A frigate is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over time. In the 17th century, a frigate was any warship built for speed and maneuverability, the description used being "frigate-built"; these could be warships carrying their principal batteries of carriage-mounted guns on a single deck or on two decks. The term was used for ships too small to stand in the line of battle, although early line-of-battle ships were referred to as frigates when they were built for speed. In the 18th century, frigates were full-rigged ships, square-rigged on all three masts, they were built for speed and handiness, had a lighter armament than a ship of the line, were used for patrolling and escort. In the definition adopted by the British Admiralty, they were rated ships of at least 28 guns, carrying their principal armaments upon a single continuous deck – the upper deck – while ships of the line possessed two or more continuous decks bearing batteries of guns. In the late 19th century, the armoured frigate was a type of ironclad warship that for a time was the most powerful type of vessel afloat.
The term "frigate" was used because such ships still mounted their principal armaments on a single continuous upper deck. In modern navies, frigates are used to protect other warships and merchant-marine ships as anti-submarine warfare combatants for amphibious expeditionary forces, underway replenishment groups, merchant convoys. Ship classes dubbed "frigates" have more resembled corvettes, destroyers and battleships; some European navies such as the Dutch, German or Spanish ones use the term "frigate" for both their destroyers and frigates. The rank "frigate captain" derives from the name of this type of ship; the term "frigate" originated in the Mediterranean in the late 15th century, referring to a lighter galley-type warship with oars, sails and a light armament, built for speed and maneuverability. The etymology of the word remains uncertain, although it may have originated as a corruption of aphractus, a Latin word for an open vessel with no lower deck. Aphractus, in turn, derived from the Ancient Greek phrase ἄφρακτος ναῦς - "undefended ship".
In 1583, during the Eighty Years' War of 1568-1648, Habsburg Spain recovered the southern Netherlands from the Protestant rebels. This soon resulted in the use of the occupied ports as bases for privateers, the "Dunkirkers", to attack the shipping of the Dutch and their allies. To achieve this the Dunkirkers developed small, sailing vessels that came to be referred to as frigates; the success of these Dunkirker vessels influenced the ship design of other navies contending with them, but because most regular navies required ships of greater endurance than the Dunkirker frigates could provide, the term soon came to apply less to any fast and elegant sail-only warship. In French, the term "frigate" gave rise to a verb - frégater, meaning'to build long and low', to an adjective, adding more confusion; the huge English Sovereign of the Seas could be described as "a delicate frigate" by a contemporary after her upper decks were reduced in 1651. The navy of the Dutch Republic became the first navy to build the larger ocean-going frigates.
The Dutch navy had three principal tasks in the struggle against Spain: to protect Dutch merchant ships at sea, to blockade the ports of Spanish-held Flanders to damage trade and halt enemy privateering, to fight the Spanish fleet and prevent troop landings. The first two tasks required speed, shallowness of draft for the shallow waters around the Netherlands, the ability to carry sufficient supplies to maintain a blockade; the third task required heavy armament, sufficient to stand up to the Spanish fleet. The first of the larger battle-capable frigates were built around 1600 at Hoorn in Holland. By the stages of the Eighty Years' War the Dutch had switched from the heavier ships still used by the English and Spanish to the lighter frigates, carrying around 40 guns and weighing around 300 tons; the effectiveness of the Dutch frigates became most evident in the Battle of the Downs in 1639, encouraging most other navies the English, to adopt similar designs. The fleets built by the Commonwealth of England in the 1650s consisted of ships described as "frigates", the largest of which were two-decker "great frigates" of the third rate.
Carrying 60 guns, these vessels were as capable as "great ships" of the time. The term "frigate" implied a long hull-design, which relates directly to speed and which in turn, helped the development of the broadside tactic in naval warfare. At this time, a further design evolved, reintroducing oars and resulting in galley frigates such as HMS Charles Galley of 1676, rated as a 32-gun fifth-rate but had a bank of 40 oars set below the upper deck which could propel the ship in the absence of a favourable wind. In Danish, the word "fregat" applies to warships carrying as few as 16 guns, such as HMS Falcon, which the British classified as a sloop. Under the rating system of the Royal Navy, by the middle of the 18th century, the term "frigate" was technically restricted to single-decked ships of the fifth rate, though small 28-gun frigates classed as sixth rate; the classic sailing frigate, well-known today for its role in the Napoleonic wars, can be traced back to F
South Lockport is a hamlet located in the Town of Lockport in Niagara County, New York, United States. The population was 8,234 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area. South Lockport is south of the City of Lockport on New York State Route 78. South Lockport is located at 43°8′3″N 78°41′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the region has a total area of 5.8 square miles, of which, 5.8 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 8,552 people, 3,544 households, 2,317 families residing in the community; the population density was 1,488.4 per square mile. There were 3,816 housing units at an average density of 664.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.36% White, 4.89% African American, 0.48% Native American, 1.06% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.54% from other races, 1.66% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.77% of the population. There were 3,544 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.6% were non-families.
29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.98. In the community, the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.5 males. The median income for a household in the region was $36,410, the median income for a family was $45,370. Males had a median income of $34,840 versus $24,162 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $18,945. About 11.0% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.4% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over
Paul Xavier Gleason was an American film and television actor. He was known for his roles on television series such as All My Children and films such as The Breakfast Club, Trading Places, Die Hard. Gleason was born on May 4, 1939 in Jersey City, New Jersey, the son of Eleanor, a registered nurse, George L. Gleason, a restaurateur, professional boxer, iron worker, roofing manufacturer. Gleason was raised in Florida. At age 16, he ran away from home and hitchhiked across the east coast, sleeping on beaches and playing baseball, he attended Florida State University where he played football. He signed a professional baseball contract with the Cleveland Indians, but played just in two minor league seasons between 1959 and 1960. During that last season, a west coast trip led to an introduction to sitcom icon Ozzie Nelson, which, in turn, led to an appearance on Ozzie and Harriet. Acting was an option, an attractive one, given Gleason's stillborn baseball career, he moved to New York City joining The Actors Studio, where he would study for four years before moving to Los Angeles.
Gleason starred in many movies, became well-known as Dr. David Thornton on All My Children, playing the role from 1976 to 1978, he guest-starred in two episodes of The A-Team. Gleason was known to Star Wars fans for his role as Jeremitt Towani in the 1985 made-for-TV film Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, he played the villainous Clarence Beeks, the Duke brothers' inside trader, in the 1983 comedy Trading Places starring Dan Aykroyd and Eddie Murphy. He played Deputy Police Chief Dwayne T. Robinson, the blowhard police official, in Die Hard. At 44, Gleason played Richard Vernon, the disciplinarian school assistant principal, in the 1985 film The Breakfast Club, he played similar characters in the 1988 film Johnny Be Good and on several episodes of the TV sitcom Boy Meets World. He directly parodied his Breakfast Club role in the 2000 A-Teens music video for "Dancing Queen" and in the 2001 comedy film Not Another Teen Movie. In 2002, he appeared in episodes of Dawson's Creek as Larry Newman, the sex-and-violence obsessed chief of a B movie studio.
He appeared as a nonsensical judge in an episode of Josh. He appeared in an episode of George Lopez as the brother of George's boss, a crazy old drunk. In 2005, he appeared as the Sheriff in the horror film Abominable, his final appearance before his death was in an independent film called The Book of Caleb. He had a short role on the cult TV Show Friends as Jack, Phoebe's boss at an investment company, in the season 6 episode “The One That Could Have Been". Gleason, in addition to his acting career, participated in many celebrity golf events each year, was known to mingle with fans and sign autographs during these golf tournaments. From 1971 to 1978, he was married to actress Candy Moore. From 1995 until his death, he was married to Susan Kehl. Gleason died on May 27, 2006 at a Burbank, California hospital from pleural mesothelioma, a form of lung cancer connected with asbestos, which he is thought to have contracted from asbestos exposure on building sites while working for his father as a teenager.
Gleason was 67 years old. He was buried near the southeast corner of the Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Westwood, Los Angeles. Voisin, Scott, "Character Kings: Hollywood's Familiar Faces Discuss the Art & Business of Acting." BearManor Media, 2009. ISBN 978-1-59393-342-5. Paul Gleason on IMDb Paul Gleason at the TCM Movie Database Paul Gleason at AllMovie Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Paul Gleason at Find a Grave