A caldarium was a room with a hot plunge bath, used in a Roman bath complex. This was a hot and steamy room heated by a hypocaust, an underfloor heating system using tunnels with hot air, heated by a furnace tended by slaves; this was the hottest room in the regular sequence of bathing rooms. In the caldarium, there would be a bath of hot water sunk into the floor and there was sometimes a laconicum—a hot, dry area for inducing sweating; the bath's patrons would use olive oil to cleanse themselves by applying it to their bodies and using a strigil to remove the excess. This was sometimes left on the floor for the slaves to pick up or put back in the pot for the women to use for their hair; the temperature of the caldarium is not known exactly: however, since the Romans used sandals with a wooden sole, it could not be higher than 50–55 °C. The bather would wait long enough for the perspiration to start, in order to guard against the danger of passing too into the high temperature of the next room.
Tepidarium Frigidarium Thermae Greek and Roman baths at the Perseus Project
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Palestrina is modern Italian city and comune with a population of about 22,000, in Lazio, about 35 kilometres east of Rome. It is connected to the latter by the Via Prenestina, it is built upon the ruins of an ancient city of the same name. Palestrina is the birthplace of composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. Palestrina is sited on a spur of the Monti Prenestini, a mountain range in the central Apennines. Palestrina borders the following municipalities: Artena, Castel San Pietro Romano, Gallicano nel Lazio, Rocca di Cave, Rocca Priora, San Cesareo, Zagarolo. Early burials show that the site was occupied in the 8th or 7th century BC; the ancient necropolis lays on a plateau at the foot of the hill below the ancient town. Of the objects found in the oldest graves, supposed to date from about the 7th century BC, the cups of silver and silver-gilt and most of the gold and amber jewelry are Phoenician, but the bronzes and some of the ivory articles seem to be of the Etruscan civilization. Praenestine graves from about 240 BC onwards have been found: they are surmounted by the characteristic pineapple made of local stone, containing stone coffins with rich bronze and gold ornaments beside the skeleton.
From these come the famous bronze boxes and hand mirrors with inscriptions in Etruscan. Famous is the bronze Ficoroni Cista, engraved with pictures of the arrival of the Argonauts in Bithynia and the victory of Pollux over Amycus, found in 1738. An example of archaic Latin is the inscription on the Ficoroni Cista: "Novios Plautios Romai med fecid / Dindia Macolnia fileai dedit"; the caskets are unique in Italy, but a large number of mirrors of similar style have been discovered in Etruria. Hence, although it would be reasonable to conjecture that objects with Etruscan characteristics came from Etruria, the evidence points decisively to an Etruscan factory in or near Praeneste itself. Other imported objects in the burials show that Praeneste traded not only with Etruria but with the Greek east; the origin of Praeneste was attributed by the ancients to Ulysses, or to other fabulous characters variously called Caeculus, Erulus or Praenestus. The name derives from the word Praenesteus, referring to its overlooking location.
Praeneste was under the hegemony of Alba Longa while that city was the head of the Latin League. It withdrew from the league in 499 BC, according to Livy, formed an alliance with Rome. After Rome was weakened by the Gauls of Brennus, Praeneste switched allegiances and fought against Rome in the long struggles that culminated in the Latin War. From 373 to 370, it was in continual war against Rome or her allies, was defeated by Cincinnatus. In 354 and in 338 the Romans were victorious and Praeneste was punished by the loss of portions of its territory, becoming a city allied to Rome; as such, it furnished contingents to the Roman army, Roman exiles were permitted to live at Praeneste, which grew prosperous. The roses of Praeneste were a byword for beauty. Præneste was situated on the Via Labicana, its citizens were offered Roman citizenship in 90 BC in the Social War, when concessions had to be made by Rome to cement necessary alliances. In Sulla's second civil war, Gaius Marius the Younger was blockaded in the town by the forces of Sulla.
When the city was captured, Marius slew himself, the male inhabitants were massacred in cold blood, a military colony was settled on part of its territory. From an inscription it appears that Sulla delegated the foundation of the new colony to Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, consul in 73 BC. Within a decade the lands of the colonia had been assembled by a few large landowners. From the late Republic to the late Empire, baths, shrines and a second forum were built in the lower city, near today's Madonna dell'Aquila. Under the Empire the cool breezes of Praeneste made it a favorite summer resort of wealthy Romans, whose villas studded the neighborhood, though they ridiculed the language and the rough manners of the native inhabitants; the poet Horace ranked "cool Praeneste" with Baiae as favored resorts. The emperor Augustus stayed in Praeneste, Tiberius recovered there from a dangerous illness and made it a municipium; the emperor Marcus Aurelius was at Praeneste with his family. The ruins of the imperial villa associated with Hadrian stand in the plain near the church of S. Maria della Villa, about three-quarters of a mile from the town.
At the site was discovered the Braschi Antinous, now in the Vatican Museums. Pliny the Younger had a villa at Praeneste, L. Aurelius Avianius Symmachus retired there. Inscriptions show. Archaeologists working in the 1950s were able to identify the area around the Cathedral and the Piazza Regina Margherita as the Forum of Ancient Praeneste; the buildings of the forum comprised a central temple, whose walls were re-used for the cathedral, a two-storey civil basilica consisting of four naves separated by columns, once roofed but today an open space. The basilica was flanked by two buildings, the easternmost containing a raised podium and the public treasury, the aerarium, identified by an inscription dating it to ~150 BC. At some date, the buildings flanking the basilica were each embellished with a nymphaeum with a mosaic floor; the western mosaic represents a seascape: a temple of P
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was buried under 4 to 6 m of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Volcanic ash buried inhabitants who did not escape the lethal effects of the earthquake and eruption. Preserved under the ash, the excavated city offers a unique snapshot of Roman life, frozen at the moment it was buried and providing an extraordinarily detailed insight into the everyday life of its inhabitants. Organic remains, including wooden objects and human bodies, were entombed in the ash and decayed away, making natural molds; the numerous graffiti carved on the walls and inside rooms provides a wealth of examples of the lost Vulgar Latin spoken colloquially, contrasting with the formal language of the classical writers. Pompeii is a UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with 2.5 million visitors every year.
Excavations recommenced in several unexplored areas of the city, in 2018 new discoveries were reported. Pompeii in Latin is a second declension plural noun. According to Theodor Kraus, "The root of the word Pompeii would appear to be the Oscan word for the number five, which suggests that either the community consisted of five hamlets or it was settled by a family group." The ruins of Pompeii are located near the modern town of Pompei and about 8 km away from Mount Vesuvius. It stands on a spur about 40 m above sea level formed by an ancient lava flow to the north of the mouth of the Sarno River. Three sheets of sediment from large landslides lie on top of the lava triggered by extended rainfall. Today, Pompeii is some distance inland, it covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares and was home to 11,000 to 11,500 people, on the basis of household counts. The first stable settlements on the site date back to the 8th century BC when the Oscans, a people of central Italy, founded five villages in the area.
With the arrival of the Greeks in Campania from around 740 BC Pompeii entered into the orbit of the Hellenic people and the most important building of this period is the Doric Temple, built not near the centre, but in a more isolated position in what would become the Triangular Forum, as the Greeks wanted to control just the streets and the port. At the same time the cult of Apollo was introduced. Greek and Phoenician sailors used the location as a safe port. Around the 6th century BC, it merged into a single community on the important crossroad between Cumae and Stabiae and was surrounded by a tufa city wall, it began to flourish and the first maritime trade started with the construction of a small port near the mouth of the river. The earliest settlement was focussed in regions VII and VIII of the town as identified from stratigraphy below the Samnite and Roman buildings. 524 BC saw the arrival and settlement of the Etruscans in the area including Pompeii, finding in the river Sarno a communication route between the sea and the interior.
To the Greeks, the Etruscans did not conquer the city militarily, but controlled it and Pompeii enjoyed a sort of autonomy. Pompeii became a member of the Etruscan League of cities. Recent excavations have shown the presence of a 6th-century BC necropolis. Under the Etruscans a primitive forum or simple market square was built, as well as the temple of Apollo, in both of which objects including fragments of bucchero were found by Maiuri. Several houses were built with typical of this people; the city wall was strengthened in the early 5th century BC with two façades of thin, vertically set, slabs of Sarno limestone some 4 m apart filled with earth. In 474 BC the Greek city of Cumae, allied with Syracuse, conquered the Etruscans definitively at the Battle of Cumae and gained control of the area; the period between about 450–375 BC witnessed large areas of the city being abandoned while important sanctuaries such as the Temple of Apollo show a sudden lack of votive material remains. The Samnites, people coming from the areas of Abruzzo and Molise, allies of the Romans, conquered Greek Cumae between 423 and 420 BC and it is that in advance, all the surrounding territory, including Pompeii, was conquered around 424 BC.
The new rulers imposed their architecture and enlarged the town. From 343 BC the first Roman army entered the Campanian plain bringing with it the customs and traditions of Rome and in the Roman war against the Latins the Samnites were faithful to Rome. Pompeii, although governed by the Samnites, entered in effect in the Roman orbit, to which it remained faithful during the third Samnite war and in the war against Pyrrhus; the city walls were reinforced in Sarno stone in the early 3rd century BC. It formed the basis for the visible walls with an outer wall of rectangular limestone blocks as an enormous terrace wall supporting a large agger, or earth embankment, behind it. After the Samnite Wars from 290 BC, Pompeii was forced to accept the status of socii of Rome, however and administrative autonomy. From the outbreak of the Second Punic War in which Pompeii remained faithful to Rome, an addit
In ancient Rome and balneae were facilities for bathing. Thermae refers to the large imperial bath complexes, while balneae were smaller-scale facilities, public or private, that existed in great numbers throughout Rome. Most Roman cities had at least one, if not many, such buildings, which were centres not only for bathing, but socializing, reading as well. Roman bath-houses were provided for private villas, town houses, forts, they were supplied with water from an adjacent river or stream, or more by an aqueduct. The water would be heated by a log fire before being channelled into the hot bathing rooms; the design of baths is discussed by Vitruvius in De Architectura. Thermae, balineae and balineum may all be translated as "bath" or "baths", though Latin sources distinguish among these terms. Balneum or balineum, derived from the Greek βαλανεῖον signifies, in its primary sense, a bath or bathing-vessel, such as most persons of any consequence among the Romans possessed in their own houses, hence the chamber which contained the bath, the proper translation of the word balnearium.
The diminutive balneolum is adopted by Seneca to designate the bathroom of Scipio, in the villa at Liternum, is expressly used to characterize the modesty of republican manners as compared with the luxury of his own times. But when the baths of private individuals became more sumptuous, comprised many rooms, instead of the one small chamber described by Seneca, the plural balnea or balinea was adopted, which still, in correct language, had reference only to the baths of private persons, thus Cicero terms the baths at the villa of his brother Quintus balnearia. Balneae and balineae, which according to Varro have no singular number, were the public baths, but this accuracy of diction is neglected by many of the subsequent writers, by the poets, amongst whom balnea is not uncommonly used in the plural number to signify the public baths, since the word balneae could not be introduced in a hexameter verse. Pliny in the same sentence, makes use of the neuter plural balnea for public, of balneum for a private bath.
Thermae meant baths of warm water. Writers, use these terms without distinction, thus the baths erected by Claudius Etruscus, the freedman of the Emperor Claudius, are styled by Statius balnea, by Martial Etrusci thermulae. In an epigram by Martial—subice balneum thermis—the terms are not applied to the whole building, but to two different chambers in the same edifice. A public bath was built around three principal rooms: the caldarium, the tepidarium and the frigidarium; some thermae featured steam baths: the sudatorium, a moist steam bath, the laconicum, a dry hot room much like a modern sauna. By way of illustration, this article will describe the layout of Pompeii's Old Baths adjoining the forum, which are among some of the best-preserved Roman baths; the references are to the floor plan pictured to the right. The whole building comprises one for men and the other for women, it has six different entrances from the street, one of which gives admission to the smaller women's set only. Five other entrances lead to the men's department, of which two, communicate directly with the furnaces, the other three with the bathing apartments.
Passing through the principal entrance, a, removed from the street by a narrow footway surrounding the building and after descending three steps, the bather would find a small chamber on his left with a water closet, proceed into a covered portico, which ran round three sides of an open court. These together formed the vestibule of the baths; this atrium was the exercise ground for the young men, or served as a promenade for visitors to the baths. Within this court the keeper of the baths, who exacted the quadrans paid by each visitor, was stationed; the room f, which runs back from the portico, might have been appropriated to him. In this court, advertisements for the theatre, or other announcements of general interest, were posted up, one of which, announcing a gladiatorial show, still remains. At the sides of the entrance were seats. A passage leads into the apodyterium, a room for undressing in which all visitors must have met before entering the baths proper. Here, the bathers removed their clothing, taken in charge by slaves known as capsarii, notorious in ancient times for their dishonesty.
The apodyterium was a spacious chamber, with stone seats along three sides of the wall. Holes are still visible on the walls, mark the places where the pegs for the bathers' clothes were set; the chamber was lighted by a glass window, had six doors. One of these led to the tepidarium and another to the frigidarium, with its cold plunge-bath (referred to as loutron, natatorium, baptisterium or puteus.
In a building, a room is any space enclosed within four walls to which entry is possible only by a door that connects it either to a passageway, to another room, or to the outdoors, large enough for several persons to move about, whose size, fixtures and sometimes placement within the building support the activity to be conducted in it. The use of rooms dates at least to early Minoan cultures about 2200 BC, where excavations at Akrotiri on Santorini reveal defined rooms within certain structures. In early structures, the different room types could be identified to include bedrooms, bathing rooms, reception rooms, other specialized uses; the aforementioned Akrotiri excavations reveal rooms sometimes built above other rooms connected by staircases, bathrooms with alabaster appliances such as washbasins, bathing tubs, toilets, all connected to an elaborate twin plumbing systems of ceramic pipes for cold and hot water separately. Ancient Rome manifested complex building forms with a variety of room types, including some of the earliest examples of rooms for indoor bathing.
The Anasazi civilization had an early complex development of room structures the oldest in North America, while the Maya of Central America had advanced room configurations as early as several hundred AD. By at least the early Han Dynasty in China, comfort room complex multi-level building forms emerged for religious and public purposes; some rooms were specially designed to support the work of the household, such as kitchens and root cellars, all of which were intended for the preparation and storage of food. A home office or study may be used for household paperwork or external business purposes; some work rooms are designated by the intended activity: for example, a sewing room is used for sewing, the laundry room is used for washing and ironing laundry. Other rooms are meant to promote comfort and cleanliness, such as the toilet and bathroom, which may be combined or which may be in separate rooms; the public equivalent is the restroom, which features a toilet and handwashing facilities, but not a shower or a bathtub.
In the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries, among those who could afford it, these facilities were kept in separate areas. The kitchen was detached from the main part of the house, or put in the basement, to reduce the risk of fire and keep the heat and smell of cooking away from the main house during the warm months; the toilet a simple pit latrine, was put in an outhouse or privy, to keep the smell and insects away from the main house. A variety of room types have been distinguished over time whose main purpose was socializing with other people. In previous centuries large homes featured a great hall; this room was so named because it was large, regardless of any excellence in it. It was a public room and most seen in the main home of a noble estate. In this room, people who had business with the local landowner or his household could meet; as the largest room, it could be used as a dining room for large banquets, or cleared of tables, provided with music, turned into a ballroom. Off the side, or in a different part of the house, might be a drawing room, used as a room with greater privacy, for the owner's family and their friends to talk.
A sitting room, living room, or parlour is a place for social visits and entertainment. One decorated to appeal to a man might be called a man cave; some large homes have special rooms for entertainment. A bedroom is the room where a bed is located, whose primary purpose is sleeping. A master bedroom may have an en suite bathroom. A guest room is a bedroom used by overnight guests; the nursery is a bedroom for young children. It may be separate from the playroom, a room where the children's toys are kept. Bedrooms may be used for other purposes. A large house might have separate rooms for these other functions, such as a dressing room for changing clothes. In Tudor times, a bedroom might have a separate closet, for seeking privacy. In the United Kingdom, many houses are built to contain a box-room, identifiable, being smaller than the others; the small size of these rooms limits their use, they tend to be used as a small single bedroom, small child's bedroom, or as a storage room. Other box rooms may house a live-in domestic worker.
Traditionally, seen in country houses and larger suburban houses up until the 1930s in Britain, the box room was for the storage of boxes, trunks and the like, rather than for bedroom use. A sick room is specialized room, sometimes just large enough to contain a bed, where a family member could be conveniently tended and kept separate from the rest of the household while recuperating from an illness. In smaller homes, most rooms were multi-purpose. In a bedsit, communal apartment, or studio apartment, a single main room may serve most functions, except the toilet and bath. Types of multi-purpose rooms include the great room, which removes most walls and doors between the kitchen and living rooms, to create one larger, open area. In some places, a lady's boudoir was a combination sleeping room and place to entertain small numbers of friends. In others, the boudoir
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving