Ligovo is a historical area of the federal city of Saint Petersburg. It is located in the part of the city on the road leading to Petergof. A settlement of east Slavs existed on the site of modern Ligovo from the 8th-9th centuries CE, since then, Ligovo has been a court manor, an exemplary farm, a town, and a battleground during World War II. Currently, it is a suburb of Saint Petersburg, mostly composed of 1960s buildings and it is part of Uritsk Municipal Okrug, Krasnoselsky District. Liiha is the name of the Izhorian village which is mentioned for the first time in annals named Vodskaya pyatina in 1500, the name is derived from a small river previously called Liiha. Nowadays this is called the Dudergofka river, the settlement is shown on Swedish maps of 15th century as Liihala or Liihankulla. For over 1,000 years the East Slavs have lived peacefully along the Neva River, from the 12th century these territories were part of the large feudal state of the Northwest of Russia — Lord of Great Novgorod.
By the 15th century, Novgorod territory became part of Russian centralised state, at the beginning of a 17th-century, the expanding Swedish Empire spread to the southern coast of gulf of Finland. However following the Great Northern War, Russian victory in 1721, in 1703 Peter I made Saint Petersburg his capital and Ligovo became a suburb. Then in 1715 he dammed the river, creating a pond, simultaneously the Ligovsky channel was dug which drained of water from the Dudergofka and the artificial lake, and so providing water for Ligovo. Many prominent people visited Logovo during this period, Anna Ivanovna on January, elizabeth Petrovna who wanted «to have dinner in tents». By the middle of 18th century the farm was extended to include an orchard, the mill dam was near to the Peterhofskoye shosse and the small river has spread, having formed a pond stretched to a modern line of the railway. In 1765, Russian empress Catherine II built Gatchina Grange and House Kurakinikh, after Grigory Orlovs death in 1783, Ligovo was inherited by its pupil Natalya Alexeyeva.
She was the wife of Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden, Orlovs aide-de-camp, the manor was called Buxhoeveden during this period. In the 1840s, the manor of Buxhoeveden has passed to count G. G. Kushelev, it has continued useful agricultural activity of count Orlov, after Kushelevs death the manor gradually falls into decay. Has strengthened this process of dissociation the country earths as a result of the reforms of 1861, in 1877 in buildings near a mill there was an attempt to arrange sanatorium. In 1879 the most part of a manor has passed to Kurikovs merchant, the country-industrial stage of history of settlement has begun, and soon to Ligovo the Baltic railway has been spent. The settlement became one of known country suburbs of capital, local residents sold to summer residents dairy products, fruit, greens
War of the Third Coalition
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806. During the war and its client states under Napoleon I, defeated an alliance, from 1803–05, Britain stood under constant threat of a French invasion. The Royal Navy, secured mastery of the seas, the Third Coalition itself came to full fruition in 1804–05 as Napoleons actions in Italy and Germany spurred Austria and Russia into joining Britain against France. Victory at Austerlitz permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, a collection of German states intended as a buffer zone between France and central Europe. As a direct consequence of events, the Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist when, in 1806, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated the Imperial throne, emerging as Francis I. These achievements, did not establish a peace on the continent. Austerlitz had driven neither Russia nor Britain, whose armies protected Sicily from a French invasion, Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806.
Europe had been embroiled in the French Revolutionary Wars since 1792, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the armies of the First Coalition in 1797. A Second Coalition was formed in 1798, but this too was defeated by 1801, in March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years all of Europe was at peace, many problems persisted between the two sides making implementation of the treaty increasingly difficult. Bonaparte was angry that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta, the tension only worsened when Bonaparte sent an expeditionary force to re-establish control over Haiti. Prolonged intransigence on these issues led Britain to declare war on France on 18 May 1803, Bonaparte had already revived plans for an invasion of England in March 1803. Bonapartes expeditionary army was destroyed by disease in Haiti, and subsequently swayed the First Consul to abandon his plans to rebuild Frances New World empire, without sufficient revenues from sugar colonies in the Caribbean, the vast territory of Louisiana in North America had little value to him.
Though Spain had not yet completed the transfer of Louisiana to France per the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, the Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed on 30 April 1803. Despite issuing orders that the over 60 million francs were to be spent on the construction of five new canals in France, Bonaparte spent the whole amount on his planned invasion of England. The execution of Enghien shocked the aristocrats of Europe, who remembered the bloodletting of the Revolution. The statement is sometimes attributed to French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord. Sometimes the quote is given as, It was worse than a crime, pitt scored a significant coup by securing a burgeoning rival as an ally
Albert of Riga
Albert of Riga or Albert of Livonia was the third Bishop of Riga in Livonia. In 1201 he allegedly founded Riga, the capital of Latvia. Albert headed the armed forces that forcibly converted the eastern Baltic region to Catholic faith, Albert was born in Bexhövede, a part of Loxstedt. He and his brother Hermann were members of the powerful Buxhoeveden family from Bexhövede, now a part of Loxstedt, because of this he has been known as Albert of Buxhoeveden. The patent was granted 28 March 1199, and by the beginning of spring 1200 he embarked with a Baltic fleet of 23 vessels and he had the support of the Hohenstaufen German King, Philip of Swabia, and the more distant blessing of Pope Innocent III. Together with merchants from the Baltic Sea island of Gotland, Albert founded Riga in 1201, the conquest of Livonia in full occupied almost three decades of his life. Albert created an order, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. King Philip made him a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, with Livonia for a fief, in 1225 King Henry of Germany confirmed the title of Prince for Albert and his brother, Hermann.
Albert declared his diocese independent of Bremen, and Riga was raised to an archbishopric, a first-hand account of Albert is in the contemporary Livonian Chronicle of Henry by Henry of Latvia. Albert died in Riga in 1229, but, as a Catholic Bishop and he was venerated as a Catholic saint until the Protestant Reformation. The present-day von Buxhoeveden are descendants of his cousin Johannes von Buxhoeveden, alberts brother Theodoricus is the progenitor of the family de Raupena that founded manors in Livonia and Courland. Albert Street in Riga is named after Bishop Albert and it is known for its Art Nouveau apartment buildings, many of them designed by the architect Mikhail Eisenstein. Albert von Buxhoeveden James A. Brundage, The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia and translated,2003 Catholic Encyclopedia article
The Finnish War was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from February 1808 to September 1809. As a result of the war, the third of Sweden was established as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire. Other notable effects were the Swedish parliaments adoption of a new constitution and the establishment of the House of Bernadotte, the king, who viewed Napoleon as the Antichrist and Britain as his ally against Napoleons France, was apprehensive of the systems ruinous consequences for Swedens maritime commerce. He instead entered into negotiations with Britain in order to prepare a joint attack against Denmark, in the meantime, the Royal Navy attacked Copenhagen and the Anglo-Russian War was declared. Referring to the treaties of 1780 and 1800, the emperor demanded that Gustav Adolf close the Baltic Sea to all foreign warships, King Gustav Adolf did this after securing an alliance with England on 8 February 1808. Meanwhile, on 30 December 1807 Russia announced that should Sweden not give a clear reply Russia would be forced to act, the situation was problematic for Sweden, since it once again faced both Denmark and Russia as potential enemies requiring the Swedes to split their forces.
The king had thought it impossible to defend Finland should the attack during the winter. Most of the Swedish plans assumed that warfare would be impossible during winter, in addition, several new good roads had been built into Finland greatly reducing the earlier dependency on naval support for any large operation in Finland. Russia had gathered a wealth of information from Finland using spies, the level of detail was so great that Russian maps of Finland were in many respects more accurate than their Swedish counterparts. The Russians used the services of General Georg Magnus Sprengtporten when forming their plans, Sprengtporten suggested going on to an offensive during the winter since Finland would be mostly isolated when seas were frozen. His ideas were developed by General Jan Pieter van Suchtelen before General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden was appointed as the commander of the Russian army in Finland in December 1807. The plan involved using the series of fortifications built after 1790 as staging grounds for the Russian advances into Finland, in southern Finland, armies were to isolate the fortifications and first take control of the whole of southern Finland before advancing further to the north.
Forces in Savolax were to press hard against the Swedes and reach the Gulf of Bothnia towards Uleåborg, on February 21,1808,24,000 Russian troops under Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoevden crossed the border. Since Klingspor had not arrived Lieutenant General Karl Nathanael af Klercker acted as Swedish commander in Finland, before the engagement started Klingspor finally arrived on 2 March and assumed command. Instead of facing the Russians at Tavastehus he ordered the army to withdraw, in Savolax the Russians forced the Swedes to withdraw. The king was quite unprepared for the attack, especially as war was not declared until April, about 21,000 Swedish troops were stationed in various fortresses in Finland, while the rest of his army was unable to leave southern Sweden for fear of Danish attack. On the first day of the war they had captured the town of Lovisa, borgå was captured on 24 February and Helsingfors on 2 March. Abandoned Swedish fortifications Hangö Peninsula were taken and manned on 21 March, before the end of March 1808 even Vasa was taken
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Philip Osipovich Paulucci
In 1792 the Kingdom entered the war against France, and in 1794 Paulucci, just appointed Sublieutenant in the 2nd Battalion of the Gards, was sent to the frontline. Captured in action on the 27 April, he was freed after an exchange the next 7 May. After the occupation of the Turin Citadel he was convicted for challenging to a duel a French officer to defend the honour of the Piedmont. On the 19 November 1796, he was promoted Captain and removed by the king, in 1797 he was listed among the staff officers and aide-de-camp of the Cisalpine Army, probably as aid-de-camp of general Giuseppe Lahoz Ortiz. In 1799, in Mantua he passed in the Austrian service, taking on duties in Passau until, in 1803. In 1804, in Wien, he married Wilhelmina Franziska von Koskull, daughter of a noble Curlandian family, and and he moved to the Russian service with the rank of colonel. On 7 May 1809 he was awarded the 4th class of the Order of St George as a reward for prudent orders given whilst in the Finnish army, which helped defeat the enemy.
However, soon afterwards the preparations for war with Napoleon got underway, after a few days, probably due to the opposition of Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, he received the post as governor general of Governorate of Livonia. In 1829 he left the Russian army and went to Italy, back in Italy, he was called in Piedmont by king Carlo Felice. The following month, he was put at the head of the Sardinian Army, with full authority, except for the Carabinieri. He was all but welcomed by the army and the officers, Carlo Felice died in march 1831, and Paulucci was eventually discharged of all his positions. The new king, to later, suppressed the rank of full general in the Sardinian Army. Both his age and bad health induced him to make a public refusal of the position, filippo Paulucci delle Roncole died in Nice the 25 January 1849, and was buried in Mirandola, near Modena, in the church of Saints James and Philip. Order of St George, 3rd class Order of St. Alexander Nevsky Order of St. Anna and Lazarus Allan Burns, Observations on some of the most frequent and important diseases of the heart,1809, pp- 242-249.
Ulrich Einrich Gustav Freiherrn von Schlippenbach, Erinnerungen von einer Reise nach St. Petersburg im Jahre 1814, Hamburg,1818, II, pp.5,88, 154-165, 178-180,192,202,205,220, 241-42. Carl von Clausewitz, Der Feldzug von 1812 in Russland, ferdinando Augusto Pinelli, Storia militare del Piemonte in continuazione di quella del Saluzzo, cioè dalla pace di Aquisgrana sino a’ dì nostri, 1748-1850, Torino, T. De Giorgis,1854, vol. 2, pp. 653–55 e supplemento III pp. 31–33, joseph Lehmann, Paulucci und Carlo Alberto, Magazin für die Literatur des Auslandes, Bände 59-60,1861, p. 284-286. Julius von Eckardt, Garlieb Merkel, York und Paulucci, Aktenstücke und Beiträge zur Geschichte der Convention von Tauroggen, От древнейших времен до Ермолова,1887, Tom 1, cc. 466-488
Alexander Arkadyevich Suvorov
Alexander Arkadyevich Suvorov, Prince Italsky, Count Rymniksky, was a Russian general and politician. His parents were Arkadi Suvorov and his wife Elena Aleksandrovna Naryshkina and his father was drowned in 1811 when Alexander was still a child. He was sent to the Jesuit boarding house in Saint Petersburg, three years later, due to a change in his attitude towards the Jesuits, his uncle Cyril A. Naryshkin withdrew Alexander from the school and educated him himself, inviting the best teachers. Alexanders mother Elena was living in Florence and wanted him beside her, so he moved to Italy, Alexander stayed here for five years, perfectly mastering several foreign languages, as well as studying history and natural sciences. Aged 18 he left for Paris, studying at the Sorbonne and he fought in the Caucasus and in Poland and was repeatedly sent on diplomatic missions to the German courts. In 1848 he became Governor-General of the Baltic provinces, which he managed highly successfully, from 1861 he was governor general of Saint Petersburg and from 1866 inspector general of the infantry.
He is buried in the cemetery of the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, aide-de-camp to Alexander II of Russia, who died childless, causing the princes of Italy, Counts of Suvorov-Rymniksky line to become extinct. Alexandra, maid of honour, married Major-General Sergei Kozlov
Koluvere Castle, Koluvere Episcopal Castle, is a castle in Koluvere, Lääne County, in western Estonia. A castle has existed on the location since the 13th century. In 1439, it came into possession of the bishop of Saare-Lääne, during the Livonian War, a battle between an outnumbered Swedish army and a Russian army, resulting in a Swedish victory, was fought nearby. The clash, which place in 1573, is known as the Battle of Lode. In 1560, insurgents during a peasant uprising reputedly tried to storm the castle, between 1646 and 1771, the castle belonged to the von Löwen family. By it had lost its significance and was henceforth used as an aristocratic residence. In 1771 it passed into the hands of Grigory Orlov after which it became the property of the Empress Catherine the Great and she died at the estate under unclear circumstances, only 23 years old. Her grave is located in the nearby Kullamaa church, and her life has inspired plenty of local lore, in 1797, Emperor Paul I presented the estate as a gift to general Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden.
It remained in the possession of his heirs until 1919, between 1924 and 2001, it was used by various welfare institutions. The castle is built on an island created in a dammed up part of Liivi river. The high, square-shaped tower belongs to the oldest part of the castle and probably dates from the early 13th century, with the development of firearms, a large, round cannon-tower was added in the 16th century. From around this period a stone with the coat of arms of Reinhold von Buxhoeveden. During the time of the ownership of the von Löwen family and it was instead converted into a comfortable home. Thus, in about 1770 the interior was redecorated in Rococo style. Later, during the 19th century, the received a neo-Gothic appearance. Several annexes to the building were erected during its time as a manor house, for example stables and granaries. The surroundings were transformed into a picturesque park with ponds, a pavilion. Several fires have damaged the castle, notably in 1840,1905 and 1963, still, it remains a very fine example of castle architecture in Estonia
Pyotr Andreyevich Shuvalov
Count Pyotr Andreyevich Shuvalov was an influential Russian statesman and a counselor to Tsar Alexander II. Referring to his influence and reactionary policies, his more liberal opponents sometimes called him Peter IV. Pyotr Andreyevich came from the Shuvalov family which has been prominent in the Russian culture and his father, Count Andrey Petrovich Shuvalov, was a prominent figure at the courts of Nicholas I of Russia and Alexander II of Russia. His mother was Thekla Ignatyevna Walentinowicz, Prince Zubovs widow and heiress, Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov was his brother. Rundāle Palace was notable family estate, after graduating from the Corps of Pages, Pyotr Shuvalov rose through the ranks of Alexander IIs retinue, making wing adjutant, major general of the retinue and adjutant general in short order. In 1857 he was put in charge of the Saint Petersburg police, in 1860 Shuvalov was appointed director of the Department of General Affairs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and in 1861 made Chief of Staff of the Special Corps of Gendarmes.
He proposed that the Corps be abolished, which contributed to his reputation as a liberal and his plan was rejected and he resigned in late 1861. He served elsewhere in the early 1860s and in 1864 was appointed governor-general of the Baltic region and he formed a group of similarly minded moderate ministers and, with the help of the Tsars confidant Field Marshal Aleksandr Baryatinskiy, pursued a policy of moderate reform. Shuvalov was in favor of developing local self-government but on the basis of strengthening the position of the landed gentry. One must openly introduce a system by establishing two houses and giving them a decisive voice. If this cannot be immediately, one must, at least. Shuvalov continued his predecessors reforms, although more cautiously and he reorganized Zemstvo in 1870 and overhauled the military in 1874, reducing the length of service from 15 years to 6. At the same time, he strengthened the governments censorship system, in 1872, he was promoted General of the Cavalry (1872, a rank equivalent to full General in other armies.
In 1873, Shuvalov was sent to London on a mission to arrange a marriage between Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia and the Duke of Edinburgh, the mission was a success and the two married in January 1874. Shuvalov was supposed to reassure the British government that Alexander II had no plans to conquer the Central Asian Khanate of Khiva. Although Khiva did fall to Russian troops in 1874, he was able to blame it on the excess of zeal. In April 1874, the Committee of Ministers approved the creation of a commission with representation from Zemstvo, local gentry. However, more mundane explanations for his downfall, boasting about his influence on the Tsar or making a remark about his mistress Catherine Dolgorukov, have been suggested