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Fritz Haber

Fritz Haber was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. This invention is of importance for the large-scale synthesis of explosives; the food production for half the world's current population involves this method for producing nitrogen fertilizers. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Haber is considered the "father of chemical warfare" for his years of pioneering work developing and weaponizing chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I his actions during the Second Battle of Ypres. Fritz Haber was born in Breslau, into a well-off Jewish family; the family name Haber was a common one in the area, but Fritz Haber's family has been traced back to a great-grandfather, Pinkus Selig Haber, a wool dealer from Kempen. An important Prussian edict of 13 March 1812 determined that Jews and their families, including Pinkus Haber, were "to be treated as local citizens and citizens of Prussia".

Under such regulations, members of the Haber family were able to establish themselves in respected positions in business and law. Fritz Haber was the son of Siegfried and Paula Haber, first cousins who married in spite of considerable opposition from their families. Fritz's father Siegfried was a well-known merchant in the town, who had founded his own business in dye pigments and pharmaceuticals. Paula experienced a difficult pregnancy and died three weeks after Fritz's birth, leaving Siegfried devastated and Fritz in the care of various aunts; when Fritz was about six years old, Siegfried remarried, to Hedwig Hamburger. Siegfried and his second wife had three daughters, Else and Frieda. Although his relationship with his father was distant and difficult, Fritz developed close relationships with his step-mother and his half-sisters. By the time Fritz was born, the Habers had to some extent assimilated into German society. Fritz attended primary school at the Johanneum School, a "simultaneous school" open to Catholic and Jewish students.

At age 11, he went to school at the St. Elizabeth classical school, in a class evenly divided between Protestant and Jewish students, his family supported the Jewish community and continued to observe many Jewish traditions, but were not associated with the synagogue. Fritz Haber identified as German, less so as Jewish. Fritz Haber passed his examinations at the St. Elizabeth High School in Breslau in September 1886. Although his father wished him to apprentice in the dye company, Fritz obtained his father's permission to study chemistry, at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin, with the director of the Institute for Chemistry, A. W. Hofmann. Haber was disappointed by his initial winter semester in Berlin, arranged to attend the Heidelberg University for the summer semester of 1887, where he studied under Robert Bunsen, he returned to Berlin, to the Technical College of Charlottenburg. In the summer of 1889 Haber left university to perform a required year of voluntary service in the Sixth Field Artillery Regiment.

Upon its completion, he returned to Charlottenburg. In addition to Liebermann's lectures on organic chemistry, Haber attended lectures by Otto Witt on the chemical technology of dyes. Liebermann assigned Haber to work on reactions with piperonal for his thesis topic, published as Ueber einige Derivate des Piperonals in 1891. Haber received his doctorate cum laude from Friedrich Wilhelm University in May 1891, after presenting his work to a board of examiners from the University of Berlin, since Charlottenburg was not yet accredited to grant doctorates. With his degree, Fritz returned to Breslau to work at his father's chemical business, they did not get along well. Through Siegfried's connections, Fritz was assigned a series of practical apprenticeships in different chemical companies, to gain experience; these included Grünwald and Company, an Austrian ammonia-sodium factory, the Feldmühle paper and cellulose works. Haber realized, based on these experiences, that he needed to learn more about technical processes, persuaded his father to let him spend a semester at Polytechnic College in Zürich, studying with Georg Lunge.

In fall of 1892, Haber returned again to Breslau to work in his father's company, but the two men continued to clash and Siegfried accepted that they could not work well together. Haber sought an academic appointment, first working as an independent assistant to Ludwig Knorr at the University of Jena between 1892 and 1894. During his time in Jena, Haber converted from Judaism to Lutheranism in an attempt to improve his chances of getting a better academic or military position. Knorr recommended Haber to Carl Engler, a chemistry professor at the University of Karlsruhe, intensely interested in the chemical technology of dye and the dye industry, the study of synthetic materials for textiles. Engler referred Haber to a colleague in Karlsruhe, Hans Bunte, who made Haber an Assistent in 1894. Bunte suggested. By making careful quantitative analyses, Haber was able to establish that "the thermal stability of the carbon-carbon bond is greater than that of the carbon-hydrogen bond in aromatic compounds and smaller in al

BeneŇ°ov u Prahy railway station

Benešov u Prahy is a railway station located in Benešov, Czech Republic, opened in 1871. It is a national cultural monument of the Czech Republic; the station is located on the Benešov–České Budějovice railway, Prague– Benešov railway and Benešov–Trhový Štěpánov railway. The train services are operated by České dráhy; the following services call at the station: Prague - Benešov - Tábor - Soběslav - Veselí n. Lužnicí - České Budějovice S9 Prague - Říčany - Strančice - Mirošovice - Čerčany - Benešov Sp ARRIVA Prague - Říčany - Mnichovice - Senohraby - Čerčany - Benešov Osobní Benešov - Postupice - Vlašim - Trhový Štěpánov Station profile at cd.cz

Orenburg Cossacks

The Orenburg Cossack Host was a part of the Cossack population in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in the Orenburg province. After having constructed fortifications around the future town of Orenburg in 1734, they founded it in 1735. For the purpose of defending the city and colonizing the region, The Russian government relocated the Cossacks from Ufa, Iset and other places and created the Orenburg non-regular corps in 1748. In 1755, a part of it was transformed into the Orenburg Cossack Host with 2,000 men. In 1773—1774, the Orenburg Cossacks took part in Yemelyan Pugachev's insurrection. In 1798, all of the Cossack settlements in the Southern Urals were incorporated into the Orenburg Cossack Host. A decree of 1840 established the borders of its composition. In the mid-19th century, the Cossack population of this region equaled 200,000 people; the Orenburg Host participated in the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–1790, in the campaigns that Russia waged in order to conquer Central Asia. The Orenburg Host okrugs.

By 1916, the Cossack population of this region had grown to 533,000 people occupying a territory of 7,45 million desyatinas. One desyatina equaled 2,7 acres. In the early 19th century, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 6 cavalry regiments, 3 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya of guards and 2 detached sotnyas. During World War I, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 18 cavalry regiments, 9,5 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya of guards, 9 unmounted sotnyas, 7,5 reserve sotnyas and 39 detached and special sotnyas. After the October Revolution of 1917, the leadership of the Orenburg Cossack Host, under the command of Ataman Alexander Dutov, fought against the Soviets; the poorer Cossacks joined the ranks of the Red Army. The 1st Orenburg Cossack Socialist Regiment took part in the Ural Army Campaign of 1918. In 1920, the Orenburg Cossack Host ceased to exist; the distinguishing colour of the Orenburg Cossack Host was light blue. High fleece hats were worn on occasion with light blue cloth tops.

Officers wore braiding. After 1907 a khaki-grey service uniform of standard Imperial Cavalry pattern was introduced but the light blue distinctions were retained until 1920. Nagaybaks, Tatar-speaking Cossacks belonging to the Orenburg Host Petr I. Avdeev Istoricheskaya Zapiska ob Orenburgskom Kazach'em Voiske, 1904

Mattie Edwards Hewitt

Mattie Edwards Hewitt was an American photographer of architecture and designs on the East Coast. She associated with Frances Benjamin Johnston, who became her partner and working with her from 1909 for 8 years. Together they established a firm called "Johnston-Hewitt Studio" in New York City in 1913 which functioned till 1917, they became well known in the field of architectural and landscape photography and took many pictures of famous buildings and gardens which were titled "Miss Johnston and Mrs. Hewitt" or "Frances Benjamin Johnston and Mattie Edwards Hewitt."After the partnership with Johnston broke up in 1917, Hewitt ventured on her own and became famous in her own right as a commercial photographer. She set up her business establishment in photography with specific orientation to taking pictures for designers and landscape architects, recording interior and exterior views of home and business houses, gardens, she continued in this profession until her death in Boston in 1956. A catalog of her work titled "Portrait of an Era in Landscape Architecture: The Photographs of Mattie Edwards Hewitt" is available as an exhibit catalog, in the "Wave Hill", New York.

Hewitt was born in October 1869 in Missouri in a middle-class family. After a period of studying art she married a photographer; as his assistant, she was trained in principles of photography involving printing. She started her career in photography as a small operation in St. Louis, Missouri where she lived and learned from the camera clubs and photography journals which flourished during the late 19th century, she was influenced by an article on photography by Frances Benjamin Johnston, published in the Ladies Home Journal. Her photography were on landscape, her home surroundings including chickens in the barnyard, the cat and the dog. During her visit to New York in 1901 to participate in the Pan-American Exposition held in Buffalo, New York, Hewitt met Johnston, a famous photographer from Washington D. C.. Johnston made a profound influence not only on Hewitt's photographic career but on her personal life for several years, she became a fan of Johnston and started writing letters to her seeking her help professionally and personally.

Hewitt sought her advice on several matters including providing a job opportunity for her husband with Lumière, the French photographers and scientists, in his newly opened East Coast office in New York. She sought Johnston's advice for creating a dark room in her house, which however was built by her husband. From this dark room of her husband's studio she printed photographs taken by Johnston. Hewitt's correspondence with Johnston, one sided, was quite sensuous with declaration of her love for Johnston, her letters to Johnston are part of the book titled "The Woman behind the Lens: The Life and Work of Frances Benjamin Johnston" by Bettina Berch which contain "epistolary exchanges of lady-love" letters of the many other famous women such as between Virginia Woolf and Vita Sackville-West, Eleanor Roosevelt and Lorena Hickok, Edna St. Vincent Millay and Edith Wynne Matthison, Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict. One of Hewitt's letters to Johnston said "I wonder why I expect you to understand me better than most people – is it because I love you so?"

Based on these letters the author of the biography, asserts that the exchanges were "unswervingly lesbian... hardly straight forward". However, some scholars opine that such romantic exchange of letters was not unusual among the woman of the 19th century and consider them as not sensual, but many others feel that such writings are a "clue to a greater, if submerged, lesbian subculture". Hewitt divorced her husband Arthur Hewitt in 1909, moved to New York to work and live with Johnston. After her divorce, she was dependent on photography as a profession for her living and pursued it with dedication, had said "it is the most fascinating of arts", her photographic career was a "transition from an amateur in the 19th century to 20th century professional", when there was substantial innovation in photographic equipment. Though she shifted to New York in 1909, it was only in 1913 that she established a photography firm, in partnership with Johnston, titled the "Johnston-Hewitt Studio" in New York, with a specialty in architectural and garden photography.

While Johnston held the primary task of shooting for the studio, Hewitt functioned in the studio as the darkroom assistant. She was at this stage dependent on Johnston as her mentor. However, their partnership broke up for reasons unknown. Hewitt developed her own professional skill in home and garden photography, operated independently. By this time, she had a good clientele to pursue business on her own. With her office in New York City, she became a freelance photographer and executed many assignments by taking pictures of mansions and gardens of rich people of the East Coast, her nephew Richard Averill Smith had associated with her on some of the assignments. Many of these pictures were published in newspapers and magazines, along with articles on the mansions in the New York Times, the Evening Post, House Beautiful, House & Garden, Garden Magazine. In 1910, Hewitt had taken photographs of the Albert Boardman Estate in Southampton, published in Southampton Times in 1912 and again in 1916 which brought her professional skill to limelight.

In all the photographs she took, carrying heavy wooden cameras and wooden tripods, for clients she took additional pictures which she offered t

Forest Dark

Forest Dark is the fourth novel by the American writer Nicole Krauss. It was published on August 24, 2017 in the United Kingdom and on September 12, 2017 in the United States; the book, set in New York City and Israel, is dedicated to Krauss's father and its title is derived from the opening lines of Dante's Inferno, as translated by Henry Wadsworth LongfellowDante. "Its chief characters are lawyer Jules Epstein, wealthy and retired, Nicole, an internationally acclaimed novelist and mother of two sons, in a failing marriage. Jules Epstein, a wealthy retiree, goes missing in Tel Aviv to the distress of his three children. Prior to his disappearance triggered by the death of his parents, his divorce from his wife, Epstein had been in the process of giving away both his money and his earthly possessions. Meanwhile, in New York City, novelist Nicole is living a crisis herself as she is aware that her marriage is failing but cannot find it within herself to work on saving it. After hearing a program on the radio in which a physicist explains the concept of the multiverse Nicole begins to wonder if all life is not dreamed up from one location, believing that her location could be the Hilton Tel Aviv where she and her family have visited frequently.

After her father's cousin tells her of a man who died there, Nicole abruptly makes the decision to go the hotel herself as research for a new novel. The Financial Times describes it as a "richly layered tale of two lives" that explores "ideas of identity and belonging – and the lure of the Tel Aviv Hilton". Maureen Corrigan, for NPR, said: "The two separate plotlines about these two questers — Nicole and Epstein — intersect, but that's the only predictable aspect of this scramble of a novel. There are digressions here into René Descartes, Sigmund Freud, fairy tales and film. Sections of the novel are walled off from each another, as disconnected as that row-after-row of rooms in the Tel Aviv Hilton. Readers should just go along for the choppy ride, because the pleasure of Krauss' writing isn't located in the story. Instead, it's the wayward precision of her language that draws us into the desert,'the forest dark' and other contemplative places where illumination occurs."Peter Orner in The New York Times said: "ne of the beauties of this lucid and exhilarating book is that Krauss is unafraid, at times, to let it go where it will.

Aspects of'Forest Dark' will be familiar to readers of Krauss’s earlier books'The History of Love' and'Great House,' including a preoccupation with the writing process and a revelatory take on the ties that bind people separated by generations. Other qualities, like a consuming emphasis on disconnection — on all that refuses to add up — might come as a surprise". Francesca Angelini, writing in The Sunday Times, called it "a daring novel"; the New Statesman described it as "an impressive meditation on identity and the human condition". Its reviewer, Douglas Kennedy, said: "Forest Dark, which comes seven years after last book, Great House, is that rare species: a novel of ideas in which the cerebral never impinges on the human mess that underscores the external and internal landscapes of a riveting narrative... This is as impressive a work of fiction as I have encountered in years. Krauss is a poet and a philosopher, this latest work does what only the best fiction can do – startles and enlightens the reader, while showing the familiar world anew".

Sarah Hughes, reviewing the book for the i newspaper, described Forest Dark as "a novel of ideas, impossible to put down". However, Kirkus Reviews described it as an "ambitiously high-concept tale that idles in a contemplative register", its reviewer said that "much of the drama establishes for her two characters feels dry, with her riffs on Kafka and Judaism more essayistic than novelistic. And though the novel never promised high drama, its low boil makes it harder to inspire the reader to draw connections within her braided narrative." Author Nicole Krauss on life and her new book Forest Dark McGlone, Jackie. Sunday Herald, Glasgow. Retrieved September 1, 2017

Isabel Scott Rorick

Isabel Scott Rorick was an American author known for her comedic book Mr. and Mrs. Cugat, one of the top ten best selling books in the United States in 1941. Rorick was born in Toledo, Ohio in 1900, her involvement in the local Junior League newsletter in the mid-1930s led to her contributing fictional sketches to the national Junior League publication. Her stories about the married Cugat couple, a young bank executive and his wife, led to interest by Houghton Mifflin, ten sketches complete with illustrations were published in October 1940 as Mr. and Mrs. Cugat, the Record of a Happy Marriage, it became one of the best selling books of 1941. It was made into a movie in 1942, Are Husbands Necessary? starring Ray Milland and Betty Field as the Cugats. Rorick published a follow-up collection of Cugat stories, Outside Eden, in November 1945. In 1948, the radio show My Favorite Husband based on the Cugat stories debuted on CBS Radio. Lucille Ball and Richard Denning played the Cugats, though their last name was soon changed to Cooper to avoid confusion with bandleader Xavier Cugat.

When CBS asked Ball to do a television version of the show, she insisted that her husband Desi Arnaz play her husband on the show. Since Arnaz could not pull off the role of a midwestern banker, the show was reworked into what became I Love Lucy. Rorick's husband, Ceilan H. Rorick, a banker in the Spitzer-Rorick Trust and Savings Bank of Toledo, died in June 1958. Rorick died in 1967, they are buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in Toledo. The couple had two children and Elizabeth. Isabel Scott Rorick on IMDb Finding Aid - Isabel Scott Rorick, Mr. and Mrs. Cugat Typescripts, University of Toledo library