Edmund Burke was an Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party. Burke was a proponent of underpinning virtues with manners in society and of the importance of religious institutions for the moral stability and good of the state; these views were expressed in his A Vindication of Natural Society. Burke criticized British treatment of the American colonies, including through its taxation policies, he supported the rights of the colonists to resist metropolitan authority, though he opposed the attempt to achieve independence. Burke is remembered for his support for Catholic emancipation, the impeachment of Warren Hastings from the East India Company and for his staunch opposition to the French Revolution. In his Reflections on the Revolution in France, Burke asserted that the revolution was destroying the fabric of good society and traditional institutions of state and society, condemned the persecution of the Catholic Church that resulted from it.
This led to his becoming the leading figure within the conservative faction of the Whig Party, which he dubbed the "Old Whigs", as opposed to the pro-French Revolution "New Whigs", led by Charles James Fox. In the nineteenth century, Burke was praised by both liberals. Subsequently, in the twentieth century he became regarded as the philosophical founder of modern conservatism. Burke was born in Ireland, his mother Mary née Nagle was a Roman Catholic who hailed from a déclassé County Cork family, whereas his father, a successful solicitor, was a member of the Church of Ireland. The Burke dynasty descends from an Anglo-Norman knight surnamed de Burgh who arrived in Ireland in 1185 following Henry II of England's 1171 invasion of Ireland and is among the chief "Gall" families that assimilated into Gaelic society, becoming "more Irish than the Irish themselves". Burke adhered to his father's faith and remained a practising Anglican throughout his life, unlike his sister Juliana, brought up as and remained a Roman Catholic.
His political enemies accused him of having been educated at the Jesuit College of St. Omer, near Calais, of harbouring secret Catholic sympathies at a time when membership of the Catholic Church would disqualify him from public office; as Burke told Frances Crewe: Mr. Burke's Enemies endeavoured to convince the World that he had been bred up in the Catholic Faith, & that his Family were of it, & that he himself had been educated at St. Omer—but this was false, as his father was a regular practitioner of the Law at Dublin, which he could not be unless of the Established Church: & it so happened that though Mr. B—was twice at Paris, he never happened to go through the Town of St. Omer. After being elected to the House of Commons, Burke was required to take the oath of Allegiance and abjuration, the oath of supremacy, declare against transubstantiation. Although never denying his Irishness, Burke described himself as "an Englishman". According to the historian J. C. D. Clark, this was in an age "before'Celtic nationalism' sought to make Irishness and Englishness incompatible".
As a child he sometimes spent time away from the unhealthy air of Dublin with his mother's family in the Blackwater Valley in County Cork. He received his early education at a Quaker school in Ballitore, County Kildare, some 67 kilometres from Dublin, he remained in correspondence with his schoolmate from there, Mary Leadbeater, the daughter of the school's owner, throughout his life. In 1744, Burke started at Trinity College Dublin, a Protestant establishment, which up until 1793, did not permit Catholics to take degrees. In 1747, he set up a debating society, "Edmund Burke's Club", which, in 1770, merged with TCD's Historical Club to form the College Historical Society; the minutes of the meetings of Burke's Club remain in the collection of the Historical Society. Burke graduated from Trinity in 1748. Burke's father wanted him to read Law, with this in mind he went to London in 1750, where he entered the Middle Temple, before soon giving up legal study to travel in Continental Europe. After eschewing the Law, he pursued a livelihood through writing.
The late Lord Bolingbroke's Letters on the Study and Use of History was published in 1752 and his collected works appeared in 1754. This provoked Burke into writing his first published work, A Vindication of Natural Society: A View of the Miseries and Evils Arising to Mankind, appearing in Spring 1756. Burke imitated Bolingbroke's style and ideas in a reductio ad absurdum of his arguments for atheistic rationalism, in order to demonstrate their absurdity. Burke claimed that Bolingbroke's arguments against revealed religion could apply to all social and civil institutions as well. Lord Chesterfield and Bishop Warburton thought that the work was genuinely by Bolingbroke rather than a satire. All the reviews of the work were positive, with critics appreciative of Burke's quality of writing; some reviewers failed to notice the ironic nature of the book, which led to Burke stating in the preface to the second edition that it was a satire. Richard Hurd believed that Burke's imitation was near-perfect and that this defeated his purpose: an ironist "should take care by a constant exaggeration to
University of Jena
Friedrich Schiller University Jena is a public research university located in Jena, Germany. The university is counted among the ten oldest universities in Germany, it is affiliated with six Nobel Prize winners, most in 2000 when Jena graduate Herbert Kroemer won the Nobel Prize for physics. It was renamed after the poet Friedrich Schiller, teaching as professor of philosophy when Jena attracted some of the most influential minds at the turn of the 19th century. With Karl Leonhard Reinhold, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, G. W. F. Hegel, F. W. J. Schelling and Friedrich von Schlegel on its teaching staff, the university has been at the centre of the emergence of German idealism and early Romanticism; as of 2014, the university has around 19,000 students enrolled and 375 professors. Its current president, Walter Rosenthal, was elected in 2014 for a six-year term. Elector John Frederick of Saxony first thought of a plan to establish a university at Jena upon Saale in 1547 while he was being held captive by emperor Charles V.
The plan was put into motion by his three sons and, after having obtained a charter from the Emperor Ferdinand I, the university was established on 2 February 1558. The university, jointly maintained by the Saxon Duchies who derived from partitioning of John Frederick's duchy, was thus named Ducal Pan-Saxon University or Salana. Prior to the 20th century, University enrollment peaked in the 18th century; the university's reputation peaked under the auspices of Duke Charles Augustus, Goethe's patron, when Gottlieb Fichte, G. W. F. Hegel, Friedrich Schelling, Friedrich von Schlegel and Friedrich Schiller were on its teaching staff. Founded as a home for the new religious opinions of the sixteenth century, it has since been one of the most politically radical universities in Germany. Jena was noted among other German universities at the time for allowing students to duel and to have a passion for Freiheit, which were popularly regarded as the necessary characteristics of German student life; the University of Jena has preserved a historical detention room or Karzer with famous caricatures by Swiss painter Martin Disteli.
In the latter 19th century, the department of zoology taught evolutionary theory, with Carl Gegenbaur, Ernst Haeckel and others publishing detailed theories at the time of Darwin's "Origin of Species". The fame of Ernst Haeckel eclipsed Darwin in some European countries, as the term "Haeckelism" was more common than Darwinism. In 1905, Jena had 1,100 students enrolled and its teaching staff numbered 112. Amongst its numerous auxiliaries were the library, with 200,000 volumes. After the end of the Saxon duchies in 1918, their merger with further principalities into the Free State of Thuringia in 1920, the university was renamed as the Thuringian State University in 1921. In 1934 the university was renamed again, receiving its present name of Friedrich Schiller University. During the 20th century, the cooperation between Zeiss corporation and the university brought new prosperity and attention to Jena, resulting in a dramatic increase in funding and enrollment. During the Third Reich, staunch Nazis moved into leading positions at the university.
The racial researcher and SS-Hauptscharführer Karl Astel was appointed professor in 1933, bypassing traditional qualifications and process. In 1933, many professors had to leave the university as a consequence of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service. Student fraternities - in particular the Burschenschaften - were dissolved and incorporated into the Nazi student federation; the Nazi student federation enjoyed before the transfer of power and won great support among the student body elections in January 1933, achieving 49.3% of the vote, which represents the second best result. Between the Jena connections and the NS students wide-ranging human and ideological connections were recorded; when the Allied air raids to Jena in February and March struck in 1945, the University Library, the University main building and several clinics in the Bachstraße received total or significant physical damage. Destroyed were the Botanical Garden, the psychological and the physiological institute and three chemical Institutes.
An important event for the National Socialist period was the investigation of the pediatrician Yusuf Ibrahim. A Senate Commission noted the participation of the physician to the "euthanasia" murders of physically or mentally disabled children. In the 20th century the university was promoted through cooperation with Carl Zeiss and became thereby a mass university. In 1905 the university had 1,100 students and 112 university teachers, so this figure has since been twenty-fold; the Thuringian State University is the only comprehensive university of the Free State. Since 1995, there is a university association with the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg and the University of Leipzig; the aim is firstly to give the students the opportunity to visit with few problems at the partner universities and events in order to broaden the range of subjects and topics. E. g. has joined a cooperation in teaching in the field of bioinformatics. In addition, the cooperation provides the university management the opportunity to share experiences with their regular meetings and initiate common projects.
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Landshut is a town in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria, it is the seat of the surrounding district, has a population of more than 70,000. Landshut is the largest city in Lower Bavaria, followed by Passau and Straubing, Eastern Bavaria's second biggest city. Owing to its characteristic coat of arms, the town is often called "City of the three Helmets". Furthermore, the town is popularly known for a full-tilt medieval festival. Due to its proximity and easy access to Munich and the Franz Josef Strauss International Airport, Landshut became a powerful and future-oriented investment area; the town is one of the richest industrialized towns in Bavaria and has East Bavaria's lowest unemployment rate. Landshut lies in the centre of Lower Bavaria, is part of the Alpine foothills; the River Isar runs through the city centre. Landshut is about 72 kilometres northeast of Munich.
The city of Landshut and Trausnitz castle were founded in 1204 by Duke Louis I. Landshut was a Wittelsbach residence by 1231, in 1255, when the duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Landshut became the capital of Lower Bavaria. Duke Henry XVI was the first of the three famous rich dukes who ruled Bayern-Landshut in the 15th century; the wedding of Duke George with the Polish Princess Royal Jadwiga Jagiellon in 1475 was celebrated in Landshut with one of the most splendid festivals of the Middle Ages. After his death and the Landshut War of Succession, Bavaria-Landshut was reunited with Bavaria-Munich. Louis X, Duke of Bavaria built the Landshut Residence 1537–1543 after his visit to Italy. Louis built the first Renaissance palace constructed north of the Alps after the Palazzo Te in Mantua. William V, Duke of Bavaria ordered to upgrade Trausnitz Castle from a gothic fortification into a renaissance complex when he lived in Landshut as crown prince for ten years until 1579. Afterwards Landshut lost most of its importance until the University of Ingolstadt was moved to Landshut in 1800.
But in 1826 the university was transferred to Munich. In 1634, during the Thirty Years' War, the city was taken and plundered by Swedish forces under the command of Bernard of Saxe-Weimar. During World War II, a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp was located in the city to provide slave labour for local industry; the U. S. Army maintained facilities in Landshut, including Pinder Kaserne and a dependent housing area, until 1968. Since the opening of Munich Airport close to Landshut in 1992, the town has become an attractive business location; the town is of national importance because of its predominantly Gothic architecture within the historic town centre Trausnitz Castle and the Church of Saint Martin featuring the world's tallest brick tower. Among other Gothic architecture are the churches of St. Jodok and Holy Spirit, but the Town Hall and the Ländtor, the only still existing gate of the medieval fortification. Landshut is known for a festival celebrated every four years called the Landshuter Hochzeit, commemorating the 1475 marriage of George of Bavaria and Jadwiga Jagiellon.
The renaissance era produced in particular the decorated inner courtyard of the Trausnitz Castle and the ducal Landshut Residence in the inner town. Baroque churches are represented by the Jesuit church St. Ignatius, the Dominican church St. Blasius and the church of St. Joseph; the medieval churches of the Seligenthal convent and of the Cistercians were redesigned in baroque style. Many old middle-class houses of the past in the Old Town still represent the history of the town from the Gothic times to the Neo-Classicism. There are regular regional train connections to Munich, Passau and Hof. Stadttheater Kleines Theater Theater Nikola Kinoptikum – repertory cinema Kinopolis Landshut – Multiplex cinema Burgtheater/Kühlhauskino Skulpturenmuseum im Hofberg Eisstadion am Gutenbergweg – Indoor Ice hockey arena used by the Landshut Cannibals Sparkassen-Arena – Mainly used for concerts and fairs Grieserwiese – Giant parking area located between Wittstraße and the bank of the river Isar used for the annual Frühjahrs- und Bartlmädult BMW Dräxlmaier Group Deutsche Telekom ebmpapst LFoundry, a semiconductor fab owned by Renesas and before by Hitachi) Schott Glass Vishay Karstadt de:Pöschl TabakThere are two nuclear power plants located 14 km away from Landshut, Isar I and Isar II.
Landshut is twinned with: Ulrich Füetrer and painter Ludwig Feuerbach, philosopher Friedrich Feuerbach and philosopher Gustav Tiedemann, officer Carl du Prel, philosopher and occultist Karl Tanera, officer of the Bavarian Army and author Max Slevogt, graphician Otto Kissenberth, fighter pilot in World War I Hermann Erhardt, actor Max Schäfer, football player- and trainer Marlene Neubauer-Woerner, sculptor Josef Deimer and Lord mayor of Landshut from 1970-2014 David Elsner, professional ice hockey player Tom Kühnhackl, professional ice hockey player Roman Herzog, President of Germany from 1994 to 1999 Honorary Citizen as well Klaus Auhuber, ice hockey player Albert Sigl, author Gerhard Tausche and author Gerd Truntschka, ice hockey player Martin Bayerstorfer, politician Alex Holzwarth, dru
For the saint with this name, see Himerius of Cremona. Irnerius, sometimes referred to as lucerna juris, was an Italian jurist, founder of the School of Glossators and thus of the tradition of Medieval Roman Law, he taught the newly recovered Roman lawcode of Justinian I, the Corpus Juris Civilis, among the liberal arts at the University of Bologna, his native city. The recovery and revival of Roman law, taught first at Bologna in the 1070s, was a momentous event in European cultural history. Irnerius' interlinear glosses on the Corpus Juris Civilis stand at the beginnings of a European law, written, systematic and rational, based on Roman law, he was born in Bologna about 1050. At the urging of Countess Matilda of Tuscany he began to devote himself to the study of jurisprudence, taking the Justinian code as a guide. After teaching jurisprudence for a short while in Rome he returned to Bologna, where he founded a new school of jurisprudence in 1084 or 1088, which would rival the law school of Ravenna.
Some jurisprudence had been taught at Bologna, before Irnerius founded his school, by Pepo and a few others, a tradition of jurisprudence had developed at Pavia since the mid-ninth century. He introduced the custom of explaining the Roman law by means of glosses, which were meagre interlinear elucidations of the text, but since the glosses were too extensive to be inserted between the lines of the text, he began to write them on the margin of the page, thus being the first to introduce the marginal glosses which afterwards came into general use. After the death of Pope Paschal II, he defended the rights of Emperor Henry V in the papal election and upheld the legality of the election of the imperial antipope Gregory VIII. After 1116 he appears to have held some office under the emperor, he died during the reign of the emperor Lothair II, but before 1140. Irnerius taught along lines established in the teaching of Scripture, by reading aloud a section of the civil law, which the students would copy, add to the text his commentary and explanatory glosses.
Thus he was the first of the glossators, whose explications of the law became an essential part of the legal curriculum. The text of Justinian's Pandects used in Bologna, referred to as the Littera Bononiensis parallel to the Littera Florentina, would be disseminated throughout Europe as students returned home from Bologna: there are versions of the Bolognese Littera with provenances in Paris, Leipzig and at the Vatican. According to ancient opinion, Irnerius was the author of the epitome of the Novellae of Justinian, called the Authentica, arranged according to the titles of the Code, his Formularium tabellionum and Quaestiones are no longer extant. The Summa Codicis, attributed to Irnerius by Herman Fitting in his 1894 edition is now considered a work of between 1130 and 1159, but remains the earliest known summa on Justinian's Code Another important work, Quaestiones de juris subtilitatibus, was ascribed to Irnerius until Hermann Kantorowicz published a manuscript from the British Museum.
Other juridical works and glosses that are ascribed to Irnerius are extant only in fragments, or their authorship is uncertain. Irnerius was forgotten until his name was revived by German historians of the 19th century and came to prominence with the celebrations marking the octocentennial of the University of Bologna, his name is seen in manuscripts as Hirnerius, Iernerius, Garnerius, Warnerius, Yrnerius. He called. Anders Winroth has questioned much of the received account of Irnerius' life as well as his importance to the history of Roman law in the Middle Ages. Friedrich Carl von Savigny, Geschichte des Römischen Rechts im Mittelalter iii. 83 Del Vecchio, Notizie di Irnerio e della sua scuola Julius von Ficker, Forsch. Z. Reichs- u. Rechtsgesch. Italiens, vol. iii. Hermann Fitting, Die Anfange der Rechtsschule in Bologna. Anders Winroth, The Making of Gratian's Decretum Gabor Hamza: Entstehung und Entwicklung der modernen Privatrechtsentwicklungen und die römischrechtliche Tradition Gabor Hamza: Origine e sviluppo degli ordinamenti giusprivatistici moderni in base alla tradizione del diritto romano This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ott, Michael.
"Irnerius". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 8. New York: Robert Appleton. Nouveau Larousse illustré undated, early 20th century Archaeogate: Gianfranco Purpura, "La Littera Florentina", 2001
Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances on economic and ethical issues, or a brand of political conservatism influenced by liberalism. Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy, according to which individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference. However, individuals cannot be depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a sense of duty and responsibility to the nation, they support civil liberties, along with some social conservative positions. In Europe liberal conservatism is the dominant form of contemporary conservatism and centre-right politics; as both "conservatism" and "liberalism" have had different meanings over time and across countries, the term "liberal conservatism" has been used in quite different ways.
It contrasts with "aristocratic conservatism", which deems the principle of equality as something discordant with human nature and emphasizes instead the idea of natural inequality. As conservatives in democratic countries have embraced typical liberal institutions such as the rule of law, private property, the market economy and constitutional representative government, the liberal element of liberal conservatism became consensual among conservatives. In some countries, the term "liberal conservatism" came to be understood as "conservatism" in popular culture, prompting some conservatives who embraced more classical liberal values to call themselves "libertarians" instead. In the United States conservatives combine the economic individualism of classical liberals with a Burkean form of conservatism that emphasizes the natural inequalities between men, the irrationality of human behavior as the basis for the human drive for order and stability and the rejection of natural rights as the basis for government.
However, from a different perspective, American conservatism has exalted three tenets of Burkean conservatism, namely the diffidence toward the power of the state, the preference of liberty over equality, patriotism while rejecting the three remaining tenets, namely loyalty to traditional institutions and hierarchies, scepticism regarding progress and elitism. In the United States the term "liberal conservatism" is not used. American "modern liberalism" happens to be quite different from European liberalism and occupies the centre-left of the political spectrum, in contrast to many European countries where liberalism is more associated with the centre-right and social democracy makes up a substantial part of the centre-left; the opposite is true in Latin America, where economically liberal conservatism is labelled under the rubric of neoliberalism both in popular culture and academic discourse. For their part, in their embracement of liberal and free market principles, European liberal conservatives are distinguishable from those holding national conservative social-conservative and/or outright populist views, let alone a right-wing populist posture.
Being liberal involves stressing free market economics and the belief in individual responsibility together with the defense of civil rights and support for a limited welfare state. Compared to other centre-right political traditions, such as Christian democracy, liberal conservatives are less traditionalist and more economically liberal, favouring low taxes and minimal state intervention in the economy; some regional varieties and peculiarities can be observed: In much of central and northwestern Europe in Germanic and traditionally Protestant countries, as well as the United Kingdom and Belgium, a divide persists between liberal conservatives and liberals. In most Nordic countries, liberal conservatives, Christian democrats and liberals form distinct political families and have each their own party. In most countries where Romance languages are spoken and where Catholicism is or has been dominant, as well as in Greece, liberal conservative movements encompassing Christian democrats and liberals, have more gained traction and the terms "conservative" and "liberal" may be understood as synonymous.
At the European level, Christian democrats and most liberal conservatives are affiliated to the European People's Party, while liberals to the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party. In this context, some traditionally Christian-democratic parties have become undistinguishable from other liberal-conservative parties. On the other hand, newer liberal-conservative parties have not adopted traditional labels, but their ideologies are a mixture of conservatism, Christian democracy and liberalism. In the modern European discourse, "liberal conservatism" encompasses centre-right political outlooks that reject at least to
Duchy of Lorraine
The Duchy of Lorraine Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France. Its capital was Nancy, it was founded in 959 following the division of Lotharingia into two separate duchies: Upper and Lower Lorraine, the westernmost parts of the Holy Roman Empire. The Lower duchy was dismantled, while Upper Lorraine came to be known as the Duchy of Lorraine; the Duchy of Lorraine was coveted and occupied by the Dukes of Burgundy and the Kings of France. In 1737, the Duchy was given to Stanisław Leszczyński, the former king of Poland, who had lost his throne as a result of the War of the Polish Succession, with the understanding that it would fall to the French crown on his death; when Stanisław died on 23 February 1766, Lorraine was annexed by France and reorganized as a province. Lorraine's predecessor, was an independent Carolingian kingdom under the rule of King Lothair II, its territory had been a part of Middle Francia, created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun, when the Carolingian empire was divided between the three sons of Louis the Pious.
Middle Francia was allotted to Emperor Lothair I, therefore called Lotharii Regnum. On his death in 855, it was further divided into three parts, of which his son Lothair II took the northern one, his realm comprised a larger territory stretching from the County of Burgundy in the south to the North Sea. In French, this area became known as Lorraine, while in German, it was known as Lothringen. In the Alemannic language once spoken in Lorraine, the -ingen suffix signified a property; as Lothair II had died without heirs, his territory was divided by the 870 Treaty of Meerssen between East and West Francia and came under East Frankish rule as a whole by the 880 Treaty of Ribemont. After the East Frankish Carolingians became extinct with the death of Louis the Child in 911, Lotharingia once again attached itself to West Francia, but was conquered by the German king Henry the Fowler in 925. Stuck in the conflict with his rival Hugh the Great, in 942 King Louis IV of France renounced all claims to Lotharingia.
In 953, the German king Otto. In 959, Bruno divided the duchy into Lower Lorraine; the Upper Duchy was further "up" the river system. Upper Lorraine was first denominated as the Duchy of the Moselle, both in charters and narrative sources, its duke was the dux Mosellanorum; the usage of Lotharingia Superioris and Lorraine in official documents begins around the fifteenth century. The first duke and deputy of Bruno was Frederick I of Bar, son-in-law of Bruno's sister Hedwig of Saxony. Lower Lorraine disintegrated into several smaller territories and only the title of a "Duke of Lothier" remained, held by Brabant. After the duchy of the Moselle came into the possession of René of Anjou, the name "Duchy of Lorraine" was adopted again, only retrospectively called "Upper Lorraine". At that time, several territories had split off, such as the County of Luxembourg, the Electorate of Trier, the County of Bar and the "Three Bishoprics" of Verdun and Toul; the border between the Empire and the Kingdom of France remained stable throughout the Middle Ages.
In 1301, Count Henry III of Bar had to receive the western part of his lands as a fief by King Philip IV of France. In 1475, the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold campaigned for the Duchy of Lorraine, but was defeated and killed at the 1477 Battle of Nancy. In the 1552 Treaty of Chambord, a number of insurgent Protestant Imperial princes around Elector Maurice of Saxony ceded the Three Bishoprics to King Henry II of France in turn for his support. Due to the weakening of Imperial authority during the 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War, France was able to occupy the duchy in 1634 and retained it until 1661 when Charles IV was restored. In 1670, the French invaded again. France returned the Duchy in the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick ending the Nine Years' War and Charles' son Leopold, became duke and was known as'Leopold the Good. In 1737, after the War of the Polish Succession, an agreement between France, the Habsburgs and the Lorraine House of Vaudémont assigned the Duchy to Stanisław Leszczyński, former king of Poland.
He was father-in-law to King Louis XV of France, who lost out to a candidate backed by Russia and Austria in the War of the Polish Succession. The Lorraine duke Francis Stephen, betrothed to the Emperor's daughter Archduchess Maria Theresa, was compensated with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, where the last Medici ruler had died without issue. France promised to support Maria Theresa as heir to the Habsburg possessions under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. Leszczyński received Lorraine with the understanding that it would fall to the French crown on his death; the title of Duke of Lorraine was of course given to Stanisław, but retained by Francis Stephen, it figures prominently in the titles of his successors, the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. When Stanisław died on 23 February 1766, Lorraine was annexed by France and reorganized as a province by the French government. Two regional languages survive in the re
Wilhelm von Humboldt
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt was a Prussian philosopher, government functionary and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, named after him in 1949. He is remembered as a linguist who made important contributions to the philosophy of language, ethnolinguistics and to the theory and practice of education. In particular, he is recognized as having been the architect of the Humboldtian education ideal, used from the beginning in Prussia as a model for its system of education and in countries such as the US and Japan, his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, was famous as a geographer and explorer. Humboldt was born in Potsdam, Margraviate of Brandenburg, died in Tegel, Province of Brandenburg. In June 1791, he married Caroline von Dacheröden, they had eight children. Humboldt was a philosopher, it influenced John Stuart Mill's essay On Liberty through which von Humboldt's ideas became known in the English-speaking world. Humboldt outlined an early version of what Mill would call the "harm principle".
His house in Rome became a cultural hub, run by Caroline von Humboldt. The section dealing with education was published in the December 1792 issue of the Berlinische Monatsschrift under the title "On public state education". With this publication, Humboldt took part in the philosophical debate regarding the direction of national education, in progress in Germany, as elsewhere, after the French Revolution. Humboldt had been home schooled and never finished his comparably short university studies at the universities of Frankfurt and Göttingen, he became one of the most influential officials in German education. Humboldt had intended to become Minister of education, but failed to attain that position; the Prussian King asked him to leave Rome in 1809 and to lead the directorate of education under Friedrich Ferdinand Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten. Humboldt did not reply to the appointment for several weeks and would have preferred to stay on at the embassy in Rome, his wife did not return with him to Prussia.
Humboldt installed a standardized system of public instruction, from basic schools till secondary education, founded Berlin University. He imposed a standardization of state examinations and inspections and created a special department within the ministry to oversee and design curricula and learning aids. Humboldt's plans for reforming the Prussian school system were not published until long after his death, together with his fragment of a treatise on the'Theory of Human Education', which he had written in about 1793. Here, Humboldt states that'the ultimate task of our existence is to give the fullest possible content to the concept of humanity in our own person... through the impact of actions in our own lives.' This task'can only be implemented through the links established between ourselves as individuals and the world around us'. Humboldt's concept of education does not lend itself to individualistic interpretation, it is true that he always recognized the importance of the organization of individual life and the'development of a wealth of individual forms', but he stressed the fact that'self-education can only be continued... in the wider context of development of the world'.
In other words, the individual is not only entitled, but obliged, to play his part in shaping the world around him. Humboldt's educational ideal was coloured by social considerations, he never believed that the'human race could culminate in the attainment of a general perfection conceived in abstract terms'. In 1789, he wrote in his diary that'the education of the individual requires his incorporation into society and involves his links with society at large'. In his essay on the'Theory of Human Education', he answered the question as to the'demands which must be made of a nation, of an age and of the human race'.'Education and virtue' must be disseminated to such an extent that the'concept of mankind' takes on a great and dignified form in each individual. However, this shall be achieved by each individual, who must'absorb the great mass of material offered to him by the world around him and by his inner existence, using all the possibilities of his receptiveness. Humboldt educational model goes beyond vocational training.
In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote: "There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People cannot be good craftworkers, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are acquired on, a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so happens in life