The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni
Essex is a county in the south-east of England, north-east of London. One of the home counties, it borders Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent across the estuary of the River Thames to the south, London to the south-west; the county town is the only city in the county. For government statistical purposes Essex is placed in the East of England region. Essex occupies the eastern part of the ancient Kingdom of Essex, which united with the other Anglian and Saxon kingdoms to make England a single nation state; as well as rural areas, the county includes London Stansted Airport, the new towns of Basildon and Harlow, Lakeside Shopping Centre, the port of Tilbury and the borough of Southend-on-Sea. The name Essex originates in the Anglo-Saxon period of the Early Middle Ages and has its root in the Anglo-Saxon name Ēastseaxe, the eastern kingdom of the Saxons who had come from the continent and settled in Britain during the Heptarchy. Recorded in AD 527, Essex occupied territory to the north of the River Thames, incorporating all of what became Middlesex and most of what became Hertfordshire.
Its territory was restricted to lands east of the River Lea. Colchester in the north-east of the county is Britain's oldest recorded town, dating from before the Roman conquest, when it was known as Camulodunum and was sufficiently well-developed to have its own mint. In AD 824, following the Battle of Ellandun, the kingdoms of the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the Jutes of Kent were absorbed into the kingdom of the West Saxons, uniting Saxland under King Alfred's grandfather Ecgberht. Before the Norman conquest the East Saxons were subsumed into the Kingdom of England. After the Norman conquest, Essex became a county. During the medieval period, much of the area was designated a Royal forest, including the entire county in a period to 1204, when the area "north of the Stanestreet" was disafforested; the areas subject to forest law diminished, but at various times they included the forests of Becontree, Epping, Hatfield and Waltham. Essex County Council was formed in 1889. However, County Boroughs of West Ham, Southend-on-Sea and East Ham formed part of the county but were unitary authorities.
12 boroughs and districts provide more localised services such as rubbish and recycling collections and planning, as shown in the map on the right. A few Essex parishes have been transferred to other counties. Before 1889, small areas were transferred to Hertfordshire near Bishops Stortford and Sawbridgeworth. At the time of the main changes around 1900, parts of Helions Bumpstead, Sturmer and Ballingdon-with-Brundon were transferred to Suffolk. Part of Hadstock, part of Ashton and part of Chrishall were transferred to Cambridgeshire and part of Great Horkesley went to Suffolk; the boundary with Greater London was established in 1965, when East Ham and West Ham county boroughs and the Barking, Dagenham, Ilford, Romford and Wanstead and Woodford districts were transferred to form the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Newham and Waltham Forest. Essex became part of the East of England Government Office Region in 1994 and was statistically counted as part of that region from 1999, having been part of the South East England region.
In 1998, the boroughs of Southend-on-Sea and Thurrock were granted autonomy from the administrative county of Essex after successful requests to become unitary authorities. Essex Police covers the two unitary authorities; the county council chamber and main headquarters is at the County Hall in Chelmsford. Before 1938, the council met in London near Moorgate, which with significant parts of the county close to that point and the dominance of railway travel had been more convenient than any place in the county, it has 75 elected councillors. Before 1965, the number of councillors reached over 100; the County Hall, made a listed building in 2007, dates from the mid-1930s and is decorated with fine artworks of that period the gift of the family who owned the textile firm Courtaulds. The highest point of the county of Essex is Chrishall Common near the village of Langley, close to the Hertfordshire border, which reaches 482 feet; the ceremonial county of Essex is bounded to the south by its estuary.
The pattern of settlement in the county is diverse. The Metropolitan Green Belt has prevented the further sprawl of London into the county, although it contains the new towns of Basildon and Harlow developed to resettle Londoners after the destruction of London housing in the Second World War, since which they have been developed and expanded. Epping Forest prevents the further spread of the Greater London Urban Area; as it is not far from London with its economic magnetism, many of Essex's settlements those near or within short driving distance of railway stations, function as dormitory towns or villages where London workers raise their families. Part of the s
Kirby Cross is a village in Tendring district, England. It is situated near to Frinton-on-Sea. Kirby Cross was a hamlet within the parish of Kirby-le-Soken, but since 1934 both settlements have been part of Frinton and Walton civil parish, it is the location of Kirby Cross railway station on the Sunshine Coast branch of the Great Eastern Main Line. Media related to Kirby Cross at Wikimedia Commons
Harwich (UK Parliament constituency)
Harwich was a parliamentary constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Until its abolition for the 2010 general election it elected one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election. 1885-1918: The Municipal Boroughs of Colchester and Harwich, parts of the Sessional Divisions of Lexden and Winstree. 1918-1950: The Municipal Borough of Harwich, the Urban Districts of Brightlingsea, Frinton-on-Sea, Walton-on-the-Naze, Wivenhoe, the Rural District of Tendring. 1950-1983: The Municipal Borough of Harwich, the Urban Districts of Brightlingsea, Clacton and Walton, Wivenhoe, the Rural District of Tendring. 1983-1997: The District of Tendring wards of Beaumont and Thorpe, Bockings Elm, Bradfield Wrabness and Wix, Golf Green and Little Oakley, Harwich East, Harwich East Central, Harwich West, Harwich West Central, Haven and Kirby, Little Clacton, Rush Green, Southcliff, St Bartholomew's, St James, St John's, St Mary's, St Osyth and Weeley, Walton.
1997-2010: The District of Tendring wards of Beaumont and Thorpe, Bockings Elm, Golf Green and Little Oakley, Harwich East, Harwich East Central, Harwich West, Harwich West Central, Haven and Kirby, Little Clacton, Rush Green, St Bartholomew's, St James, St John's, St Mary's, Walton. Following their review of parliamentary representation in Essex, the Boundary Commission for England created a new constituency of Clacton, based on the former Harwich seat. Harwich itself was moved into a new constituency of Harwich and North Essex. Constituency founded 1604 Attwood's election was declared void on petition due to bribery by his agents, causing a by-election. Hobhouse was becoming 1st Baron Broughton and causing a by-election. Prinsep's election was declared due to, causing a by-election. Crawford's election was declared void, due to polling being closed prematurely, the seat's writ was suspended in July 1851. A by-election was called the next year. Kelly resigned causing a by-election. Peacocke's election was declared due to corrupt practices, causing a by-election.
Warburton's death caused a by-election. Bagshaw's resignation caused a by-election. Campbell succeeded to the peerage, becoming Lord Stratheden and Campbell, causing a by-election. Seat reduced to one member General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected. Joseph Hewitt List of Parliamentary constituencies in Essex
Walton-on-the-Naze is a small town in Essex, England, on the North Sea coast in the Tendring District. It is south of the port of Harwich, it abuts Frinton-on-Sea to the south, is part of the parish of Frinton and Walton. It is a resort town, with a population of 12,054; the town is in the civil parish of Walton. It attracts many visitors. There is a pier; the parish was earlier known as Eadolfenaesse and as Walton-le-Soken. The name'Walton' is a common one meaning a'farmstead or village of the Britons', while'Soken' denotes the soke that included Thorpe and Walton, which were not under the see of London but under the chapter of St Paul's Cathedral. Walton has an HM Coastguard team and houses Thames MRCC, organising rescues from Southwold to Herne Bay. Walton-on-the-Naze railway station is on a branch of the Sunshine Coast Line. Along the coast there are many fossils to be found; some rocks go up to 50 million years old. Rocks include London clay. "Naze" derives from Old English næss "ness, headland".
In 1722 Daniel Defoe mentions the town calling it "Walton, under the Nase". The Naze is a peninsula north of the town, it has a small nature reserve. The marshes of Hamford Water behind the town are of ornithological interest, with wintering ducks and Brent geese. Many bird watchers visit at migration times; the Hanoverian tower at the start of the open area of the Naze was a sea mark to assist ships on this otherwise featureless coast. It is now owned and open to visitors. Walton was a farming village situated miles inland. Over the centuries a large extent of land has been lost to the sea due to coastal erosion; the site of the medieval village of Walton now lies nine miles out to sea. Its last service was held on 22 July 1798; this loss of land to the sea is recorded on a Canon's stall in St Paul's Cathedral with the inscription Consumpta per Mare. The Naze continues to erode threatening the tower and wildlife; the Naze Protection Society was formed to campaign for erosion controls. The Naze has become popular for school fieldwork to investigate erosion and ways to protect the coast.
Protection includes a riprap, groynes and a permeable groyne as well as drainage. Millions of tons of sand have been added to the beach to stop the cliff eroding. However, the cliff near Naze Tower is eroded, it is receding fast, within 50 years Naze Tower may tumble into the sea like the pill boxes that can be seen on the beach. The cliffs themselves are a Site of Special Scientific Interest, the base of, London Clay, overlaid with a 2-million-year-old sandy deposit of Red Crag; this sandy deposit contains many fossils including bivalve and gastropod shells, sharks' teeth and whale bones. The clay base is considered one of the best sites for bird bones. Like the rest of the British Isles, Walton-on-the-Naze has an oceanic climate, with more marine influence than nearby inland areas due to its position on the North Sea coast; the original pier was built in one of the earliest in the country. It was built for landing goods and passengers from steamers and was 300 ft long extended to 800 feet; the pier was badly damaged in a storm in January 1871.
A second pier opened in 1880, which did not last. In 1895, the Walton-on-the-Naze hotel and pier company opened a replacement pier 500 ft longer than the original. Several extensions have increased the pier's length to 2,600 ft, the third longest in the UK; when the new pier opened in 1895, an electric tramway was installed to take passengers from the steamers to the front of the pier. This was in use until 1935. In 1945 fire damaged the pier, the carriage was replaced by a diesel locomotive train; this was removed during the 1970s. Today, the pier remains a popular attraction, with amusements and funfair rides in a hangar-type building. Beyond this, the pier extends into a promenade popular with anglers; the unusual war memorial commemorates a Halifax crew. It has a tribute to Herbert George Columbine, who won the VC and after whom the local leisure centre is named, a tribute to those lost from HMS Conquest during World War I; the old lifeboat house on East Terrace dates from 1884: it now houses the Walton Maritime Museum.
It is a grade II listed building. Frank Paton, moved to Walton-on-the-Naze shortly before his death in 1909 Although the Civil Parish is now shown under Frinton and Walton, an electoral ward in the name of Walton still exists; the population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 4,372. Walton was the inspiration for the fictional Balford-le-Nez in Elizabeth George's Deception on His Mind. Hamford Water and the town of Walton-on-the-Naze are the location of Arthur Ransome's Swallows and Amazons series book, Secret Water. Walton features as a turning point in the song "Tracy Jacks" from the album Parklife by Blur; the song's character, Tracy Jacks, takes "the first train to Walton" and stands "on the seafront". The town is referred to in the episode'General Hospital' of the'Blackadder Goes Forth' series; when Lieutenant George is injured and sent to the
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Kirby-le-Soken is a small village in the Tendring district of North East Essex, agricultural, but residential, near Frinton-on-Sea and Walton-on-the-Naze, in the civil parish of Frinton and Walton. Kirby-le-Soken is in an area called The Sokens, isolated from Kirby Cross, Frinton-on-Sea and Walton-on-the-Naze by fields. Media related to Kirby-le-Soken at Wikimedia Commons The Kirby-le-Soken History Pages