A generic trademark known as a genericized trademark or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name that, due to its popularity or significance, has become the generic name for, or synonymous with, a general class of product or service against the intentions of the trademark's holder. The process of a product's name becoming genericized is known as genericide. A trademark is said to become genericized when it begins as a distinctive product identifier but changes in meaning to become generic; this happens when the products or services with which the trademark is associated have acquired substantial market dominance or mind share, such that the primary meaning of the genericized trademark becomes the product or service itself rather than an indication of source for the product or service. A trademark thus popularized has its legal protection at risk in some countries such as the United States and United Kingdom, as its intellectual property rights in the trademark may be lost and competitors enabled to use the genericized trademark to describe their similar products, unless the owner of an affected trademark works sufficiently to correct and prevent such broad use.
Thermos, Kleenex, Q-Tip, ChapStick, Dumpster, Band-Aid, Hoover, Jet Ski, Speedo are examples of trademarks that have become genericized in the US and elsewhere. Genericization or "loss of secondary meaning" may be either among the general population or among just a subpopulation, for example, people who work in a particular industry; some examples of the latter type from the vocabulary of physicians include the names Luer-Lok and Port-a-Cath, which have genericized mind share because: The users may not realize that the term is a brand name rather than a medical eponym or generic-etymology term. No alternative generic name for the idea comes to mind. Most genericization occurs because of heavy advertising that fails to provide an alternative generic name or that uses the trademark in similar fashion to generic terms. Thus, when the Otis Elevator Company advertised that it offered "the latest in elevator and escalator design," it was using the well-known generic term "elevator" and Otis's trademark "Escalator" for moving staircases in the same way.
The Trademark Office and the courts concluded that, if Otis used their trademark in that generic way, they could not stop Westinghouse from calling its moving staircases "escalators", a valuable trademark was lost through genericization. The pharmaceutical industry affords some protection from genericization of trade names due to the modern practice of assigning a nonproprietary name for a drug based upon chemical structure. Brand-name drugs have well-known nonproprietary names from the beginning of their commercial existence while still under patent, preventing the aforementioned problem of "no alternative generic name for the idea coming to mind". For example when Abilify was new, its nonproprietary name, was well documented. Another example is Warfarin, known as an ingredient in rat poison before it was approved for human use under the brand name of Coumadin. Examples of genericization before the modern system of generic drugs include aspirin, introduced to the market in 1897, heroin, introduced in 1898.
Both were trademarks of Bayer AG. However, U. S. court rulings in 1918 and 1921 found the terms to be genericized, stating the company's failure to reinforce the brand's connection with their product as the reason. Bayer's involvement in the Great Phenol Plot during World War I, subsequently the U. S. declaration of war on Germany, were involved in the case of aspirin and heroin. A different sense of the word genericized in the pharmaceutical industry refers to products whose patent protection has expired. For example, Lipitor was genericized in the U. S. when the first competing generic version was approved by the FDA in November 2011. In this same context, the term genericization refers to the process of a brand drug losing market exclusivity to generics. Trademark erosion, or genericization, is a special case of antonomasia related to trademarks, it happens when a trademark becomes so common that it starts being used as a common name and the original company has failed to prevent such use. Once it has become an appellative, the word cannot be registered any more.
Nintendo is an example of a brand that fought trademark erosion, having managed to replace excessive use of its name by the then-neologism game console. Whether or not a mark is popularly identified as genericized, the owner of the mark may still be able to enforce the proprietary rights that attach to the use or registration of the mark, as long as the mark continues to identify the owner as the commercial origin of the applicable products or services. If the mark does not perform this essential function and it is no longer possible to enforce rights in relation to the mark, the mark may have become generic. In many legal systems a generic mark forms part of the public domain and can be commercially exploited by anyone. There exists the possibility of a trademark becoming a revocable generic term in German trademark law; the process by which trademark rights are diminished or lost as a result of common use in the marketplace is known as genericization. This process occurs over a period of time in which a mark is not used as a trademark (i.e. where it is not used to identify the pr
National Toy Hall of Fame
The National Toy Hall of Fame is an American hall of fame that recognizes the contributions of toys and games that have sustained their popularity for many years. Criteria for induction include: icon status. Established in 1998 under the direction of Ed Sobey, it was housed at A. C. Gilbert's Discovery Village in Salem, United States, but was moved to the Strong National Museum of Play in Rochester, New York, in 2002 after it outgrew its original home. Sixty-three toys have been enshrined in the National Toy Hall of Fame: This year’s nominees were: Atari Game System, Big Wheel, Easy-Bake Oven, Lite-Brite, Fisher-Price Little People, Hot Wheels, Lionel Trains, Operation Skill Game, Pez candy dispenser, rubber duck and Twister. Only two of the twelve nominees took their place in the hall that year. Easy-Bake Oven Lionel Trains The following toys were added in 2008: The Stick: Curators praised the stick for its all-purpose, no-cost, recreational qualities, noting its ability to serve either as raw material or an appendage transformed in myriad ways by a child's creativity.
The Baby Doll The Skateboard The following toys were added in 2009: The following toys were added in 2010: The following toys were added in 2011: The following toys were added in 2012: The following toys were added in 2013: The following toys were added in 2014: The following toys were added in 2015: The following toys were added in 2016: The following toys were added in 2017: The following toys were added in 2018: Toy Industry Hall of Fame, recognizing the contributions of toy-makers. National Toy Hall of Fame at Strong National Museum of Play, Rochester, NY Raggedy Ann Inducted in the National Toy Hall of Fame in 2002
Wham-O Inc. is an American toy company based in Carson, United States. It is known for creating and marketing many popular toys for nearly 70 years, including the Hula Hoop, Slip'N Slide, Super Ball, Trac-Ball, Silly String, Hacky Sack and Boogie Board. Richard Knerr and Arthur "Spud" Melin, two University of Southern California graduates, friends since their teens, were unhappy with their jobs and decided to start their own business. In 1948, they formed the WHAM-O Manufacturing Company in the Knerr family garage in South Pasadena, their first product was the Wham-O Slingshot, made of ash wood, which Knerr and Melin promoted by holding demonstrations of their own slingshot skills. The name "Wham-O" was inspired by the sound of the slingshot's shot hitting the target; the powerful slingshot was adopted by clubs for small game hunting. When they outgrew the garage and Melin rented a building on S. Marengo Ave in Alhambra, California. In 1957, Wham-O, still a fledgling company, took the idea of Australian bamboo "exercise hoops", manufactured them in Marlex, called their new product the Hula Hoop.
The Hula-Hoop became the biggest toy fad in modern history. Twenty-five million were sold in four months, in two years sales reached more than 100 million. "Hula Hoop mania" continued through the end of 1959, netted Wham-O US$45 million. Shortly thereafter, the company had another huge success with the Frisbee. In 1955, inventor Fred Morrison began marketing a plastic flying disc called the Pluto Platter, he sold the design to Wham-O in 1957. In 1959, Wham-O marketed a modified version of the toy, which they renamed the Frisbee—and once again a Wham-O toy became a common part of 1950s life. In the early 1960s, Wham-O created the Super Ball, a high-bouncing ball made of a hard elastomer Polybutadiene alloy, dubbed Zectron, with a 0.92 coefficient of restitution when bounced on hard surfaces. Around 20 million Super Balls were sold that decade, the NFL named the Super Bowl games after it; the Frisbee and Hula Hoop created fads. With other products, Wham-O tried to capitalize on existing national trends.
In the 1960s, they produced a US$119 do-it-yourself bomb shelter cover. In 1962, they sold a limbo dance kit to take advantage of that fad. Many products were not successful. During an African safari in the early 1960s, Melin discovered a species of fish that laid eggs in the mud during Africa's dry season; when the rains came, the eggs hatched and fish emerged overnight. This inspired Melin to create the Instant Fish product, an aquarium kit consisting of some of the fish eggs, some mud in which to hatch them, its debut at a New York toy fair made it wildly popular, but the eggs could not be produced fast enough, the product was dropped. Wheelie Bar for wheelie bikes well suited for the popular Schwinn Sting-Ray; the packaging design, featuring 1960s icon Rat Fink, was reproduced on T-shirts and decals. The television commercial featured the original Little Old Lady from Pasadena. Air Blaster, which shot a puff of air that could blow out a candle at 20 feet Bubble Thing, a flexible plastic strip attached to a wand, dipped in soap solution and waved through the air to create giant soap bubbles.
Ads claimed it could make bubbles "as long as a bus" Huf'n Puf blowgun that shot soft rubber darts Real crossbows, machetes and throwing knives Powermaster.22 caliber single-shot target pistol, sold by mail order, several other.22 caliber weapons Slip'N Slide, a carpet-like, water-lubricated sliding surface Water Wiggle, a plastic-enclosed curved nozzle that, when powered by a garden hose, became airborne. Monster Magnet Super Sneaky Squirtin' Stick Willie, a furry toy snake Super Stuff Giant Comics Silly String Super Elastic Bubble Plastic Magic Window, two 30 by 30 centimetres oval plates of heavy clear plastic, with a narrow channel between them containing "microdium" crystal sands of varying colors that created complex patterns when shifted; the concept was the work of an engineering graduate of Michigan Tech. Trac-Ball Magic sand, sand coated with a hydrophobic material that caused water to roll off of it rather than being absorbed Roller Racer Sit Skate Hacky Sack, a footbag design purchased from its inventors in 1983 Splatter Up EZ SPIN Foam Frisbee Disc, a soft version of the Frisbee that could be used indoors Wham-O's initial success was a result of its founders's insight.
Knerr and Melin marketed their products directly to kids, including demonstrating their toys at playgrounds. They extensively researched new product ideas, including traveling around the world. For many years, the company's strategy was to maintain eight to twelve simple, inexpensive products such as Frisbees, Super Balls, Hula Hoops. New products were developed for tryout periods. Old ones were retired, for a few years or permanently. Since the toys were simple and inexpensive, they could be sold by a wide range of retailers, from large Department Stores to five and dime stores; as Wham-O changed ownership, its new management adjusted this formula to accommodate the changing toy industry, w
The Virginian-Pilot is a daily newspaper based in Norfolk, Virginia. Known as The Pilot, it is Virginia's largest daily, it serves the five cities of South Hampton Roads as well as several smaller towns across southeast Virginia and northeast North Carolina. It was a locally owned, family enterprise from its founding in 1865 at the close of the American Civil War until its sale to Tribune Publishing in 2018; the newspaper has won three Pulitzer Prizes. In 1929, editor Louis Jaffe received the Virginian-Pilot's first Pulitzer Prize, for an editorial which condemned lynching. Jaffe mentored the paper's next editor, Lenoir Chambers, who in 1960 received the paper's second Pulitzer for his editorials on desegregation; the paper was one of the few in Virginia to publicly support the end of Jim Crow. In 1985, Thomas Turcol was awarded a Pulitzer for his coverage of corruption in Chesapeake. Reporters at The Pilot have finished as Pulitzer finalists three times since 2007; the Virginian-Pilot and its sister afternoon edition, the Ledger-Star were created by Samuel L. Slover as the result of several mergers of papers dating back to 1865.
The Virginian-Pilot covered the Wright brothers' early flights. Slover's nephew Frank Batten Sr. became publisher at age 27 in 1954. He expanded the Virginian-Pilot's parent company, which soon evolved into Landmark Communications and Landmark Media Enterprises, by acquiring other newspapers and radio and television stations and by creating The Weather Channel, now owned by a group of investors led by NBC Universal. In Norfolk, on September 1, 1923, the company founded Virginia's first radio station, WTAR. In 1950 it added Channel 4 WTAR-TV and in 1961, it signed on 95.7 WTAR-FM. The paper was among the first available online as a part of the Compuserve experiment in early 1980s where the paper and 10 others around the country transmitted text versions of stories daily to Compuserve's host computers in Ohio. Frank Batten Jr. expanded on digitizing the paper. In 1993 The Virginian-Pilot was one of the first newspapers in the country to launch a sister website, Pilotonline.com. Batten Jr. stepped down as the paper's publisher, becoming Landmark Communications' Chairman and CEO.
"Dee" Carpenter became publisher in 1995, followed by Bruce Bradley in 2005, Maurice Jones in 2008, David Mele in 2012 and Patricia Richardson in 2014. The paper published a podcast in 2017; the Shot was created by reporters Gary Harki and Joanne Kimberlin and dealt with the unsolved 2010 murder of Norfolk police officer Victor Decker. After The Pilot was sold to Tronc in 2018, no new publisher was named. Marisa Porto was named the newspaper's editor. Interim General Manager Par Ridder said a search would begin for a new editor for the newsroom and a new general manager to oversee the business side of the newspaper; the paper's offices remains in their original downtown Norfolk headquarters on Brambleton Avenue, where it has been based since 1937. The paper operates satellite offices in Virginia Beach, Suffolk and Chesapeake, on the Outer Banks of North Carolina in Nags Head; the paper's printing facility, once located in the downtown Norfolk headquarters, is in Virginia Beach. The Virginian-Pilot is a division of Pilot Media Companies, which includes Pilotonline.com/Hamptonroads.com, Pilot Direct printing, LNC /Pilot13 News, Hamptonroads.tv, Inside Business, The Flagship, Military Newspapers of Virginia, other supplemental print and web businesses.
A January 3, 2008, report suggested a possible sale of The Virginian-Pilot's parent company, Landmark Communications. In October 2008 Landmark's vice chairman said the company was continuing negotiations to sell the newspaper. After much debate, The Virginian-Pilot was taken off of the selling block. Since December, 2014, the Pilot's single copy prices are: $2.50 Sunday/Thanksgiving Day. On May 29, 2018, The Virginian-Pilot announced they had been purchased by Chicago-based media conglomerate Tronc known as Tribune Publishing, for a cash price of $34 million; the deal included the Pilot and all of its "outstanding interests" — including its subsidiary publications, the paper's Norfolk headquarters and its printing plant in Virginia Beach. The Virginian-Pilot
Ultimate Canada is a not-for-profit organization that serves as the governing body of the sport of Ultimate in Canada. It runs the Canadian Ultimate Canadian University Ultimate Championship series. Canadian Ultimate Championships Each August, teams from across the country travel to the Canadian Ultimate Championships to compete for the national title in 7 different divisions: mixed, women's, junior open, junior women, masters open and masters women. Teams compete at this seven-day tournament not only to determine the national champion, but to determine who will represent Canada at the next world championships. Since 2016, the mixed divisions have been held as a separate event from the remaining divisions. Canadian University Ultimate Championships The CUUC started in 1995 and brings university teams from across the country to compete in the open & the women's division; each fall Ultimate Canada operates two competitions for university Ultimate teams in Canada: the Canadian University Ultimate Championships and the Canadian Eastern University Ultimate Championships.
The CEUUC began in 1998 and brings university teams from Ontario and Quebec together to compete in the open & the women's division. In 2010, the Toronto Ultimate Club released a documentary film, 30 years in 30 minutes, that traces the club's history as well as the history of ultimate Frisbee in Canada. Not far removed from the invention of Ultimate in the late 1960s, Ken Westerfield and Jim Kenner ran the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in the early 1970s at the Canadian National Exhibition and later on Toronto Islands, they participated in several Frisbee show tours across Canada for Irwin Toy. Each year their show tours would end in Vancouver where they would set up the Vancouver Open Frisbee Championships on Kitsilano Beach and Stanley Park; this is where Jim Brown, Bill King and John Anthony of freestyle fame made their first competitive appearances. From these championships and the presence of these touring professional Frisbee players, Toronto became the hub of Frisbee activity in Canada.
In the early 1970s, Ken Westerfield introduced disc sports including ultimate north of the 49th parallel at the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in Toronto and by creating the Toronto Ultimate Club. The Toronto Ultimate Club is one of ultimate's oldest leagues. Ken Westerfield lived in the Beaches in south east Toronto, this is where he would set up shop, taking his Frisbees down to the beach on a grassy area next to the boardwalk called Kew Beach and would play with whomever wanted to join him. Four of the original ultimate players, Ken Westerfield, Jim Lim, Stuart Godfrey, Patrick Chartrand and others played a pickup game of ultimate Frisbee one afternoon with Westerfield outlining the rules. For this group it became the group began to grow. In 1979, Westerfield using his local tournament player contact list, started weekly ultimate pick-up games in the Beaches on the same grassy area next to the boardwalk on Wednesday evenings. Christopher Lowcock, introduced to disc sports by his brother Les, became part of this group.
Lowcock and the others would recruit more players as they passed by along the boardwalk, Wednesday ultimate pick-up was becoming popular. In 1980, Westerfield sent team invitations to Wards Island, West End, North Toronto and Westerfield's own team the Beaches, to join the Toronto Ultimate League; these were the first four teams with each team taking turns hosting the league games at their home locations. The league starting night was at Kew Beach; these were the first disc ultimate league games in the city of Toronto, the beginning of the Toronto Ultimate League, the first ultimate league in Canada. The Toronto Ultimate League developed into the Toronto Ultimate Club, that now has 3300 active members and over 250 Teams playing the year round; the first Canadian Ultimate Championships were held, for the open division, in Ottawa 1987, produced by Marcus Brady and Brian Guthrie. OCUA subsequently hosted 1999, 2002 and 2011 Canadian Ultimate Championships. Canada has been ranked number one in the Ultimate World Rankings several times since 1998 in all the Ultimate Divisions according to the World Flying Disc Federation.
In 2013, as a founding partner, the Toronto Ultimate Club presented Canada's first semi-professional Ultimate team, the Toronto Rush, to the American Ultimate Disc League. They won the AUDL Championships. In 2014, the Montreal Royal and the Vancouver Riptide joined the AUDL. In 2015, the Ottawa Outlaws became the fourth Canadian team to compete in the AUDL, of 26 teams in total. In 2015, the International Olympic Committee granted full recognition to the World Flying Disc Federation for flying disc sports including ultimate. 1972-1985: Canadian Open Frisbee Championships and Vancouver Open Frisbee Championships introduced Frisbee and the beginning of competitive disc sports. 1975: Ultimate is played for the first time at the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships as a showcase event on Toronto Islands. 1980: Toronto League started 1986: Vancouver and Ottawa Leagues started 1987: First Canadian Ultimate Championships - open division only 1987: Winnipeg Ultimate League begun by Jean-Luc Forest and Mike Jones.
First full season in 1988 had three teams and 14 people. 1988: MODS founded 1989: Women's Division added to National
Eagle Harbor, Michigan
Eagle Harbor is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located on the north side of the Keweenaw Peninsula within Eagle Harbor Township, Keweenaw County in the U. S. State of Michigan, its population was 76 as of the 2010 census. M-26 passes through this community; this hamlet was popular with the sailors in days past, as it had a good steamboat landing and is about distant from Sault Sainte Marie and Duluth, Minnesota. It was the first stop for supplies for the many boats on Lake Superior; the settlement of Eagle Harbor is located on the tip of Michigan's farthest county, closer to the North Pole than the City of Quebec, Canada. This community received its name from the beautiful harbor and the many eagles that were in the region, it has an excellent sand beach on a large bay some four miles in circumference. Additionally, the harbor is irregularly shaped about four-thousand-nine-hundred feet long and one-thousand-one-hundred feet in width. With a natural opening, its entrance is on the west side of a large rock that appears above the surface of the water about forty rods from the east cape of the harbor.
There is a reef of sunken rocks off the mouth of the bay, but the harbor may be entered from the north-west or north-east, between the reef and the capes, the opening being about one-thousand-five-hundred feet wide. Edward Taylor and a group of men came to Eagle Harbor prior to the winter of 1842 and 1843, spending the winter on the lake shore between Copper Harbor and Eagle River. In the year of 1844, Taylor returned to Eagle Harbor and constructed a tavern out of logs, which burned down on an unspecified date; the location in which the tavern sat is now the site of the present-day Lake Breeze Hotel. Taylor erected yet another saloon and built additions to his building as more space was required. This, too burned down. On January 17, 1852, the new wood-frame dining room and kitchen were saved from the devouring flames by strenuous efforts and the favorable turn of the wind; the front of the hotel was soon re-erected by James Bawden and the business was again opened to the public. With a grand total of thirty-six rooms, the Eagle Harbor Hotel was the largest hotel in all of Keweenaw County.
James Rasewarn purchased the Eagle Harbor Hotel in the year of 1881. He was born in Cornwall, England, on July 7, 1835, was brought up by a miner, he came to the United States in 1854. In 1855, he moved to the Lake Superior region and worked for eight months at the Flint Steel mine, as well as in the Douglass Houghton and Evergreen mines. After a brief four-year trip to England and South America, he returned to the United States and located at the Central mine, where he worked for three and a half years as a copper miner, worked at the Copper Falls mine for eight years. During the fall of 1880, he moved to Eagle Harbor, in June 1881 leased the Eagle Harbor Hotel, purchasing it during the same year; the area was first occupied by the Eagle Harbor Mining Company, who landed a party of men here during the summer of 1845, a man by the name of Sprague being its agent. On October 17, 1845, Franklin Hopkins resided within a tent, he arrived at Copper Harbor the night that Dr. Douglass Houghton drowned, had to remain there for four days because of the memorable storm of October 13, 1845, which deprived the copper region of its most able and accomplished explorer and surveyor.
Hopkins was one of the earliest pioneers of the Lake Superior region, an early mining agent. He was born in Trenton, New York, on November 28, 1817, he moved to the Lower Peninsula of Michigan in 1845. He first worked at the North American mine and at the Eagle Harbor mine, working as a mining carpenter, staying with that company for two years, he went to the Lower, returning in 1848 when he was appointed carpenter to the Methodist Indian Mission at L'Anse. He completed the trip to L'Anse on foot and after fifteen months left the Mission, as he did not enjoy that position. Hopkins went to the old Northwest mine, known as the Conglomerate, continued working at that mine for two years, he served two years as the agent of the Isle Royale mine at Houghton, moving to take charge of the Pontiac mine for a short time. He kept the Phoenix House at Eagle River, it was during this time that he lost his wife and one child on the wrecked steamer PS Lady Elgin, on September 8, 1860. He became connected with the dock and warehouse business and thus became one of its most active citizens.
During the community's earliest time, there was only one house in the area, it was constructed of rough logs and covered with "shakes" which are thin strips split from logs. By 1846, Hiram Joy was tending to a log constructed boardinghouse in Eagle Harbor, purchased by Charles Kuntz in 1849. At this time there were four buildings in the town. Charles Kuntz was the village blacksmith and was born in Germany, in the village of Wennenbergerhoff, on November 25, 1822, he emigrated to the United States in 1844, landing at New Orleans where he spent six months, moving up to the northern states where he became engaged as a blacksmith at the Northwest mine, remaining there for two years. He did blacksmith work at the Copper Falls mine during the years of 1847, 1848 and 1850. In 1849 he moved to Eagle harbor, where he maintained the hotel, he had quite a few buildings. He was Under Sheriff for Houghton County, upon the organization of Michigan's new Keweenaw County, he was elected as Sheriff of that county, being an efficient peace officer
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr