Friedrich August von Hayek referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defence of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Gunnar Myrdal for his "pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic and institutional phenomena", his account of how changing prices communicate information that helps individuals co-ordinate their plans is regarded as an important achievement in economics, leading to his Nobel Prize. Hayek served in World War I during his teenage years and said that this experience in the war and his desire to help avoid the mistakes that had led to the war drew him into economics. At the University of Vienna, he studied economics receiving his doctoral degrees in law and in political science, he subsequently lived and worked in Austria, Great Britain, the United States, Germany. Hayek's academic life was spent at the London School of Economics, the University of Chicago, the University of Freiburg.
Although he is considered as a leader of the Austrian School of Economics, he had close connections with the Chicago School of Economics. Hayek was a major social theorist and political philosopher of the 20th century, his most notable work, The Road to Serfdom, has sold over 2 million copies. Hayek was appointed a Companion of Honour in 1984 for "services to the study of economics", he was the first recipient of the Hanns Martin Schleyer Prize in 1984. He received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991 from President George H. W. Bush. In 2011, his article "The Use of Knowledge in Society" was selected as one of the top 20 articles published in The American Economic Review during its first 100 years. Friedrich August von Hayek was born in Vienna to August von Felicitas Hayek, his father, from whom he received his middle name, was born in 1871 in Vienna. He was a medical doctor employed by the municipal ministry of health with a passion for botany, about which he wrote a number of monographs.
August von Hayek was a part-time botany lecturer at the University of Vienna. His mother was born in 1875 to a wealthy land-owning family; as her mother died several years prior to Hayek's birth, Felicitas received a significant inheritance, which provided as much as half of her and her husband's income during the early years of their marriage. Hayek was the oldest of three brothers and Erich, who were one-and-a-half and five years younger than him, his father's career as a university professor influenced Hayek's goals in life. Both of his grandfathers, who lived long enough for Hayek to know them, were scholars. Franz von Juraschek was a leading economist in Austria-Hungary and a close friend of Eugen Böhm von Bawerk, one of the founders of the Austrian School of Economics. Hayek's paternal grandfather, Gustav Edler von Hayek, taught natural sciences at the Imperial Realobergymnasium in Vienna, he wrote works in the field of biological systematics, some of which are well known. On his mother's side, Hayek was second cousin to the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein.
His mother played with Wittgenstein's sisters and had known him well. As a result of their family relationship, Hayek became one of the first to read Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus when the book was published in its original German edition in 1921. Although he met Wittgenstein on only a few occasions, Hayek said that Wittgenstein's philosophy and methods of analysis had a profound influence on his own life and thought. In his years, Hayek recalled a discussion of philosophy with Wittgenstein when both were officers during World War I. After Wittgenstein's death, Hayek had intended to write a biography of Wittgenstein and worked on collecting family materials and assisted biographers of Wittgenstein, he was related to Wittgenstein on the non-Jewish side of the Wittgenstein family. Since his youth, Hayek socialized with Jewish intellectuals and he mentions that people speculated whether he was of Jewish ancestry; that made him curious, so he spent some time researching his ancestors and found out that he has no Jewish ancestors within five generations.
The Surname Hayek uses the German spelling of the Czech surname Hájek. Hayek displayed an intellectual and academic bent from a young age, he read fluently and before going to school. At his father's suggestion, as a teenager he read the genetic and evolutionary works of Hugo de Vries and August Weismann and the philosophical works of Ludwig Feuerbach. In school, Hayek was much taken by one instructor's lectures on Aristotle's ethics. In his unpublished autobiographical notes, Hayek recalled a division between him and his younger brothers who were only a few years younger than him, but he believed that they were somehow of a different generation, he preferred to associate with adults. In 1917, Hayek joined an artillery regiment in the Austro-Hungarian Army and fought on the Italian front. Much of Hayek's combat experience was spent as a spotter in an aeroplane. Hayek was decorated for bravery. During this time, Hayek survived the 1918 flu pandemic. Hayek decided to pursue an academic career, determined to help avoid the mistakes that had led to the war.
Hayek said of his experience: "The decisive influence was World War I. It's bound to draw your attention to the problems of political organization", he vowed to work
The Imp Prince is a French fairy tale written by Marie Catherine d'Aulnoy and published in her book Fairy Tales in 1697. The word used, Lutin, in French can have several translations and meanings, in this case and implies: A lutin was like an imp or hobgoblin in the mythology of Normandy, similar to house-spirits of Germany and Scandinavia. Notably, the story gives a description of the Lutin: The story is about the life of Léandre, a handsome prince, a human but turned into a lutin after the ruling prince forced his retreat from court into the countryside. There was once a queen who had a malformed son named Furibon, he was as large as the largest man and small as smallest dwarf, he had an ugly face and a deformed body and mean spirit, but the queen was insane and thought Furibon was the most beautiful child in the world. Furibon's governor was a rival prince; this governor brought with him his own son named prince Léandre. Léandre was well liked in court, the ladies loved him, thought him handsome and called him the "beautiful indifferent one".
Furibon, was hated. He reported their secret faults to the King and Queen. One day, ambassadors came from afar and seeing Léandre with Furibon together, they bowed to Léandre thinking he was the prince and thinking Furibon was just a dwarf, they laughed at him. When no one was looking, Furibon angrily tore out three handfuls. Thus, Léandre's father sent Léandre to live in a castle in the countryside, to be safely far away from Furibon. In the countryside, Léandre was free to hunt, walk, paint and play musical instruments, he was lonely. He found an injured grass snake one evening and brought it home to feed and care for it, hoping it would bring him some joy. One day Furibon came into the woods with assassins to kill him. Léandre decided that he must get away from the kingdom once and for all. Before leaving, Léandre visited the room of the grass snake and found out that it had turned into a beautiful jewel-studded fairy named Gentille, she said she could have been killed. Gentille was indebted to Léandre for protecting her life when she was a grass snake and offered him all sorts of rewards: riches, a long life, a kingdom with houses full of gold, the life of an excellent orator, musician, or painter.
She suggested he become an "air and terrestrial lutin." Gentille described the benefits of being a lutin: "You are invisible when you like it. Léandre agreed to be a lutin. So Gentille passed her hands three times over his eyes and face, she gave him a small red hat, trimmed with two parrot feathers, that would make him invisible when he wore it. As an imp, Léandre began to travel. First Léandre took revenge on Foribon and the queen, by sneaking unseen into their palace where he nailed Foribond's ear to a door, beat them a 1000 times with a rod used on the king's dogs, tore up all the fruit and flowers in the queen's garden. Léandre traveled far away. In one kingdom he fell in love with a maid of honor named Blondine, but learned by putting a magic pink rose on her throat that she was in love with a hateful musician, so left her kingdom heartbroken. In three separate adventures, Léandre came to the invisible aid of young maidens by cursing and battling with people that were going to harm them: He saved the first maiden from being married to an old man, another from being sacrificed in a temple by her family, the third a young girl named Abricotine, who he found enslaved in the forest by four robbers.
After rescuing Abricotine, Léandre learned she was a fairy who lived on a secluded island, only for females. An old fairy mother had created this island and retreated from the world because she had been hurt in a love affair and so drove out all the male guards and the officers and replaced them with women from the Amazon race instead, she named this place the Island of Quiet Pleasures. Abricontine served the daughter princess. Léandre asked to see the island. So he saw a palace made of pure gold; the fairy princess had lived here in seclusion for 600 years, but looked like a young girl of incomparable beauty to him. Léandre pretended to be the voice of the parrots in her house, told her about a man had saved Abricotine's life, tried to convince her to give this man a chance to meet her; the princess appeared suspicious. He stayed invisible a long time in her palace, listened to her conversations, ate invisibly beside her at her table every night, spoke as the parrot sometimes, convinced her that she might be able to trust a man.
He brought her fine clothes from around the world when she mentioned them. The fairy princess could not decide if the invisible presence was evil. One day Léandre put a portrait of himself out, she liked it much, but was afraid it was done by a demon. L
Darryl Keith Johansen is an Australian chess grandmaster. He has won the Australian Chess Championship a record six times, represented Australia at fourteen Chess Olympiads, he was awarded by FIDE the titles of International Master in 1982 and Grandmaster in 1995, the second from Australia, after Ian Rogers. He won the Phillips & Drew Knights Masters tournament in London in 1984. In 1987, he won the inaugural Australian Masters tournament, has finished first in this event on two other occasions, he won the 2002 Oceania Zonal Championship and represented the Oceania zone at the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004. In 2009, he won the Sydney International Open held in Parramatta, with a score of 7/9, winning the title on tiebreak ahead of George Xie, Abhijit Kunte, Gawain Jones; this made him the first Australian to win the event. He has won the Victorian State Chess Championships twelve times, the last occasion being in 2009. In January 2012, Johansen tied for 1st–3rd with Li Chao and Zhao Jun in the third Queenstown Chess Classic, winning the tournament on tiebreak.