home and pulled the thrums through a backing. The origins of the word thrum are ancient, as Mr. Kent pointed out a reference in Shakespeares Merry Wives of Windsor. To add to this there are examples at the Folk Museum in Guernsey. In its earliest years, rug hooking was a craft of poverty, the vogue for floor coverings in the United States came about after 1830 when factories produced machine-made carpets for the rich. Poor women began looking through their bags for materials to employ in creating their own home-made floor coverings. Women employed whatever materials they had available, girls from wealthy families were sent to school to learn embroidery and quilting, fashioning floor rugs and mats was never part of the curriculum. Another sign that hooking was the pastime of the poor is the fact that popular ladies magazines in the 19th century never wrote about rug hooking and it was considered a country craft in the days when the word country, used in this context, was derogatory.
Today rug hooking or mat making as it is referred to has been labeled in Canada as a fine art. Since hooking was a craft of poverty, rug makers put to use whatever materials were available, antique hooked rugs were created on burlap after 1850 because burlap was free as long as one used old grain and feed bags. Every and any scrap of fiber that was no longer usable as clothing was put into rugs, in the United States, yarn was not a fiber of choice if one did not have access to thrums. Yarn was too precious, and had to be saved for knitting and weaving, instead the tradition of using scraps of fabric evolved