Nursing home care
Nursing homes known as old people's homes, care homes, rest homes, convalescent homes, provide residential care for elderly or disabled people that includes around-the-clock nursing care. These terms have different meanings in the same or different English-speaking countries to indicate that the institutions are public or private or provide assisted living or more or less nursing care and emergency medical care. A nursing home is a place for people who don't need to be in a hospital but can't be cared for at home. Most nursing homes have skilled nurses on hand 24 hours a day; some nursing homes provide short-term rehabilitative stays following surgery, illness, or injury. Services may include occupational therapy, or speech-language therapy. Nursing homes offer other services, such as planned activities and daily housekeeping. Nursing homes may be referred to as convalescent care, skilled nursing or a long-term facility. Nursing homes may offer memory care services. Starting in the 17th century, the concept of poorhouses were brought to America by English settlers.
All orphans, mentally ill and the poor elderly were placed into these living commons. In the twenty-first century, nursing homes have become a standard form of care for the most aged and incapacitated persons. Nearly 6 percent of older adults are sheltered in residential facilities that provide a wide range of care, yet such institutions have not always existed. Before the nineteenth century, no age-restricted institutions existed for long-term care. Rather, elderly individuals who needed shelter because of incapacity, impoverishment, or family isolation ended their days in an almshouse. Placed alongside the insane, the inebriated, or the homeless, they were categorized as part of the community's most needy recipients; these poorhouses gave a place where they could be given daily meals. Poorhouses continued to exist into the early 20th century despite the criticism. Much of the criticism stemmed from the conditions of the poorhouses; the Great Depression overwhelmed the poorhouses as there were a lot of people that needed help and care but not enough space and funding in the poorhouses.
Due to Muck Raking in the 1930s the less than favorable living conditions of the poorhouses were exposed to the public. Poorhouses were replaced with a different type of residential living for the elderly; these new residential living homes were called board-and-care homes or known as convalescent homes. These board-and-care homes would provide basic levels of care and meals in a private setting for a specific fee. Board-and-care homes proved to be a success and by World War 2, the new way of nursing homes began to take shape; as the times continued to change, the government identified the issue of people spending extensive amounts of time in hospitals. To combat these long stays in short-term settings, board-and-care homes began to convert into something more public and permanent, state and federally funded. From this, by 1965 nursing homes were a solid fixture. Nursing homes were a permanent residence where the elderly and disabled could receive any necessary medical care and receive daily meals.
Though nursing homes in the beginning were not perfect, they were a huge step above almshouses and poorhouses in regards to following laws and maintaining cleanliness. From the 1950s through the 1970s the dynamics of nursing homes began changing significantly. Medicare and Medicaid began to make up much of the money that would filter through the homes and the 1965 amendment laws enforced nursing homes to comply with safety codes and required registered nurses to be on hand at all times. Additionally, nursing homes may sue children for the costs of caring for their parents in jurisdictions which have filial responsibility laws. In 1987, the Nursing Reform Act was introduced to begin defining the different types of nursing home services and added the Residents' Bill of Rights. Today nursing homes are different across the board; some nursing homes still resemble a hospital. Nursing home residents can pay for their care out of pocket, others may receive medicare for a short time and some may use long-term insurance plans.
Across the spectrum, most nursing homes will accept medicaid as a source of payment. In most jurisdictions, nursing homes are required to provide enough staff to adequately care for residents. In the U. S. for instance, nursing homes must have at least one registered nurse available for at least 8 straight hours a day throughout the week, at least one licensed practical nurse on duty 24 hours a day. Direct care nursing home employees include registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, certified nursing assistants, physical therapists, amongst others. Nursing homes require that a registered nurse monitor residents; the RN's job duties include implementing care plans, administering medications and maintaining accurate reports for each resident and recording medical changes and providing direction to the nursing assistants and licensed practical nurses. The LPN monitors residents’ well-being and administers treatments and medications, such as dressing wounds and dispensing prescribed drugs. A nursing assistant provides basic care to patients while working directly under a LPN or RN.
These basic care activities referred to as activities of daily living, can include assisting with bathing and dressing residents, helping residents with meals, eit
Jessica Tandy was an English-American stage and film actress best known for her Academy Award winning performance in the film Driving Miss Daisy. Tandy appeared in over 100 stage productions and had more than 60 roles in film and TV. Born in London to Jessie Helen Horspool and commercial traveller Harry Tandy, she was only 18 when she made her professional debut on the London stage in 1927. During the 1930s, she appeared in a large number of plays in London's West End, playing roles such as Ophelia and Katherine. During this period, she worked in a number of British films. Following the end of her marriage to the British actor Jack Hawkins, she moved to New York in 1940, where she met Canadian actor Hume Cronyn, he became her second husband and frequent partner on screen. She received the Tony Award for best performance by a Leading Actress in A Play for her performance as Blanche DuBois in the original Broadway production of A Streetcar Named Desire in 1948. Tandy shared the prize with Judith Anderson in a three-way tie for the award.
Over the following three decades, her career continued sporadically and included a supporting role in Alfred Hitchcock's horror film, The Birds, a Tony Award-winning performance in The Gin Game. Along with Cronyn, she was a member of the original acting company of the Guthrie Theater. In the mid-1980s she had a career revival, she appeared with Cronyn in the Broadway production of Foxfire in 1983 and its television adaptation four years winning both a Tony Award and an Emmy Award for her portrayal of Annie Nations. During these years, she appeared in films such as Cocoon with Cronyn, she became the oldest actress to receive the Academy Award for Best Actress for her role in Driving Miss Daisy, for which she won a BAFTA and a Golden Globe, was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for Fried Green Tomatoes. At the height of her success, she was named as one of People's "50 Most Beautiful People", she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 1990, continued working until shortly before her death.
The youngest of three siblings, Tandy was born in Geldeston Road in London. Her father, Harry Tandy, was a travelling salesman for a rope manufacturer, her mother, Jessie Helen Horspool, was from a large fenland family in Wisbech and the head of a school for mentally handicapped children. Her father died when Tandy was 12, her mother subsequently taught evening courses to earn an income, her brother Edward was a prisoner of war of the Japanese in the Far East. Tandy was educated at Dame Alice Owen's School in Islington. Tandy began her career at the age of 18 in London, establishing herself with performances opposite such actors as Laurence Olivier and John Gielgud, she entered films in Britain, but after her marriage to Jack Hawkins failed, she moved to the United States hoping to find better roles. During her time as a leading actress on the stage in London she had to fight for roles over her two rivals, Peggy Ashcroft and Celia Johnson. In 1942, she married Hume Cronyn and over the following years played supporting roles in several Hollywood films.
Tandy became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1952. Like so many stage actors, Tandy had a hand in radio, as well. Among other programs, she was a regular on Mandrake the Magician, with husband Hume Cronyn in The Marriage which ran on radio from 1953–54, segued onto television, she made her American film debut in The Seventh Cross. The Hollywood studio system did not know. Failing to gain leading roles, she was relegated to supporting appearances in The Valley of Decision, The Green Years, Dragonwyck starring Gene Tierney and Vincent Price and Forever Amber. Over the next three decades, her film career continued sporadically while she found better roles on the stage, her roles during this time included The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel opposite James Mason, The Light in the Forest, a role as a domineering mother in Alfred Hitchcock's film, The Birds. On Broadway, she won a Tony Award for her performance as Blanche Dubois in the original Broadway production of A Streetcar Named Desire in 1948.
After this, she concentrated on the stage. In 1977, she earned her second Tony Award, for her performance in The Gin Game and her third Tony in 1982 for her performance, again with Cronyn, in Foxfire; the beginning of the 1980s saw a resurgence in her film career, with character roles in The World According to Garp, Best Friends, Still of the Night and The Bostonians. She and Cronyn were now working together more on stage and television, including the films Cocoon, *batteries not included and Cocoon: The Return and the Emmy Award winning television film Foxfire. However, it was her colourful performance in Driving Miss Daisy, as an aging, stubborn Southern-Jewish matron, that earned her an Oscar, she received a Best Supporting Actress nomination for her work in the grassroots hit Fried Green Tomatoes, co-starred in The Story Lady, Used People, television film To Dance with the White Dog, Nobody's Fool, Camilla. Camilla proved to be her last perf
Mary Stuart Masterson
Mary Stuart Masterson is an American actress. She has starred in the films At Close Range, Some Kind of Wonderful, Chances Are, Fried Green Tomatoes and Benny & Joon, she won the National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role in the 1989 film Immediate Family, was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical for the 2003 Broadway revival of Nine. Masterson was born in Manhattan, the daughter of writer-director-actor-producer Peter Masterson and singer-actress Carlin Glynn, she has two siblings: Alexandra. As a teen, she attended Stagedoor Manor Performing Arts Training Center in upstate New York with actors Robert Downey Jr. and Jon Cryer. She attended schools in New York, including eight months studying anthropology at New York University. Masterson's first film appearance was in The Stepford Wives at the age of eight, playing a daughter to her real-life father. Rather than continue her career as a child actor, she chose to continue her studies, although she did appear in several productions at the Dalton School.
In 1985, she returned to cinema in Heaven Help Us as Danni, a courageous teen running the soda shop of her gravely depressed Dad. She appeared with Sean Penn and Christopher Walken in the film At Close Range as Brad Jr's girlfriend Terry, a film based on an actual rural Pennsylvania crime family led by Bruce Johnston, Sr. during the 1960s and 1970s. She starred as the tomboyish drummer Watts in the teenage drama Some Kind of Wonderful; as a result, she is loosely connected with the Brat Pack. The same year Francis Ford Coppola cast her in Gardens of Stone in which she acted with her parents, hired by Coppola to play her on-screen parents. In 1989, she played in Chances Are alongside Cybill Shepherd, Ryan O'Neal and Robert Downey Jr. and she starred as Lucy Moore, a teenage girl giving up her first baby to a wealthy couple, played by Glenn Close and James Woods in Immediate Family. For her work in that film she received a "Best Supporting Actress" award from the National Board of Review of Motion Pictures.
Masterson continued acting in television during the 1990s. In 1991, she starred in Fried Green Tomatoes, a film based on the novel Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe; the film was well-received, with film critic Roger Ebert applauding Masterson's work. The following year she was invited to host Saturday Night Live. In 1993, she played opposite Johnny Depp in Benny & Joon as his mentally ill love interest. In 1994, she acted in Bad Girls, playing Anita Crown, a former prostitute, who joins with three other former prostitutes in traveling the Old West. In 1996, Masterson acted alongside Christian Slater in the romantic drama Bed of Roses. Although Masterson carried on her work in the film industry, by 2000 she had made a move towards television. In 2001, she produced her own television series, Kate Brasher, canceled by CBS after six episodes. In 2004, Masterson starred in the Emmy and Peabody Award-winning HBO biographical drama Something the Lord Made. Between 2004 and 2007, she made five guest starring appearances on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit as Dr. Rebecca Hendrix.
A decade she appeared in a recurring role as FBI director Eleanor Hirst in the second and third seasons of Blindspot. Masterson has appeared in Broadway theatre productions, was nominated for a 2003 Tony Award as "Best Featured Actress in a Musical" in the Maury Yeston musical Nine: The Musical, directed by David Leveaux. Masterson has narrated several audiobooks, including I See You Everywhere by Julia Glass, Book of the Dead by Patricia Cornwell, The Quickie by James Patterson and Look Again by Lisa Scottoline. By May 1993, Masterson revealed she had written a screenplay for a film tentatively entitled Around the Block, a romantic comedy about a "woman who conquers her fears by becoming a singer". In 2001, she began her directing career with a segment titled "The Other Side" in the television movie On the Edge. Masterson made her feature film directorial debut in 2007, with The Cake Eaters, which premiered at the Ft. Lauderdale International Film Festival as well as the Ashland Independent Film Festival where it received the'Audience Award – Dramatic Feature' prize in 2008.
Of her move to directing, Masterson said in an interview, "When I signed to do this, I wasn't scared but, yes, it was scary. I'm 40, although we don't want to talk about that. In'92, I wrote my first screenplay, which I was to direct, but I ended up taking an acting job because it takes forever to get a movie made." Masterson was married to filmmaker Damon Santostefano from 2000 to 2004. In 2006, Masterson married actor Jeremy Davidson after they starred together in the 2004 stage production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. Masterson gave birth to their first child, a son named Phineas Bee Greenberg, on October 11, 2009, she gave birth to twins in August 2011, daughter Clio Greenberg. Ashland Independent Film Festival 2008: Won, "Best Dramatic Feature" – The Cake EatersDVD Exclusive Awards 2001: Nominated, "Best Actress" – The Book of StarsFt. Lauderdale International Film Festival 2007: Won, "Best American Indie" – The Cake EatersLone Star Film & Television Awards 1997: Won, "Best TV Actress" – Lily DaleMTV Movie Awards 1994: Nominated, "Best On-Screen Duo" – Benny and Joon National Board of Review of Motion Pictures 1989: Won, "Best Supporting Actress" – Immediate FamilySatellite Awards 2005: Nominated, "Best Ac
A tomboy is a girl who exhibits characteristics or behaviors considered typical of a boy, including wearing masculine clothing and engaging in games and activities that are physical in nature and are considered in many cultures to be unfeminine or the domain of boys. Tomboy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "has been connected with connotations of rudeness and impropriety" throughout its use; the OED dates the first use of the term to 1592, but an earlier use is recorded in Ralph Roister Doister, believed to date from 1553, was published in 1567. Author Michelle Ann Abate stated that, in nineteenth-century American culture, the usage of the word tomboy came to refer to a specific code of conduct that permitted young girls to exercise, wear "sensible clothing", to eat a "wholesome diet"; because of the emphasis on a healthier lifestyle, tomboyism grew in popularity during this time period as an alternative to the dominant feminine code of conduct that had limited women's physical movement.
Abate stated that this mode of behavior was planned to enhance the power and durability of the country's coming brides and child-bearers and the progeny that they birthed. She said that tomboyism was more than a new fostering method or gender statement for the country's young women. In her 1898 book Women and Economics, feminist writer Charlotte Perkins Gilman lauds the health benefits of being a tomboy as well as the freedom for gender exploration: "not feminine till it is time to be". Joseph Lee, a playground advocate, wrote in 1915 that the tomboy phase was crucial to physical development between the ages of eight and thirteen. Tomboyism remained popular through World War I and World War II in society and film. During the twentieth century, Freudian psychology and backlash against LGBT social movements resulted in societal fears about the sexualities of tomboys, this caused some to question if tomboyism leads to lesbianism. Throughout history, there has been a perceived correlation between tomboyishness and lesbianism.
For instance, Hollywood films would stereotype the adult tomboy as a "predatory butch dyke". Lynne Yamaguchi and Karen Barber, editors of Tomboys! Tales of Dyke Derring-Do, argue that "tomboyhood is much more than a phase for many lesbians", it "seems to remain a part of the foundation of who we are as adults". Many contributors to Tomboys! Linked their self-identification as tomboys and lesbians to both labels positioning them outside "cultural and gender boundaries". Psychoanalyst Dianne Elise's essay reported that more lesbians noted being a tomboy than straight women. However, while some tomboys reveal a lesbian identity in their adolescent or adult years, behavior typical of boys but displayed by girls is not a true indicator of one's sexual orientation. Gender scholar Judith Halberstam states that while the defying of gender roles is tolerated in young girls, adolescent girls who display masculine traits are repressed or punished. However, the ubiquity of traditionally female clothing such as skirts and dresses has declined in the Western world, where it is no longer considered a male trait for girls and women not to wear such clothing.
An increase in the popularity of women's sporting events and other activities that were traditionally male-dominated has broadened tolerance and lessened the impact of tomboy as a pejorative term. Instead, as sociologist Barrie Thorne suggested, some "adult women tell with a hint of pride as if to suggest: I was independent and active. There have been few studies of the causality of women's behavior and interests when they do not match the female gender role. One report from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children suggests that preschool girls engaging in masculine-typical gender-role behavior, such as playing with toys preferred by boys, is influenced by genetic and prenatal factors. Tomboys have been noted to demonstrate a stronger interest in science and technology. Effeminacy Geek girl Gender variance Girly girl Sissy Tomboys and sissies: Androgynous children? Tomboys! Feisty Girls and Spirited Women A film by Julie Akeret and Christian McEwen
Cicely L. Tyson is an American actress and former fashion model whose acting career has spanned more than six decades. Tyson is the recipient of three Primetime Emmy Awards, four Black Reel Awards, one Screen Actor Guild Award, one Tony Award and an honorary Academy Award. Having appeared in minor film and television roles early in her career, Tyson garnered widespread attention and critical acclaim for her performance as Rebecca Morgan in Sounder. Tyson's portrayal of the title role in the 1974 television film The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman won her further praise. Tyson has continued to act on television in the 21st century. In 2011, she played the role of Constantine Jefferson in the award-winning film The Help, she has played the role of Ophelia Harkness in American Broadcasting Company's legal drama How to Get Away With Murder since the show's inception in 2014. In addition to her screen career, Tyson has appeared in various theater productions, she received a Drama Desk Award in 1962 for her Off-Broadway performance in Moon on a Rainbow Shawl.
Tyson starred as Carrie Watts in the Broadway play The Trip to Bountiful, winning the Tony Award, the Outer Critics Award, the Drama Desk Award for Best Actress in a Play in 2013. Tyson was named a Kennedy Center honoree in 2015. In November 2016, Tyson received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States. Tyson was born in Harlem on December 19, 1924, the daughter of Frederica Tyson, a domestic worker, William Augustine Tyson, who worked as a carpenter, at any other jobs he could find, her parents were immigrants from Nevis in the West Indies. Her father arrived in New York City at age 21 and was processed at Ellis Island on August 4, 1919. Tyson became a popular fashion model, her first acting role was on the NBC series Frontiers of Faith in 1951. Tyson played her first stage role in 1950 and her first film role in Carib Gold in 1956, but she went on to do more television work, such as the celebrated series East Side/West Side, in which she became the first African American to star in a television drama, the soap opera The Guiding Light.
In 1961, Tyson appeared in the original cast of French playwright Jean Genet's The Blacks, the longest running off-Broadway non-musical of the decade, running for 1,408 performances. On March 25, 1963, Tyson appeared on the game show To Tell The Truth as a decoy contestant for Shirley Abicair, she appeared with Sammy Davis Jr. in the film A Man Called Adam and starred in the film version of Graham Greene's The Comedians. Tyson had a featured role in The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter, appeared in a segment of Roots. In 1972, Tyson played the role of Rebecca Morgan in the critically acclaimed film Sounder, she was nominated for both the Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Actress for her work in Sounder, won the NSFC Best Actress and NBR Best Actress Awards. In 1974, Tyson played the title role in the television film The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. Tyson's portrayal of a young African-American slave won her a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress – Miniseries or a Movie and an Emmy Award for Actress of the Year – Special.
Tyson was nominated for a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role for her work in this television film. Tyson's acclaimed television roles include: Binta in the 1977 miniseries Roots, for which she was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress – Miniseries or a Movie. In 1991, Tyson appeared in Fried Green Tomatoes as Sipsey. In the 1994–95 television series Sweet Justice, Tyson portrayed a civil rights activist and attorney named Carrie Grace Battle, a character she shaped by consulting with noted Washington, D. C. civil rights and criminal defense lawyer Dovey Johnson Roundtree. Other notable film roles include the dramas Hoodlum and Diary of a Mad Black Woman, the television films Oldest Living Confederate Widow Tells All and A Lesson Before Dying. In 2005, Tyson co-starred in Because of Winn-Dixie. In 2010, Tyson appeared in Why Did I Get Married Too? and narrated the Paul Robeson Award-winning documentary, Up from the Bottoms: The Search for the American Dream.
In 2011, Tyson appeared in her first music video in Willow Smith's 21st Century Girl. That same year, she played Constantine Jefferson, a maid in Jackson, Mississippi, in the critically acclaimed period drama The Help. Set in the backdrop of the Civil Rights Movement, the film won the Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Acting Ensemble and the Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture. At the 67th Tony Awards on June 9, 2013, Tyson won the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for her performance as Miss Carrie Watts in The Trip to Bou
Norman Milton Lear is an American television writer and producer who produced such 1970s sitcoms as All in the Family and Son, One Day at a Time, The Jeffersons, Good Times, Maude. As a political activist, he founded the advocacy organization People for the American Way in 1981 and has supported First Amendment rights and progressive causes. Lear was born in New Haven, the son of Jeanette and Hyman "Herman" Lear, a traveling salesman, his mother was born in Elizabethgrad in Kherson Gubernia in Ukraine, while his father was born in Connecticut, to Russian-born parents. He had Claire Lear Brown. Lear had a Bar Mitzvah ceremony; when Lear was nine years old, his father went to prison for selling fake bonds. Lear thought of his father as a "rascal" and said that the character of Archie Bunker was in part inspired by his father, while the character of Edith Bunker was in part inspired by his mother. Lear graduated from Weaver High School in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1940 and subsequently attended Emerson College in Boston, but dropped out in 1942 to join the United States Army Air Forces.
After the Pearl Harbor attack in World War II, Lear enlisted in September 1942. He served in the Mediterranean theater as a radio operator/gunner on Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers with the 772nd Bombardment Squadron, 463d Operations Group of the Fifteenth Air Force. Lear flew 52 combat missions. Lear was discharged from the Army in 1945, his fellow World War II crew members are featured in the books Crew Umbriag, by Daniel P. Carroll, 772nd Bomb Squadron: The Men, The Memories, by Turner Publishing and Co. After World War II, Lear had a career in public relations; the career choice was inspired by his Uncle Jack: "My dad had a brother, who flipped me a quarter every time he saw me. He was a press agent. That's the only role model. So all I wanted was to grow up to be a guy who could flip a quarter to a nephew." Lear decided to move to California to restart his career in publicity, driving with his toddler daughter across the country. His first night in Los Angeles, Lear stumbled upon a production of George Bernard Shaw's Major Barbara at a 90-seat theater in the round Circle Theater off Sunset Boulevard.
One of the actors in the play was Sydney Chaplin, the son of actors Charlie Chaplin and Lita Grey. Chaplin, Alan Mowbray and Dame Gladys Cooper sat in front of him, after the show was over, Chaplin performed. Lear had a first cousin in Los Angeles, married to Ed Simmons, who wanted to be a comedy writer. Simmons and Lear teamed up to sell home furnishings door-to-door for a company called The Gans Brothers and sold family photos door-to-door. Throughout the 1950s Lear and Simmons turned out comedy sketches for television appearances of Martin and Lewis and Martin, others, they wrote for Martin and Lewis when they appeared on the Colgate Comedy Hour and a 1953 article from Billboard magazine stated that Lear and Simmons were guaranteed a record-breaking $52,000 each to write for five additional Martin and Lewis appearances on the Colgate Comedy Hour that year. In a 2015 interview with Vanity Magazine Lear said that Jerry Lewis had hired him and Simmons to become writers for Martin and Lewis three weeks before the comedy duo made their first appearance on the Colgate Comedy Hour in 1950.
Lear acknowledged in 1986 that he and Simmons were the main writers for The Martin and Lewis Show for three years. In 1954 Lear was enlisted as a writer hoping to salvage the new Celeste Holm CBS sitcom, Celeste!, but the program was canceled after eight episodes. During this time, he became the producer of NBC's The Martha Raye Show, after Nat Hiken left as the series director. Lear wrote some of the opening monologues for The Tennessee Ernie Ford Show, which aired from 1956 to 1961. In 1959 Lear created his first television series, a half-hour western for Revue Studios called The Deputy, starring Henry Fonda. Starting out as a comedy writer a film director, Lear tried to sell a concept for a sitcom about a blue-collar American family to ABC, they rejected. After a third pilot was taped, CBS picked up the show, known as All in the Family, it premiered January 12, 1971, to disappointing ratings, but it took home several Emmy Awards that year, including Outstanding Comedy Series. The show did well in summer reruns, it flourished in the 1971–72 season, becoming the top-rated show on TV for the next five years.
After falling from the #1 spot, All in the Family still remained in the top ten, well after it transitioned into Archie Bunker's Place. The show was based loosely on the British sitcom Till Death Us Do Part, about an irascible working-class Tory and his Socialist son-in-law. Lear's second big TV sitcom was based on a British sitcom and Son, about a west London junk dealer and his son. Lear changed the setting to the Watts section of Los Angeles and the characters to African-Americans, the NBC show Sanford and Son was an instant hit. Numerous hit shows followed thereafter, including Maude, The Jeffersons, One Day at a Time, Good Times. What most of the Lear sitcoms had in common was that they were shot on videotape in place of film, used a live studio audience, dealt with the social and political issues of the day. M
Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe